Air Barrier Paper
A sheet material used
as both a vapor
retarder and an air
barrier. Here it is
serving as a barrier
Attics are ventilated to allow
water vapor to escape, and to
keep the house cooler during
the summer by preventing the
buildup of solar heat conducted
through the roofing and roof
sheathing. It is advantageous to
have both low and high vents.
from your A long, open
attic. that allows air to circulate
in and out of a gable roof
Used for exhausting excess
at the edge.
heat and humidity from an
An opening under the eave of a roof,
used to allow air to flow into the attic
or the space below the roof sheathing.
A backhoe is a piece
consisting of a
digging bucket on
the end of a two-part
Backhoes are used
to pick up and move
fill. The bucket of the
one shown is 21”
A temporary frame built
just outside the corner of
an excavation to carry
marks that lie on the
surface planes of the
basement that will be
built in the excavation.
Flemish Bond: alternating
between header and stretcher
in the course. , with the
headers centered over the
stretchers in intervening
Running Bond: all
The brick above is w x 8” x 2 ¼”. This The brick above is w x 7 5/8” x 2 ¼”. This
brick is a standard brick and the width brick is a modular brick and the width
should be between 3 ½” and 3 5/8”. should be between 3 ½” and 3 5/8”.
A powerful machine for pushing
earth or rocks, used in road
building, farming, construction,
and wrecking; it consists of a
heavy, broad steel blade or plate
mounted on the front of a tractor.
The blade may be lifted and
forced down by hydraulic rams.
For digging, the blade is held
below surface level; for
transporting, it is held at the
surface level; and for spreading, it
is held above the surface level as
the tractor moves forward.
3. Stone, Random Ashlar
Wood shingles are thin, tapered
slabs of wood sawn from short
pieces of tree trunk. Wood
shakes are split from the wood
rather than sawn, and are thicker
with a much more irregular face
texture. I am guessing they are
4. Wood Boards 5. Wood Shingles
The tread of these stairs is 10” and
Egress from each bedroom:
the riser is 10” also.
A minimum clear opening of 5.7
These stairs do not meet code
Minimum clear opening height of because they are less than the
24” minimum of 3 feet wide. They do
have the continuous handrail and
Minimum clear opening width of 20” adequate head room.
Bottom of clear opening not more
than 44” AFF Because the tread is 10” it violates
the code of a max vertical rise of 7
This window is 42”x52” and meets ½“, but it does have the minimum
code. horizontal run of 10 in.
Isolation joints are used to relieve flexural stresses due to
vertical movement of slab-on-grade applications that adjoin
fixed foundation elements such as columns, building or
machinery foundations, ect. The isolation joint seen here is
displaying the light post is isolated from the slab.
Concrete Masonry Units
A block of hardened
concrete, with or without hollow
cores, designed to be laid in the
same manner as a brick or
stone; a concrete block. The
abbreviation is CMU and that is
what they are commonly
3 bricks heights= 1 CMU in
Each full block is nominally 8
inches (200 mm) high and 16
inches (400 mm) long.
Doors Flush Door
Transom: a small
Panel window directly above
Sidelight: a tall,
Lock Rail narrow window along
side a door.
Power outlet which
transfers electricity for
Electrical Components wires to appliances.
A service panel distributes
the electricity from wires to
receptacles throughout the
Power pole with transformer This is a meter on the side of a
which converts voltage of house which measures how
several thousand volts to much electricity is used.
110/220-volt alternating current
A service head, seen to the right, is
a weatherproof entry point for
above-ground electrical wiring or
telephone lines into a home or
weatherproof entry point for above-
ground electrical wiring or telephone
lines into a home or business.
Front End Loader
Primarily used to
quot;loadquot; material into
or onto another
type of machinery
A device that utilizes a
refrigeration cycle either to heat
or to cool a building by passing
air or water over either the
condensing coils or the
evaporating coils, respectively.
An advantage of this system is
that is has the ability to both heat
A disadvantage is that it is
The compressor is the device
compressing the refrigerant to
the desired pressure.
The air handling unit is the
central furnace that heats air and
forces it through small supply
ducts to each room. From the
Air Handling Unit
room, the air travels back to the
furnace via a return-air duct.
A material with a low thermal
conductivity that is included in a
building assembly for the purpose
of reducing heat flow through the
Loose Fill Batt/Blanket Foamed Rigid Board
A beam that
carries the load of
a wall across a
window or door
Sorry I’m not really in
the picture above, I
was by myself taking
it, but the window is
above the picture to
the left! The student
This joint is concave and it is tooled. This one is a vee joint and is also tooled.
Size: ¾” exactly. Size: ¾“
It has been used It has been used
on a house. It on a church
would most likely recreational
be type S. center. It would
probably be type
S as well.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
It is one of three types of nonveneered panels, made of long, strandlike wood particles
compressed and glued into three to five layers. The strands are oriented in the same manner in each
layer as the grains of the veneer layers in plywood. Because of the length and controlled orientation of
the strands, OSB is generally stronger and stiffer than the other two types.
Manufacturing Process: Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is an engineered, mat-formed panel product made of
strands, flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter, round wood logs and bonded with an exterior-type binder
under heat and pressure.
OSB panels consist of layered mats. Exterior or surface layers are composed of strands aligned in the long
panel direction; inner-layers consist of cross- or randomly-aligned strands. These large mats are then subjected
to intense heat and pressure to become a quot;masterquot; panel and are cut to size.
Lavatory: a basin, or bowl used for washing.
Typical piping size of 1 ½” diameter.
This plumbing vent keeps the
sewer gases out of the building.
This sink is an integral
A wood panel composed of an odd
number of layers of wood veneer*
bonded (glued) together under pressure.
Manufacturing Process: The log emerges
from the barker after having been
stripped of its bark.
Step 2 : Log Conditioning The logs are
conditioned using steam or hot water to
improve peel quality.
Step 3 : Lathing At the lathe, a sharp
blade peels the log, now called a block,
into a continuous sheet of veneer.
Step 4 : Veneer Application Green veneer
is dried in steam or gas heated ovens.
Step 5 : Veneer Coating Veneers are
coated with waterproof glue and laid up
Step 6 : Curing The veneer sandwiches
are subjected to heat and pressure in the
hot press until the glue is cured.
*Veneer: A thin layer, sheet, or facing.
in roof or
They are made in mills
by passing hot steel
rods through a
succession of rollers
that press them into the
desired shape. They
are round in cross
section, and the
deformations rolled into
the surface of the
reinforcing bar help it to
bond tightly to concrete.
This rebar is ½” in
diameter. It would be
referred to as a #4 bar.
Steep Roof Drainage
Splash block: a small precast block of
collects concrete or plastic used to divert water at
rainwater and the bottom of a downspout.
the eave of a
vertical pipe for
from a roof to a
Steep Roof Materials
Metal Panel Roof: they are made of long
Shingle: A small unit sheets of galvanized or aluminized
steel, usually coated with long –lasting
of water resistant
polymeric coatings in various colors. The most
material nailed in common panels are 2 feet wide and come in a
overlapping fashion variety of profiles with ridges running
with many other such lengthwise.
units to render a wall
or sloping roof
The shingles below The picture below is of the underlayment. It
is a layer of waterproof material between
are metal shingles.
roof sheathing and roofing. It is applied to
protect the building from precipitation before
the roofing is applied. It also provides a
permanent second layer of defense to back
up the roofing.
Clay Tile Roof
Steep Roof Terms
1. Eave: Level, low
edge of a roof.
2. Rake: sloping edge
of a roof
3. Ridge: The level
intersection of roof
planes at their highest
4. Valley: The sloping
intersection of two
5. Fascia: Board
nailed to the lower
ends of the rafters
6. Soffit: Encloses
A continuous sheet, as
nearly seamless as
possible, of plastic
sheeting, aluminum foil, kraft
paper laminated with
asphalt, or some other
material that is highly
resistant to the passage of
It is most commonly installed
on the warmer side of the
Waterproofing is a resistant
membrane applied to the outside
of a foundation. It protects the
foundation from moisture.
This picture is illustrating a liquid
Liquid-applied membranes that
cure in place are relatively easy to
detail around penetrations and
other transitions, since in liquid
state, the membrane can easily
form itself to any shape.
A small opening whose purpose
is to permit drainage of water
that accumulates inside a
building component or
Welded Wire Fabric
A grid of steel rods
These WWFs are waiting for the concrete to be poured over
that are welded
them, they serve as a reinforcement for the slab. They are used
together, used to
reinforce a concrete
for a sidewalk here, notice the other slab already poured.
The measurements of
the grid are 4” x 4”
(according to the men
on site, I was behind a
The window to the
left is an awning
window because it is
hinged at the top and
opens at the bottom.
to the right is
The window above is a double
hung window because it slides into
an open position.
because it is
hinged at the