Leadership is a process: Directing, guiding & influencing Induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal Is the potential to influence behaviour of others. Develop future visions, and to motivate the organizational members Influence a group towards the realization of a goal
Influencing and guiding workers towards attainment of goals Intelligence, maturity and personality It is a group process Shaping and moulding the behaviour of the group towards accomplishment of organizational goals Leadership is situation bound A leader is involved in shaping and moulding the behaviour of groups
Physical appearance Empathy Self-confidence and will-power Intelligence Vision and foresight HumanistCommunicative skills Sense of responsibility Knowledge of work Objective
Management Leadership leaders provides direction by developing theManagers lay down the structure and delegates authority organizational vision and communicating it to the and responsibility employees and inspiring them to achieve it. Management includes focus on planning, organizing, Leadership is mainly a part of directing function of staffing, directing and controlling managementManager gets his authority by virtue of his position in the Leader gets his authority from his followers organization Managers follow the organization’s policies and Leaders follow their own instinct procedure Management is more of science as the managers are Leadership, on the other hand, is an art exact, planned, standard, logical and more of mind management deals with the technical dimension in an leadership deals with the people aspect in an organization or the job content organizationmanagement measures/evaluates people by their name, leadership sees and evaluates individuals as having past records, present performance potential for things that can’t be measured management is reactive leadership is proactive Management is based more on written communication while leadership is based more on verbal communication
Basis Manager Leader A person becomes a manager A person becomes a leader on basis Origin by virtue of his position. of his personal qualities. Manager has got formal rightsFormal Rights in an organization because of Rights are not available to a leader. his status. The subordinates are the The group of employees whom the Followers followers of managers. leaders leads are his followers. A manager performs all five Leader influences people to work Functions functions of management. willingly for group objectives. A leader is required to create A manager is very essential to a Necessity cordial relation between person concern. working in and for organization. Stability It is more stable. Leadership is temporary.
Basis Manager Leader Mutual All managers are leaders. All leaders are not managers. Relationship Manager is accountable for self and Leaders have no well defined Accountability subordinates behaviour and accountability. performance. A manager’s concern is A leader’s concern is group goals and Concern organizational goals. member’s satisfaction. People follow manager by virtue of Followers People follow them on voluntary basis. job description. A manager can continue in office till he performs his duties satisfactorily A leader can maintain his position onlyRole continuation in congruence with organizational through day to day wishes of followers. goals. A leader has command over different Manager has command over sanctions and related task records. Sanctions allocation and distribution of These sanctions are essentially of sanctions. informal nature.
Autocratic leadership style: In this Democrative/Participative leadershipstyle of leadership, a leader has style: The leaders invite and encouragecomplete command and hold over the team members to play antheir employees/team. The team important role in decision-makingcannot put forward their views process, though the ultimate decision- making power rests with the leader.even if they are best for the team’s The leader guides the employees onor organizational interests. They what to perform and how tocannot criticize or question the perform, while the employeesleader’s way of getting things communicate to the leader theirdone. experience and the suggestions if any.The Laissez Faire Leadership Bureaucratic leadership: Here theStyle: Here, the leader totally leaders strictly adhere to thetrusts their employees/team to organizational rules and policies. Also, they make sure that theperform the job themselves. He employees/team also strictly followsjust concentrates on the the rules and procedures. Promotionsintellectual/rational aspect of his take place on the basis of employees’work and does not focus on the ability to adhere to organizationalmanagement aspect of his work. rules.
Level 5 Leader Level 4 Effective Leader Level 3 Competent Manager Level 2Contributing Team Member Level 1Highly Capable Individual
Level 5 Level5 Leader Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical combination of personal humility plus professional will Level 4 Effective Leader Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear andcompelling vision, stimulates the group to high performance standards Level 3 Competent ManagerOrganizes people and resources towards effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives Level 2 Contributing Team MemberContributes to the achievements of group objectives, works effectively with others in a group setting Level 1 Highly Capable Individual Makes productive contribution through talent, knowledge, skills and good work habits
In the Situational Leadership model, the leadership style has beendivided into 4 types:S1: Telling - Telling style is associated with leaders who minutelysupervise their followers, constantly instructing them about why,how and when of the tasks that need to be performed.S2: Selling - Selling style is when a leader provide controlleddirection and is a little more open and allows two waycommunication between him/herself and the followers thus ensuringthat the followers buy in the process and work towards the desiredgoals.S3: Participating - This style is characterized when the leaders seeksopinion and participation of the followers to establish how a taskshould be performed. The leader in this case tries creatingrelationship with the followersS4: Delegating - In this case, the leader plays a role in decisions thatare taken but passes on or delegates the responsibilities of carryingout tasks to his followers. The leader however monitors and reviewsthe process.
(High) High supportive and High supportive and low directive high directive behavior behavior Supportive Behavior S3 S2 S4 S1 Low supportive and Low supportive and low directive High directive behavior behavior (High)(Low)
The developmental level of follower is an important indication for a leader todecide the most appropriate leadership style for them:D4 - High Competence, High CommitmentD3 - High Competence, Variable CommitmentD2 - Some Competence, Low CommitmentD1 - Low Competence, High Commitment D4 D3 D1 Moderate D2 High LOWThe above information regarding the style of leadership and the type of followerssure has a correlation to each other which forms the basis of situationalleadership. So, a situational leader would try to accommodate his leadershipstyle as per the situation and the level of competence and commitment of hisfollowers. This information is also an important aspect to consider when seniorleaders act as coaches for their subordinates in the organizations.