1. Kidney Transplant 9 Ji Young Kim<br />Organ transplant is one of the innovate surgery to patient. Organ transplant gives hope to patient alive. There are variety kinds of organ transplant. Especially, kidney transplant is the typical transplant all over the world. This essay will talk about kidney transplant, benefits and limitations kidney transplant, social issue and ethical issues of kidney transplant. <br />Kidney produce urine so they remove unnecessary substances in blood such as creatine and uric acid. Kidney also controls the blood pH. So if person’s kidney is not good, produce diuretic problem. If diuretic happened, blood blended with urine so whole blood of body will be stale. Also, kidney has connection with every organ so problem of kidney affected whole organs in our body. So problems of kidney produce enormous problem. If problem is serious, person would be die. <br />There are several benefits of kidney transplant. Firstly, kidney transplant is the only organ that doesn’t harm donor’s life because there are 2 kidneys in our body. Donor can live a perfectly normal life with just one kidney. Most of people refuse donation because donate is one of the problem that deal with person’s life. For example, donors who give cornea lost their vision forever. But kidney transplant do not make donor’s life worse. They can live normal life after the surgery. Donors don’t have to worry about aftereffect. To supplement this idea, some donors worrying scar after the surgery. There is one of the developed surgery method called Laparoscopic Surgery. This surgery method makes fewer scars as possible as machine do it. This help a shorter hospital stay for the donor, as it is fat less traumatic for the body.<br />Another advantage of kidney transplant is patients can receive brain-dead patient’s kidney. This surgery method actualized not really long time. As medical technology developed, brain-dead patient also be donor. This method’s success rate is high. From this method, patients don’t have to waiting really long time. <br />To contrast, there are also variety disadvantages of kidney transplant. Even the success rate of the kidney transplant is high, there is no way to 100% guarantee that the kidney will take and accept donor’s body. But as technology of transplant developed, doctors identify really specific which kidney will accept donor’s body. But sometimes rejection happened to patient’s body unexpectedly. Another disadvantages of kidney transplant are taking a drug called ‘anti-rejection drug’. It helps patient’s body protect by rejection. ‘Cyclosporine’ is the one of the typical example of anti-rejection drug. Patients must take these pills for about 2 month after the surgery. But take too much anti-rejection will cause the side effects. Some patients may experience visual cataracts, arthritis and even cancer. Take too much anti-rejection pills or take pills long time will cause these problems. <br />Another big disadvantages of kidney transplant is number of donors are limited. Contrast with number of patients, number of kidney donors are remarkably. Fortunately, there is a treatment for patients who wait kidney donors. Therapy calls ‘peritoneal dialysis’ (Kidney dialysis). Patients’ kidney is not working so kidney dialysis eliminates bodily waste artificially. But this peritoneal dialysis takes long time. It costs a lot except countries that have the medical insurance system. Also, most of patients who are doing kidney dialysis got depression. Reasons of depression are kidney dialysis is really painful treatment and patients feel deprivation and shrinking. <br />Figure 1: Method of kidney dialysis. (Nucleus Medical Art, 2008)<br />Kidney transplant related with two One World Issues; Social issue and ethical issue. One of the big social issues of kidney transplant is ‘trafficking’. Kidney trafficking is sell and buy the kidney illegally. Why people doing kidney trafficking? It can separate two main reasons. Kidney trafficking happened voluntarily or forcibly. Voluntary kidney trafficking is happened mainly in the poor countries such as Africa, Israel etc. Actually, most of kidney trafficking happened in Israel. Kidney is expensive in everywhere. Kidney costs about $20000. Organ trafficking happened everywhere and it revitalized. Brokers who organize the kidney trafficking are organizing the trafficking actively. World Health Organization (WHO) announced about 10% of the world kidney transplant is trafficking. Downstate hospital, Friedman professor said: “About 16000 kidney transplant happened in United States. Nowadays, huge number of people decide kidney transplant. Eventually about 1500~2000 kidney transplant are trafficking”. Friedman professor said that he also experienced kidney broker asked him to organize the surgery but he refused. One of the professors said that kidney trafficking spread all over the world. <br />Forced kidney trafficking is kidnapped and sells the kidney by moneylender. They asked people who didn’t repay the money to sell the kidney instead of repay. There are lots of same cases all over the world. One of the documentary director met broker. Broker said quarters of reasons are because of moneylender asked them to sell the kidney. There are lots of cases related with kidnapped kidney trafficking in China. Someone suddenly kidnapped (they use power anesthetic to make people black out) and leaved alone in the public toilet or alley. Victims went to the hospital for check and they found one of the kidneys was gone. The problem is this case happened lots of countries. <br />Another One World Issue related with Kidney transplant is ethical issue. The main point of this issue is poverty. As I write at the top, kidney trafficking vitalized in the poor country. There is a terrible slurb in the Philippine, Manila called Base co. <br />One of the documentary directors went to the Base co to take a video about kidney transplant. It is really hard to meet broker and people who sell their kidney but in Base co, all of people told director that they sell their kidneys. It is not ashamed situation to people in Base co. The reason why they sell their kidney is because of the terrible poverty. Lots of people who live in Base co want to sell their organs. Director met father of 12 children. He also sells his kidney to broker. Now he wants to sell 12 children’s kidneys. <br />Figure 2: Scarf of kidney trafficking in Base co, Philippine, Manila. (Yonhap News Agency)<br />From this issue, people’s opinion divided by two. The first opinion is agreed with these poor people. They don’t have enough money to live. People who agree said: “ If I faced same situation like people in the Base co, they will also sell their kidney.” They said poverty is more serious problem than trafficking is right or wrong. They have a children, husband or wife. They have to alive and have responsible to protect of their family. Sell their kidney is right thing to do to poor people. But people who do not agree said mentioned human rights and law. They said they obliged to sell their kidney by brokers. People in Base co also have their own human rights to protect their body. Also all people know trafficking is totally illegal so people cannot do the trafficking. Kidney is part of our body and it cannot mark the price because people’s body is valuable. Some people thought get out of the poverty is most important thing but someone thought follow rules and valuable of body is most important. This problem debated lots of times but not finished yet. <br />Kidney transplant save people’s precious life. There are several ideas of advantages and limitations of kidney transplant. This essay also talked about social and ethical issues. Kidney transplant is ardent hope to patients. People should use kidney transplant method appropriate. People’s body is valuable it cannot marking costs. But also society and communities cannot blame people who are doing kidney trafficking. These people also have unavoidable reasons. People have to understand these people and persuade stop trafficking.<br />Bibliography<br />1."
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