In Trying to Find Common Ground, Do We Hurt Abortion Rights?

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Tracy A Weitz, PhD, MPA
Director
Advancing New Standard in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH)
Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health
University of California, San Francisco
January 25, 2010

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • It is important to remember that few abortions occur in the late second trimester and beyond. Almost 90% of abortions are performed in the first trimester of pregnancy (in the first 12 weeks after the first day of the last menstrual period). More than half of abortions are performed before 9 weeks after the last menstrual period, or within 5 weeks of the first missed period. The proportion of abortions performed very early in pregnancy (at 6 weeks or before) increased from 14% in 1992 to 22% in 1999. Fewer than 2% of abortions are performed after 20 weeks. An estimated 0.08% of abortions are performed after 24 weeks, when the fetus may be viable
  • But data alone can not explain the political power of the PBA debate. This picture is worth a thousand words. Here the Republican leadership watches on as Bush signs the Ban into law. I ask you, who is making health care decisions for women.
  • So what can we expect if the ban is upheld. First it is likely that the ban would apply to all or most 2 nd trimester abortions. It would impose criminal sentences on physicians who violate the ban and thus is likely to create a serious chilling effect on 2 nd tri providers who are not likely to continue to offer services. More importantly a decision in favor of the ban would fundamentally change the meaning of abortion right articulated in Roe. It would also impose abortion restrictions nation-wide thereby limiting abortion even in states with more liberal abortion laws, i.e. California, NY.
  • Another law under consideration now is the Unborn Pain Awareness Act. This law, called “The Medical Intrusion Act” by its opponents, would require that Would require a doctor performing an abortion at 20 or more weeks to read to the woman a statement saying that Congress has determined that the fetus will experience pain and to offer to give the fetus anesthesia.
  • Although such a law on face value seems like a fair thing-we all want women to have more information it is medically and scientifically inaccurate. A systematic review of the state of the science was published in JAMA in 2005 concluding that no evidence supports the existence of pain in the fetus before the 29 th week, well into the 3 rd trimester and that use of anesthesia to address this nonexistent pain increases the medical risk for the woman with no known clinical benefit. What is hard for many people to grasp is that the fetus does move under stimulation from the abortion but that movement is not pain. A way to think about this is that the “Wiring is in place but lights don’t come on.” Opponents of the law are concerned that physicians will be mandated to tell patients things they do not believe are true and to offer care that they can not in good conscious consent their patients for.
  • Examples: Although the Health Department is empowered to license and regulate health clinics, that authority does not extend to "the residence, office, or clinic of a physician or association of physicians . . . unless ten or more abortions are performed in any one calendar week in such residence, office, or clinic." Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 71-2017.01(9) "'[Health] Department inspectors shall have access to all properties and areas, objects, records and reports [of the abortion facility], and shall have the authority to make photocopies of those documents required in the course of inspections or investigations." S.C. Reg. 61-12 § 102-F Licensed facilities must establish and maintain a written "quality assurance program," run by a quality assurance committee of at least four staff members, who must meet at least quarterly. 25 Tex. Admin. Code § 139.8(a) "The abortion facility nursing service shall be under the direction of a legally and professionally qualified registered nurse." Missouri Min. Stds. of Operation for Abortion Facilities § 301.3 Abortion procedure and recovery rooms shall have a minimum of six air changes per hour, and "all air supplied to procedure rooms shall be delivered at or near the ceiling" and must pass through "a minimum of one filter bed with a minimum filter efficiency of 80 percent." 10 N.C. Admin. Code 3E.0206
  • Talk about abortion as having two essential aspects – the medical procedure aspect and the termination of potential life aspect Law like waiting periods and parental consent laws address potential life aspect of abortion Contrast with TRAP laws which address things like room dimensions or nurse’s degree etc
  • States with 1 st Tri – AL, AR, CA, CT, FL, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, NE, OK, NC, PA, PR, RI, SC, TN, TX, WI States that have 2d tri TRAP schemes but not first tri – AK, GA, HI, IN, MN, NJ, SD, UT, VA (NOTE that some states that have first tri schemes also have an additional scheme applicable to 2d tri – these are AR, MS, NC, PA, RI)
  • Because TRAP laws impose general health standards that address things like staffing, physical facilities, administrative procedures, etc the question of comparability must also focus on these factors. Thus, if abortion is comparable to some other procedure with respect to the procedures’ needs regarding staffing, physical plant, administrative procedures, etc, then the procedures are comparable in all respects relevant to the law. Note, some of these procedures are comparable to first trimester abortion, some to abortions up to 20 weeks – I don’t have data on comparability for abortions past 20 weeks.
  • Segregation: contributes to problem of abortion not being integrated into provision of other health care services. It also creates an impression that abortion is not part of the practice of medicine and is not a medical procedure. Deterance: By subjecting abortion providers to civil and criminal penalties, exposing them to harassment, subjecting them to searches of their offices and records, micromanaging their practice of medicine instead of allowing them to exercise their professional judgment, etc – some physicians who would consider providing abortions within their medical practice will be deterred from doing so by the burdens of being regulated by TRAP laws. The small number of abortion providers in this country is already a public health problem as it reduces women’s access to the procedure. This lack of easy access to an abortion provider causes some women to delay their abortions until later in pregnancy when the procedure carries greater risks. TRAP laws impose requirements that are costly to comply with yet provide no corresponding health benefits – such requirements include requiring facilities to use licensed nurses instead of medical assistants, to install sophisticated air ventilation systems, etc. These costs get passed on to patients, some of whom face significant diffulties in raising those additional funds. Abortion price increases therefore cause some patients to delay abortions until later in pregnancy, when the risks of the procedure are greater.
  • In Trying to Find Common Ground, Do We Hurt Abortion Rights?

    1. 1. Access to Second Trimester Abortions: A Public Health Perspective Tracy Weitz, PhD, MPA Director Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH) Bixby Center for Reproductive Health Research & Policy University of California, San Francisco
    2. 2. Today’s Presentation  Overview of 2nd trimester abortion  Current barriers to provision  A recommitment to 2nd trimester abortion care
    3. 3. What is 2nd Trimester Abortion? 1st Tri 2nd Tri 3rd Tri ACOG’s Committee on Coding and Nomenclature LMP to < 14 wks 14 -28 wks 28 wks + Roe v Wade LMP to 12 wks 13-24 wks 25 wks +
    4. 4. 2nd Trimester Abortion in Practice  Generally  Abortions between (14) and (24) weeks LMP  Involves use of Dilation and Extraction (D&E)  Can be done with medications as an induction  Providers vary on to what gestational limit they do abortions  CPT Codes distinctions  59840: By D&C –Any trimester  59841: By D&E -- 14 weeks 0 days up to 20 weeks 0 days  59841-22: By D&E -- 20 weeks 0 days or more
    5. 5. 57.6% 20.3% 10.2% 6.2% 4.3% 1.5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% %ofabortions <9 9-10 11-12 13-15 16-20 21+ Weeks Source: Elam-Evans et al., 2002 (1999 data) Abortions by Gestational Age Almost 90% in the 1st Trimester
    6. 6. Many Women Need Care  10% of 1.3 million is still a lot of women  130,000 procedures in the 2nd Trimester  26,000 women over 21 weeks LMP  Women who need care  Access barriers  Social barriers  Diagnosis barriers  Life circumstances  Health care disparity and human rights issue
    7. 7. Who Needs 2nd Trimester Abortions  Greater likelihood for women who are:  Low income  Non-Hispanic black  Geographically isolated  Young
    8. 8. What factors delay abortion  Funding needs  Only 17 states still allow for Medicaid funding  Significant factor in use of 2nd Ti  Late diagnosis of pregnancy  Late diagnosis of medical need  Logistics  Difficulty finding a provider  Referral from a prior clinic
    9. 9. Barriers to Provision Lack of Providers Increasing Regulation
    10. 10. Lack of Providers  Graying of the Abortion Provider  Concentration in High Volume Outpatient Clinics not in Hospitals  Lack of Training  In Residencies  For the Practicing Physician  Inadequate Compensation  Out-of-Pocket Services  Medicaid Restrictions  Insurance Prohibitions
    11. 11. A More Complicated Story  # of providers is an inadequate measure  MFM physicians may do procedures for fetal abnormalities  Separating “Good” from “Bad” Abortions  Newer providers unwilling to do such high volume   requirements are  cost without  compensation => specialization
    12. 12. Increasing Federal and State Regulation of 2nd Trimester Abortion  “Partial Birth Abortion” Bans  “Fetal Pain” Consent Bills  Targeted Regulation of Abortion Provider (TRAP) Laws
    13. 13. “Partial Birth Abortion” (PBA) Bans
    14. 14. What is “PBA”  Not a medically recognized term  Introduced into the public after a 1992 presentation by Martin Haskell at the National Abortion Federation (NAF) meeting was leaked to anti-abortion activists  Supposedly describes the dilation and extraction (D&X) technique  where the fetal body is brought through the cervix intact and then the skull is compressed to safely move it through the cervix  There is no bright-line distinction between D&E and D&X  most appropriately called intact D&E
    15. 15. Why Perform an Intact D&E?  Reduce instrumentation of the uterus  Fetus presentation necessitates  Result of dialation of cervix with laminaria or misoprostol or other cervical preparation technique  Process of fetal loss  Preserve the fetus for post- procedure examination
    16. 16. Early Efforts to Ban PBA  Federal legislation to ban PBA passed by Congress in March 1996 and again in October 1997  President Bill Clinton vetod both bills  Override votes passed in the House of Representative but failed in the Senate  Many states began to pass PBA bans
    17. 17. State-based “PBA” Bans  26 states have bans on PBA that apply throughout pregnancy  18 bans have been specifically blocked by a court  7 bans remain unchallenged but are presumably unenforceable under Stenberg because they lack health exceptions  Ohio’s ban has been challenged and upheld by a court  5 states have bans that apply after viability  Utah’s ban has been specifically blocked by a court because it lacks a health exception  Montana’s ban remains unchallenged but is presumably unenforceable under Stenberg because it lacks a health exception  3 bans are currently in effect  4 states have bans that include a health exception  2 states broadly allow the procedure to protect against physical or mental impairment  2 states narrowly allow the procedure to protect only against bodily harm  27 states have bans without a health exception  19 bans have been specifically blocked by a court.  8 bans remain unchallenged.
    18. 18. State-based PBA Bans  Found unconstitutional in Stenberg v Carhart [2000]  Challenge to the state of Nebraska ban on so- called “Partial Birth Abortion”  Found unconstitutional on 5-4 decision  Stevens, Breyer, Souter, Ginsburg, O’Connor:  Four separate dissenting opinions were filed: Rehnquist, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas  Must have a health exception  In spite of this- Congress passed a the 2003 Partial Birth Abortion Ban without a health exception
    19. 19. Signing the PBA Ban of 2003
    20. 20. What Does the Law Say “An abortion in which the person performing the abortion, deliberately and intentionally vaginally delivers a living fetus until, in the case of a head-first presentation, the entire fetal head is outside the body of the mother, or, in the case of breech presentation, any part of the fetal trunk past the navel is outside the body of the mother, for the purpose of performing an overt act that the person knows will kill the partially delivered living fetus; and performs the overt act, other than completion of delivery, that kills the partially delivered living fetus.”
    21. 21. Immediately Challenged  3 Legal Challenges  Planned Parenthood v. Ashcroft  San Francisco  National Abortion Federation v. Ashcroft  New York  Carhart v. Ashcroft  Nebraska  Temporary Injunction  Who is covered?
    22. 22. Planned Parenthood v. Ashcroft/Gonzales  Challenged by Planned Parenthood, joined by the City and County of San Francisco on behalf of San Francisco General Hospital  Subpoena to obtain medical records  Federal District Judge Phyllis Hamilton struck down the law on 3 grounds (6/1/04):  Because it places an 'undue burden' (i.e., "a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus") on women seeking abortion  Because its language is unconstitutionally vague  Because it lacks constitutionally-required provisions to preserve women's health  Upheld by 9th Circuit (1/31/06)
    23. 23. NAF v. Ashcroft/Gonzales  Challenged by the ACLU Reproductive Freedom Project on behalf of the National Abortion Federation (NAF)  New York District Judge Richard C. Casey (8/26/04)  found the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act unconstitutional  ruled that the act must contain exceptions to protect a woman's health  Very inflammatory language reg the fetus  Upheld by 2nd Circuit (1/31/06)
    24. 24. Carhart v. Ashcroft/Gonzales  Challenged by the Center for Reproductive Rights on behalf of a Nebraska physician Carhart  U.S. District Judge Richard Kopf (9/8/04)  “The overwhelming weight of the trial evidence proves that the banned procedure is safe and medically necessary in order to preserve the health of women under certain circumstances.  In the absence of an exception for the health of a woman, banning the procedure constitutes a significant health hazard to women."  Upheld by the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals (7/8/05)
    25. 25. The Supreme Court  2 cases (Planned Parenthood & Carhart) heard 11/8/06  Expect opinion at end of term  What do we expect  Will depend on Kennedy’s dissent in Carhart?  Has science and evidence changed  What is undue burden
    26. 26. Kennedy’s Strong Opposition  states should be able to outlaw “a procedure many decent and civilized people find so abhorrent as to be among the most serious of crimes against human life” dissent in Stenberg v Carhart, 2000
    27. 27. Implications of Reversal  Could ban all 2nd trimester abortions  Impose criminal sentences on physicians who violate the ban  Chilling effect on 2nd tri provider  Fundamentally change the meaning of abortion right articulated in Roe  Restrict abortion in states with more liberal laws
    28. 28. What Will Providers Do?  Survey of 2nd Trimester providers attending the 2006 meeting of the National Abortion Federation  N = 46 (US only)  Average gestation limit 21wks LMP range [16-27+]  Median gestation limit 23 wks LMP
    29. 29. If PBA is upheld will you:?  alter the way you use misoprostol for cervical ripening  use digoxin at earlier gestational ages*  reduce the gestational age to which you perform abortions  stop performing intentionally intact D&Es  change who you allow in the procedure room  change the clinical technique for performing D&Es
    30. 30. Use Digoxin at Earlier Gestation Age?  What is Digoxin (“Dig”)  A feticide injected into the fetal heart to stop fetal cardiac activity  Change clinical practice  Yes: 11 (24%)  No: 28 (61%)  No Answer: 7 (15%)
    31. 31. Why Isn’t Dixogin the Answer?  Scientific evidence demonstrates does not increase safety or ease of procedure and has medical risks  Drey, E. A., L. J. Thomas, N. L. Benowitz, N. Goldschlager, and P. D. Darney. 2000. "Safety of intra-amniotic digoxin administration before late second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation." Am J Obstet Gynecol 182:1063-6.  Jackson, R. A., V. L. Teplin, E. A. Drey, L. J. Thomas, and P. D. Darney. 2001. "Digoxin to facilitate late second-trimester abortion: a randomized, masked, placebo-controlled trial." Obstet Gynecol 97:471-6.
    32. 32. Other Complicating Factors  Increased difficulty  at reduced gestation age  with obesity  Cost  What is “fetal death”  How prove?
    33. 33. Where is the “Pro-Choice Movement”  Wavering support  Discomfort with the “techniques of abortion’  A desire to “not focus on the issue”  Belief that we lose when we discuss the issue  Belief that few women will be hurt by these bans  Focus on “reframing” and terminology rather than real understanding
    34. 34. Implications for Health Care Beyond Abortion  Legislate a particular medical technique  What does this mean to the concepts of informed consent?
    35. 35. “Fetal Pain” Bills
    36. 36. “Fetal Pain” Counseling Reqs.  Require a doctor performing an abortion at 20 or more weeks to read to the woman a statement saying that the fetus may experience pain and to offer to give the fetus anesthesia  In place in 3 states and under consideration in others
    37. 37. What is Pain  Pain is a feeling – a subjective sensory experience – and as such, an individual must possess some level of consciousness or awareness in order to perceive a stimulus as unpleasant. To be conscious and capable of experiencing pain, an individual must have a functional cerebral cortex.
    38. 38. Inconsistent with Science  Systematic review published in JAMA, 2005  Pain vs Movement  No “pain” prior to 29 wks gestation  “Wiring is in place but lights don’t come on”  Even if pain, no means for fetal anesthesia  Increased risk to the pregnant woman  Other concerns  Informed consent and notions of risk  Mandated physician speech
    39. 39. Shouldn’t Women Decide?  I can understand why we shouldn’t require fetal analgesia/anesthesia for all abortions, but why shouldn’t we allow the woman to chose for herself whether she wants fetal analgesia/anesthesia during an abortion?
    40. 40. How to Answer the Question  Patient autonomy is undoubtedly a consideration of primary importance. However, there is no known safe and effective fetal analgesia/anesthesia to offer in the context of abortion.  Additionally, patients should be advised that such measures are unnecessary because science does not support that fetuses feel pain before the third trimester.  The goal of quality patient care is to inform women of the most up-to-date scientific information. Requiring that women be offered care that is not needed nor demonstrated as safe violates that goal.
    41. 41. Targeted Regulations of Abortion Providers (TRAP) Laws
    42. 42. What are TRAP laws?  Targeted Regulations of Abortion Providers (TRAP)  TRAP laws = Purported health facility regulations that apply only to facilities in which abortions are performed
    43. 43. TRAP laws often include:  Licensing and inspection provisions  Authorization for searches  Administrative requirements  Minimum training requirements for staff  Physical plant specifications
    44. 44. TRAP laws are different than other abortion laws  Other abortion specific laws attempt to influence the pregnant woman’s decision  premise to protect potential life  TRAP regulate the medical aspects of the abortion procedure  premise is to promote health
    45. 45. How prevalent are TRAP laws?  Over half of all states have TRAP laws, all deal with 2nd Trimester care  Legal challenges have failed to reverse TRAP laws  Before 1992, many TRAP laws were struck down as unconstitutional  Since Casey when the Supreme Court established the undue burden standard, almost impossible to prove
    46. 46. Not regulated like similar care  Procedures with magnitude and risk greater than abortions up to 20 wks that are not regulated in the outpatient setting  hysteroscopy  surgical treatment of miscarriage  diagnostic dilation & curettage  endometrial biopsy  ovum retrieval  sigmoidoscopy  vasectomy  What about after 20 wks?
    47. 47. What are the implications of TRAP laws?  TRAP laws  segregate abortion from the general practice of medicine  deter physicians from becoming providers  unnecessarily raise the cost of abortions  Results in reduced access to and quality of abortion  increasing disparities particularly for low-income & rural women
    48. 48. The Mississippi Story “The Last Abortion Clinic” A Frontline Special
    49. 49. Clever TRAP Laws  Regulate clinic as an outpatient surgical center  Requires that physician have admitting privileges at the local hospital  Physicians are flown in from out-of- state  No hospitals would grant privileges  Essentially outlawed 2nd Trimester Abortion in Mississippi
    50. 50. “It is the women with resources who continue to be able to get abortion. And it is the low-income women, people in marginalized populations, people that live in rural areas, who just don't have good access to legal abortion and turn to very unhealthy alternatives." Jones, 2006
    51. 51. Despite This Reality  Very little attention by the “Pro-Choice Movement”  Search of “Mississippi” and “Abortion” focuses on the overt ban not the convert ban  Failed legal challenge by the Center for Reproductive Rights  Desperate need to study the effects of this reality
    52. 52. Ensuring Access  Women’s Option Center, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Director: Eleanor Drey, MD, EdM  ACCESS/Women’s Rights Coalition Executive Director: Parker Dockray, MSW
    53. 53. Women’s Options Clinic A provider of last resort
    54. 54. Serving the Most Acute Need  Primary referral site for medically complicated patients  Only provider in Northern California that accepts “emergency” Medi-Cal after 20 weeks in pregnancy  Fee $1000 for 2nd trimester procedure
    55. 55. Turning Women Away  Caring for 23 wks patients first  Rescheduling 21-22 wk patients  1-2 patients a week  Turning away patients who are >23 weeks and one day  A new study to look at health outcomes
    56. 56. What is happening in Southern California  ?
    57. 57. ACCESS Making Choice A Reality Since 1993
    58. 58. Mission  ACCESS exists to make reproductive health and freedom a concrete reality - not just a theoretical right - for ALL women  ACCESS is a project of the Women's Health Rights Coalition, founded in 1974 as the Coalition for the Medical Rights of Women, a network of activists, consumers and health care professionals
    59. 59. The ACCESS Hotline  Provides free and confidential information, referrals, peer counseling and consumer advocacy about all aspects of reproductive health  Connects women with public insurance programs  Refers to organizations that help with other issues such as IPV, sexual assault, drug addiction, homelessness, or child-care
    60. 60. Practical Support Network  The Practical Support Network ensures that women can obtain abortions and other urgent reproductive health care without isolation or delay  The network of over 125 volunteers provides the transportation, overnight housing, child-care and other support women need to actually get to their appointments  ACCESS can also pay for hotel rooms and bus tickets when women must travel great distances to find a provider
    61. 61. Meeting Only Some of the Need  Approx 600 calls per month  Resources to help between 150-200 women  English and Spanish only
    62. 62. Raising Awareness “The Other Abortion Battle: Abortion may be legal in California – but that doesn't mean you can actually get one” Tali Woodward The Bay Guardian 10/10/06
    63. 63. Working Together to Ensure Access and Care Provision The Medi-Cal Reimbursement Project
    64. 64. Medi-Cal in California  Estimated 90,946 Medi-Cal funding induced abortions  Approx. 39% of all CA abortions (n=236,000)
    65. 65. The Challenges for Medi-Cal Recipients  Approximately 38% of reproductive aged CA women are eligible for Medi-Cal  based on their income level  Only 20% of practicing CA Ob/Gyns accept Medi-Cal  56% of Medi-Cal beneficiaries stated that finding doctors in close proximity who accepted Medi-Cal even for routine medical care was difficult or very difficult Medi-Cal Policy Institute. Speaking out: What beneficiaries have to say about the Medi-Cal program. March 2006
    66. 66. Locating a Medi-Cal Abortion Provider  Review of the 148 publicly- advertised CA abortion providers  defined as all providers listed under abortion services in the yellow pages  53% accept Medi-Cal through the 1st trimester  20% accept Medi-Cal into the mid- second trimester (up to 20 weeks gestation)  Only 4% accept Medi-Cal past 21 weeks
    67. 67. Acute Provider Shortage  Of the 23 abortion providers who provide abortions past 20 weeks  only 3 accept Medi-Cal through 24 weeks  10 don’t take Medi-Cal at all
    68. 68. Acceptance of Medi-Cal by Second Trimester Abortion Providers (21-24 Weeks) 16 18 20 22 24 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 AbortionProviders(N=23) Gestation (in weeks) Medi-Cal Accepted Abortion Peformed
    69. 69. Not All Medi-Cal is Alike  Medi-Cal Categories  Full Scope Fee-for-Service  Full Scope Managed Care  “Emergency” Pregnancy-related Medi-Cal  May accept one and not the other  Impossible to acertain
    70. 70. Survey of Abortion Providers  A survey of abortion providers who perform abortions through 24 weeks but no longer accept Medi-Cal  Conducted by ACCESS  Revealed that reimbursement rates for 2nd Trimester Abortions are too low to cover the expenses associated with the procedure  Accepting Medi-Cal seen as not financially feasible
    71. 71. Estimating Cost v Reimbursement  Freestanding clinics that provide abortions past 20 weeks report  an average of $467 in total reimbursements from Medi-Cal for the procedure, ultrasounds, tests, and medications and supplies  providing these 2nd trimester abortions costs a clinic an average minimum of $637  leaving an estimated deficit of at least $170 per procedure  For a hospital to perform the same procedure is much more costly  the average 2nd trimester abortion is reimbursed $581  total related hospital costs are approximately $1,860  leaving a deficit of $1,280 per 2nd trimester abortion
    72. 72. Advocacy Project  California Coalition for Reproductive Freedom  Proposal to State Office of Medi-Cal  Increase reimbursement for later second trimester abortion  ?--How deal with the “We take Medi-Cal but not for that”
    73. 73. Second Trimester Abortion as a Public Health and Human Right Reverse the Provider Shortage Provide Medically Appropriate Care Ensure Access to Those Most in Need Stand Up for 2nd Trimester Care
    74. 74. Frances Kissling, CFFC “a new era in prochoice advocacy—one that combines a commitment to laws that affirm and enhance the right of each woman to decide whether to have an abortion or bear and raise a child with an expressed commitment to human values that include respect for life, recognition of fetal life as valuable and a concern for fostering a society in which all life is valued” Is There Life After Roe?: How to Think About the Fetus, Conscience, Winter 2004-05
    75. 75. William Saletan “Maybe that six-month window made more sense in 1973 than it does today. Maybe, if we spend the next 10 years helping women avoid second-trimester abortions, we won't have to spend the next 20 or 40 years defending them. Maybe the best way to end the assault on Roe is to make it irrelevant.” Life After Roe, Washington Post, 3/5/06;B01
    76. 76. Other Warning Signs  NARAL Prochoice America refused to oppose the Unborn Pain Awareness Act  Many public opinion polls ask questions only about 1st trimester abortion  Advocates warn about “bringing up the fact that abortion is legal in the 2nd trimester”
    77. 77. Standing Up  DO NOT sacrifice the human rights of the women who need them most in the name of “keeping abortion legal for everyone”  DO NOT sacrifice the health of women who need abortion care simply because it is too difficult to talk about that care
    78. 78. The Illogic of It All  Restricting 2nd Trimester Abortion  Does not:  lead to increase prevention  make people not have sex  Does  Make people parents who do not want to be  Medically risk the lives/health of women  Shift the burden to women of color, low income women and geographically isolated women
    79. 79. Thank you!

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