Visual Dictionary: Bitumen (Updated)


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Visual Dictionary: Bitumen (Updated)

  1. 1. Air Barrier Paper  A sheet material used as both a vapor retarder and an air barrier. Here it is serving as a barrier against weather elements while renovations are completed.
  2. 2. Attic Ventilation  Attics are ventilated to allow water vapor to escape, and to keep the house cooler during the summer by preventing the buildup of solar heat conducted through the roofing and roof sheathing. It is advantageous to ROOF TURBINE have both low and high vents. Work to pull exhaust moist, and hot air RIDGEassemblyVENT outside from your A long, open attic. that allows air to circulate GABLE VENT: in and out of a gable roof Used for exhausting excess at the edge. heat and humidity from an attic. SOFFIT VENT: An opening under the eave of a roof, used to allow air to flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing.
  3. 3. Backhoe  A backhoe is a piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. Backhoes are used to pick up and move fill. The bucket of the one shown is 21” wide.
  4. 4. Batterboards  A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation.
  6. 6. Brick Bonds Header Flemish Bond: alternating between header and stretcher in the course. , with the headers centered over the stretchers in intervening Sailor courses. Running Bond: all stretchers. Soldier Rowlock Stretcher Rowlocks
  7. 7. Brick Sizes The brick above is w x 8” x 2 ¼”. This The brick above is w x 7 5/8” x 2 ¼”. This brick is a standard brick and the width brick is a modular brick and the width should be between 3 ½” and 3 5/8”. should be between 3 ½” and 3 5/8”.
  8. 8. Bulldozer  A powerful machine for pushing earth or rocks, used in road building, farming, construction, and wrecking; it consists of a heavy, broad steel blade or plate mounted on the front of a tractor. The blade may be lifted and forced down by hydraulic rams. For digging, the blade is held below surface level; for transporting, it is held at the surface level; and for spreading, it is held above the surface level as the tractor moves forward.
  9. 9. 3. Stone, Random Ashlar Cladding Wood shingles are thin, tapered slabs of wood sawn from short pieces of tree trunk. Wood shakes are split from the wood rather than sawn, and are thicker with a much more irregular face texture. I am guessing they are wood shingles. 2. EIFS 1. Brick 4. Wood Boards 5. Wood Shingles
  10. 10. Code Requirements The tread of these stairs is 10” and Egress from each bedroom: the riser is 10” also. A minimum clear opening of 5.7 square feet These stairs do not meet code Minimum clear opening height of because they are less than the 24” minimum of 3 feet wide. They do have the continuous handrail and Minimum clear opening width of 20” adequate head room. Bottom of clear opening not more than 44” AFF Because the tread is 10” it violates the code of a max vertical rise of 7 This window is 42”x52” and meets ½“, but it does have the minimum code. horizontal run of 10 in.
  11. 11. Concrete Joints Isolation joints are used to relieve flexural stresses due to vertical movement of slab-on-grade applications that adjoin fixed foundation elements such as columns, building or machinery foundations, ect. The isolation joint seen here is displaying the light post is isolated from the slab.
  12. 12. Concrete Masonry Units  A block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone; a concrete block. The abbreviation is CMU and that is what they are commonly referred to.  3 bricks heights= 1 CMU in height  Each full block is nominally 8 inches (200 mm) high and 16 inches (400 mm) long. 4” block
  13. 13. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units RIBBED SPLIT FACED BLOCKS SPLIT BLOCK
  14. 14. Doors Flush Door Panel Door: Top Rail Transom: a small Panel window directly above a door. Sidelight: a tall, Lock Rail narrow window along side a door. Stile Bottom Rail
  15. 15. Duplex receptacle: Power outlet which transfers electricity for Electrical Components wires to appliances. A service panel distributes the electricity from wires to receptacles throughout the house. Power pole with transformer This is a meter on the side of a which converts voltage of house which measures how several thousand volts to much electricity is used. 110/220-volt alternating current A service head, seen to the right, is a weatherproof entry point for above-ground electrical wiring or telephone lines into a home or weatherproof entry point for above- ground electrical wiring or telephone lines into a home or business.
  16. 16. 1. Sill Plate 7 Framing Elements 2. Anchor Bolt 3. Floor Joist 4. Subflooring 5. Sole Plate 8 6. Stud 7. Top plate 8. Ceiling joists 9. rafter 10. Roof decking 11. sheathing 12. Stringer 3 (2nd floor were only visible) 4. Subflooring 11. Sheathing 5 6 2 12 9 1
  17. 17. Front End Loader  Primarily used to quot;loadquot; material into or onto another type of machinery (dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hooper, rail- car, etc.).
  18. 18. Heat Pump  A device that utilizes a refrigeration cycle either to heat or to cool a building by passing air or water over either the condensing coils or the evaporating coils, respectively.  An advantage of this system is that is has the ability to both heat AND cool.  A disadvantage is that it is relatively noisy. Compressor/ Evaporator  The compressor is the device compressing the refrigerant to the desired pressure.  The air handling unit is the central furnace that heats air and forces it through small supply ducts to each room. From the Air Handling Unit room, the air travels back to the furnace via a return-air duct.
  19. 19. Insulation  A material with a low thermal conductivity that is included in a building assembly for the purpose of reducing heat flow through the assembly. Loose Fill Batt/Blanket Foamed Rigid Board
  20. 20. Lintel  A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening. Sorry I’m not really in the picture above, I was by myself taking it, but the window is above the picture to the left! The student union center!
  21. 21. Mortar This joint is concave and it is tooled. This one is a vee joint and is also tooled. Size: ¾” exactly. Size: ¾“ It has been used It has been used on a house. It on a church would most likely recreational be type S. center. It would probably be type S as well.
  22. 22. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) It is one of three types of nonveneered panels, made of long, strandlike wood particles compressed and glued into three to five layers. The strands are oriented in the same manner in each layer as the grains of the veneer layers in plywood. Because of the length and controlled orientation of the strands, OSB is generally stronger and stiffer than the other two types. Manufacturing Process: Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is an engineered, mat-formed panel product made of strands, flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter, round wood logs and bonded with an exterior-type binder under heat and pressure. OSB panels consist of layered mats. Exterior or surface layers are composed of strands aligned in the long panel direction; inner-layers consist of cross- or randomly-aligned strands. These large mats are then subjected to intense heat and pressure to become a quot;masterquot; panel and are cut to size.
  23. 23. Plumbing Lavatory: a basin, or bowl used for washing. Typical piping size of 1 ½” diameter. This plumbing vent keeps the sewer gases out of the building. Water Closet This sink is an integral sink.
  24. 24. Plywood  A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer* bonded (glued) together under pressure.  Manufacturing Process: The log emerges from the barker after having been stripped of its bark.  Step 2 : Log Conditioning The logs are conditioned using steam or hot water to improve peel quality.  Step 3 : Lathing At the lathe, a sharp blade peels the log, now called a block, into a continuous sheet of veneer.  Step 4 : Veneer Application Green veneer is dried in steam or gas heated ovens.  Step 5 : Veneer Coating Veneers are coated with waterproof glue and laid up into sandwiches.  Step 6 : Curing The veneer sandwiches are subjected to heat and pressure in the hot press until the glue is cured. *Veneer: A thin layer, sheet, or facing.
  25. 25. Radiant Barrier  A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
  26. 26. Rebar They are made in mills by passing hot steel rods through a succession of rollers that press them into the desired shape. They are round in cross section, and the deformations rolled into the surface of the reinforcing bar help it to bond tightly to concrete. This rebar is ½” in diameter. It would be referred to as a #4 bar.
  27. 27. Steep Roof Drainage Gutter: a Splash block: a small precast block of channel that collects concrete or plastic used to divert water at rainwater and the bottom of a downspout. snowmelt at the eave of a roof. Downspout: a vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level.
  28. 28. Steep Roof Materials Metal Panel Roof: they are made of long  Shingle: A small unit sheets of galvanized or aluminized steel, usually coated with long –lasting of water resistant polymeric coatings in various colors. The most material nailed in common panels are 2 feet wide and come in a overlapping fashion variety of profiles with ridges running with many other such lengthwise. units to render a wall or sloping roof Metal Panels watertight.  The shingles below The picture below is of the underlayment. It is a layer of waterproof material between are metal shingles. roof sheathing and roofing. It is applied to protect the building from precipitation before the roofing is applied. It also provides a permanent second layer of defense to back up the roofing. Clay Tile Roof
  29. 29. Steep Roof Shapes Gable Mansard Hip Gambrel
  30. 30. Steep Roof Terms 4 3  1. Eave: Level, low edge of a roof.  2. Rake: sloping edge of a roof  3. Ridge: The level intersection of roof planes at their highest point.  4. Valley: The sloping intersection of two roof planes.  5. Fascia: Board nailed to the lower Building without ends of the rafters  fascia 6. Soffit: Encloses rafter tails.
  31. 31. Stone Random Rubble Coursed Ashlar Random Ashlar
  32. 32. Vapor Retarder  A continuous sheet, as nearly seamless as possible, of plastic sheeting, aluminum foil, kraft paper laminated with asphalt, or some other material that is highly resistant to the passage of water vapor.  It is most commonly installed on the warmer side of the insulation layer.
  33. 33. Waterproofing Waterproofing is a resistant membrane applied to the outside of a foundation. It protects the foundation from moisture. This picture is illustrating a liquid applied membrane. Liquid-applied membranes that cure in place are relatively easy to detail around penetrations and other transitions, since in liquid state, the membrane can easily form itself to any shape.
  34. 34. Weep Hole  A small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly.
  35. 35. Welded Wire Fabric  A grid of steel rods These WWFs are waiting for the concrete to be poured over that are welded them, they serve as a reinforcement for the slab. They are used together, used to reinforce a concrete for a sidewalk here, notice the other slab already poured. slab.  The measurements of the grid are 4” x 4” (according to the men on site, I was behind a fence.)
  36. 36. Windows The window to the left is an awning window because it is hinged at the top and opens at the bottom. The window to the right is The window above is a double a hopper hung window because it slides into window an open position. because it is hinged at the bottom and opens from the top.