Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ch03
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Ch03

190
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
190
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 3: Theory Building
  • 2. Theories are nets cast to catch what we call “the world”: to rationalize, to explain, and to master it. We endeavor to make the mesh ever finer and finer. Karl R. Popper
  • 3.  Prediction  Understanding
  • 4.  A coherent set of general propositions used as principles of explanation of the apparent relationships of certain observed phenomena.
  • 5.  A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes that has been given a name  Building blocks that abstract reality  “leadership,” “productivity,” and “morale”  “gross national product,” “asset,” and “inflation”
  • 6. VegetationVegetation FruitFruit BananaBanana RealityReality Increasinglymoreabstract
  • 7.  Abstract level ◦ concepts ◦ propositions  Empirical level ◦ variables ◦ hypotheses
  • 8.  Abstract level -In theory development, the level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a quality apart from an object.  Empirical level -Level of knowledge reflecting that which is verifiable by experience or observation.
  • 9. TheoriesTheories PropositionsPropositions ConceptsConcepts Observation of objectsObservation of objects and events (reality )and events (reality ) Increasinglymoreabstract
  • 10. CONCEPTS OBSERVATION OF OBJECTS AND EVENTS (REALITY) Empirical Level Abstract Level
  • 11. The use of a set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events and for predicting events yet unknown.
  • 12.  Concepts abstract reality.  Propositions are statements concerned with the relationships among concepts.
  • 13. Always makes four sales calls a day Dollar bonus for sales volume over quota Concept B (Habits) Hypothesis at Empirical Level Concept A (Reinforcement)
  • 14.  A hypothesis is a proposition that is empirically testable. It is an empirical statement concerned with the relationship among variables.  A variable is anything that may assume different numerical values.
  • 15. A fact without a theory Is like a ship without a sail, Is like a boat without a rudder, Is like a kite without a tail. A fact without a figure is a tragic final act, But one thing worse in this universe Is a theory without a fact.
  • 16.  The logical process of deriving a conclusion from a known premise or something known to be true. ◦ We know that all managers are human beings. ◦ If we also know that John Smith is a manager, ◦ then we can deduce that John Smith is a human being.
  • 17.  The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts. ◦ All managers that have ever been seen are human beings; ◦ therefore all managers are human beings.
  • 18. AssessAssess relevantrelevant existingexisting knowledgeknowledge FormulateFormulate concepts &concepts & PropositionsPropositions StatementStatement ofof HypothesesHypotheses DesignDesign researchresearch AcquireAcquire empiricalempirical datadata Analyze &Analyze & evaluateevaluate datadata ProvideProvide explanation-explanation- state newstate new problemproblem