What Is Motivation? <ul><li>“ The Willingness to exert high levels of effort toward Organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need”. </li></ul>
Basic Characteristics of Motivation <ul><li>Effort. This refers to the strength of a person's work-related behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence. This refers to the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction. This refers to the quality of a person's work related behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals. This refers to the ends towards which employees direct their effort. </li></ul>
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic Motivation: Stems from the work environment external to the task and it is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated. Intrinsic Motivation : Stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and it is usually self-applied.
Seven Rules of Motivation <ul><li>Set a major goal, but follow a path. The path has mini goals that go in many directions. When you learn to succeed at mini goals, you will be motivated to challenge grand goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Finish what you start . A half finished project is of no use to anyone. Quitting is a habit. Develop the habit of finishing self-motivated projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Socialize with others of similar interest . Mutual support is motivating. We will develop the attitudes of our five best friends. If they are losers, we will be a loser. If they are winners, we will be a winner. To be a cowboy we must associate with cowboys. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Learn how to learn . Dependency on others for knowledge supports the habit of procrastination. Man has the ability to learn without instructors. In fact, when we learn the art of self-education we will find, if not create, opportunity to find success beyond our wildest dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonize natural talent with interest that motivates. Natural talent creates motivation, motivation creates persistence and persistence gets the job done. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase knowledge of subjects that inspires . The more we know about a subject, the more we want to learn about it. A self-propelled upward spiral develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Take risk . Failure and bouncing back are elements of motivation. Failure is a learning tool. No one has ever succeeded at anything worthwhile without a string of failures </li></ul>Seven Rules of Motivation
Likert Likert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizations into four management systems. 1st System – Primitive authoritarian 2nd System – Benevolent authoritarian 3rd System – Consultative 4th System – Participative As per the opinion of Likert, the 4th system is the best, not only for profit organizations, but also for non-profit firms.
Taylor <ul><li>Frederick W. Taylor designed a 4-step Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It begins with breaking the job into its smallest pieces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second step is to select the most qualified employees to perform the job and train them to do it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, supervisors are used to monitor the employees to be sure they are following the methods prescribed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, continue in this fashion, but only use employees who are getting the work done. </li></ul></ul>
Herzberg Frederick Herzberg has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. He devised his theory on the question : “What do people want from their jobs ?” He asked people to describe in detail, such situations when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses that he received, he concluded that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their non-presence leads to De-motivation. In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact.
Herzberg Two Factors Theory <ul><li>HYGIENE FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Company policies </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Growth/Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the job </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Growth/Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the job </li></ul>
McClelland <ul><li>David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs : </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Power </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Achievement </li></ul>
McGregor Theory X and Y <ul><li>Under the assumptions of theory X : </li></ul><ul><li>Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. </li></ul><ul><li>Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. </li></ul><ul><li>Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y : </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. </li></ul><ul><li>People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s brainpower is only partly used. </li></ul>
Mayo Tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual to make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward. Therefore an employee is : Motivation = Valence x Expectancy. The theory focuses on three things : Efforts and performance relationship Performance and reward relationship Rewards and personal goal relationship
SUMMARY <ul><li>Behavior is purposeful, directed towards some end. That is, it is motivated. The driving force is need. The direction is towards perceived reward and away from perceived punishment. </li></ul>
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