Laura, Hayden, Blair, Grace, Jessica, Megan and Ashley Sectionalism
1. how sectionalism divided the nation *Although nationalism helped to unite the country, sectionalism divided it. *Sectionalism is loyalty to the interests of your own region rather than to the nation as a whole. The interests of the North and South were often in conflict which was one of the reasons causing the Civil War. *Issues that divided the nation: slavery, representation, tariffs, and states rights
South: -states rights were important; succession -dependence on slaves for plantations -democratic -devoted to agriculture (few cities developed) -shipped cotton northward and favored low tariffs division between North and South North: -enjoyed a diversified economy (farms and industrial base) -wanted the nation to stay together -encouraged rise of manufacturing and large cities -republican -considered everyone generally equal -favored protective tariffs to protect manufacturing base
graphs/differences between North and South
issue of slavery 1. Slavery -The most prominent difference between the North and South. -In the North, slavery was illegal in many states after the revolution due to the Abolition Movement. -The South supported slavery due to the fact they relied on slaves in their every day lifestyles.
issue of representation 2. Representation -The North and South both wanted power to pass laws that would benefit their section. This meant that the more states that became "free" or "slave" meant more votes in the House, Senate and Electoral College. -The South did not want to be represented by Lincoln; a Republican President. They believed John Breckinridge represented their beliefs the best.
issue of tariffs 3. Tariffs -The South resented tariffs because they relied on British imports for their everyday goods. They also used other nations to purchase cotton. -The North supported tariffs to protect their growing industries and manufacturing base. -The South became increasingly angered. This tension eventually led to what South Carolina called "the Tariff of Abominations." The South then argued they had the right of nullification.
issue of states rights 4. States Rights -This was considered a main issue because the North and South believed that they had certain rights over the other. It refers to political powers that each believed they should possess. -Nullification Crisis: When Congress passed another tariff in 1832, South Carolina declared the tariff law “null and void” and threatened to secede from the Union if it was enforced. -Compromise worked out by Henry Clay: 1. Tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years. 2. Issues of nullification and states’ rights would be raised again. *Dred Scott Case: -Supreme Court ruled slaves were inferior without rights and they were not considered citizens. -President Buchanan and Court agreed that slavery cannot be banned from territories or any state. -States’ rights in any dispute between federal government and states -states should always be superior (states power = national governments.
2. summarize laws & presidential decisions *The Compromise of 1850: -admitted California as a free state -allowed citizens in New Mexico and Utah territories to determine their state as free or slave -abolished slave trade in Washington D.C. -passed the Fugitive Slave Act (required all citizens to assist in the return of slaves to the rightful owners)
2. summarize laws & presidential decisions *Kansas Nebraska Act of 1864: -Stephen Douglas wanted Kansas and Nebraska to become states and run for President. -Both would be free states, but Douglas courting Southern Democrats states that the people in the territory should decide whether slavery should be allowed there. *Bleeding Kansas: Pro and anti-slavery forces aided settles to live in Kansas so could vote for neither free or slave state states
2. summarize laws & presidential decisions *Election of 1860: -North Democrats: Stephen Douglas -Union Party: John Bell -South Democrats: John Breckinridge -GOP: Lincoln *Lincoln Wins: “No state can leave the Union after it has joined. US is one nation, not a collection of independent states”
2. summarize laws & presidential decisions *beliefs of Republicans and President Lincoln: -non-extension of slavery -protective tariff -no abridgment of rights for immigrants -government aid to build a Pacific railroad -slavery was morally wrong -Lincoln received no southern votes -planters and other refused to remain in the Union by Republicans -In Lincoln’s inaugural address promised to “uphold the law” -He considered secession unconstitutional.
3. how did it cause the civil war? -The Southern states seceded from the Union because they didn't want President Lincoln to free their slaves. -The South depended on their slaves to help with their farms; the slaves were part of the South's life. -When Abraham Lincoln became President, the South didn't want to be part of the Union. They became the Confederate States of America.
4. what events or decisions could have been prevented? *If the issue of slavery was not such a big controversy, it would not have divided the North and South and therefore would have avoided a war between the two of them completely. *Fort Sumter: Confederates attacked and federals surrendered. Without this event, Lincoln wouldn’t have called up volunteers for service and more states wouldn’t have seceded. This could have prevented the first act of war and the start of the Civil War.
5. how would our group have dealt with sectionalism? * Our group would have opposed sectionalism, because we believe that everyone should be treated equally and the same. * Also we know that the way to succeed in life and accomplish everything is to do it ourselves and not have other people do it for us.
6. modern context -During the Civil War the US was divided into different sections based on beliefs and these divisions still remain today. -Many people today have differing views on abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, animal testing, stem cell research, gay marriage, and marijuana legalization. - People are split on political views like Republicans and Democrats -There are still Confederates in the South who dislike the North
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