Marketing is the process by which companies create value for customers & build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return.
Marketing is all about” satisfying customer needs”
Goal of Marketing:
To attract new customers by promising superior value.
To keep & grow current customers by delivering satisfaction
A simple model of the marketing process Understand the marketplace & customer needs & wants Design a customer driven marketing strategy Create value for customers & build customer relationships Capture value from customers in return Construct an integrated marketing program that delivers superior value Build profitable relationships & create customer delight Capture value from customers to create profits & customer equity.
Needs : Needs are the basic human requirements
e.g food, water, air, shelter.
Wants : Are the form human needs take as shaped
by culture and individual responsibility.
Demands : Human wants that are backed by buying power.
Market offering : Some combination of products, services, information, or experiences offered to a market to satisfy a need or want. Eg, banks, airlines.
Marketing Myopia : The mistake of paying more attention to the specific products a company offers than to the benefits & experiences produced by these products.
Exchange : Process of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return.
Market : The set of all actual & potential buyers of a product or service.
Marketing Management : The art & science of choosing target markets & building profitable relationships with them.
Value Proposition : A company’s value proposition is the set of benefits or values it promises to deliver to consumers to satisfy their needs.
Winning Marketing Strategy
What customers will we serve?
( what’s our target market)
Divide the market into customer segments.
Select which segments will it go after.
How can we serve these customers best?
(what’s our value proposition )
- Differentiating & positioning the product in minds of consumers.
Five Organizational Concepts
Societal Marketing Concept
The idea that consumers will favor products that are available & highly affordable & that the organization should therefore focus on improving production & distribution efficiency.
The idea that consumers will favor products that offer the most quality , performance , & features thereby devoting a company’s energy to making continuous product improvements .
Make & sell concept
Focus on making superior products
No customer input
Less competitor product examination.
“ Marketing Myopia”
The idea that consumers will not buy enough of the firms products unless it undertakes a large scale selling & promotion effort .
Practiced most aggressively with unsought goods eg, insurance, encyclopedias.
Focuses on creating sales-transactions rather than long term profitable relationships.
“ Political Relationships”
The marketing management philosophy that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs & wants of target markets & delivering the desired satisfactions better than competitors .
Sense & respond philosophy.
Finding right products for customers
Customer-driving marketing – understanding customer needs even better than the customers themselves.
Contrast between Sales Concept & Marketing Concept Factory Products Selling &Promoting Profits through sales volume a. THE SELLING CONCEPT b. THE MARKETING CONCEPT Target Customer Integrated Profits through Market Needs Marketing customer satisfaction Starting Point Focus Means Ends
Societal Marketing Concept
Holds that marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a way that maintains or improves both consumers & the societies well-being.
Societal marketing concept Society (Human Welfare) Consumers (Want Satisfaction ) Company ( Profits )
Customer Relationship Management
CRM is the process of building & maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value & satisfaction.
Customer Perceived Value : The customers evaluation of the difference between all the benefits & all the costs of a market offering relative to those of competing products.
Customer Satisfaction depends on a product’s perceived performance relative to a buyer’s expectations.
Customer delight- promising only what a company can deliver, & then delivering more than promised.
Changing Nature of Customer Relationships
Relating with More Carefully selected Customers:
- Selective Relationship Management
Weeding out losing customers & targeting & pampering winning ones
Relating for the Long term:
Using CRM to retain current customers & building profitable long-term relationship s with them.
Relating Directly: Using direct marketing tools such as telephone, mail order catalogs & kiosks . Eg Dell & Amazon.
Creating Customer Loyalty & Retention
“ losing customers does not mean losing a single sale but in fact losing the entire stream of purchases that the customer would make over a lifetime”.
Customer lifetime value : The value of the entire stream of purchases that a customer would make over a lifetime of patronage.
Companies should not just acquire customers, but keep & grow them as well.
The ultimate aim of customer relationship management is to produce high customer equity.
Customer Equity is the combined discounted customer lifetime values of all the company’s current & potential customers.
It is a better measure of a firms performance than current sales or market share.
More Loyal firm’s = Higher firm’s
Profitable customers Customer Equity
Building Right relationships with Right customers
Which customers should the company acquire & retain?
The company can classify customers according to their potential profitability & projected loyalty manage its relationships with them accordingly.
Customer Relationship Groups
Strangers …. Low profitability/ Less Loyal.
Butterflies …. Profitable/ not Loyal
True Friends …. Profitable/ Loyal
Barnacles …. Not Profitable/ Highly Loyal
Different types of customers require different relationship strategies, therefore goal is to :
“Build right relationships with the right customers”
Customer Relationship Groups Butterflies Good fit between company’s offerings & customer needs; High profit potential True Friends Good fit between company’s offerings & customer needs; Highest profit potential Strangers Little fit between company’s offerings & customer needs; Lowest profit potential Barnacles Limited fit between company’s offerings & customer needs; Low profit potential High Profitability Low Profitability Short- term customers Long-term customers Projected Loyalty