Without software, the computer would be useless. without your Internet browser software you would be unable to browse the Internet
&quot;Source code&quot; is the part of software that most computer users don&apos;t ever see; it&apos;s the code computer programmers can use to change how a piece of software works. Programmers who have access to a computer program&apos;s source code can improve that program by adding features to it or fixing parts that don&apos;t always work correctly.
An Interpreter is a program that implements or simulates a virtual machine using the base set of instructions of a programming language as its machine language. A Compiler is a program that translates code of a programming language in machine code, also called object code. The object code can be executed directly on the machine where it was compiled.
1. Open Source Software (OSS) is software for which the source code, that is, the raw format of the programme as punched in by a programmer in some programming language, is freely available. Furthermore, the software can be modified and redistributed freely according to a specified license. 2. Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is also available to the users. 3. They may read it, make changes, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes.
Free Redistribution : The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. 2. Source Code : The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed. 3. Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
4. Integrity of The Author&apos;s Source Code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of &quot;patch files&quot; with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software. 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons. 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
7. Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by thoseparties. 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program&apos;s being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program&apos;s license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution. 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software. 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
3. The term was originally proposed to avoid a possible misunderstanding of the term “free software, Some of the supporters of open source considered the term a “marketing campaign for free software,” which would appeal to business executives by highlighting the software&apos;s practical benefits,Other supporters flatly rejected the free software movement&apos;s ethical and social values. The term “open source” quickly became associated with ideas and arguments based only on practical values,
Freedom 0 : (the freedom for any kind of person or organization to use it on any kind of computer system, for any kind of overall job and purpose, without being required to communicate about it with the developer or any other specific entity.) In this freedom, it is the user&apos;s purpose that matters, not the developer&apos;s purpose; you as a user are free to run the program for your purposes, and if you distribute it to someone else, she is then free to run it for her purposes, but you are not entitled to impose your purposes on her.
Freedom 1 : you must have access to the source code of the program. It includes the freedom to use your changed version in place of the original.
Freedom 2 & Freedom 3 : You must have access to the source code of the program It includes the freedom to release your modified versions as free software. It does not have to be a copyleft license.you must have access to the source code of the program. you are free to redistribute copies, either with or without modifications, either gratis or charging a fee for distribution, to anyone anywhere. Being free to do these things means (among other things) that you do not have to ask or pay for permission to do so. You should also have the freedom to make modifications and use them privately in your own work or play, without even mentioning that they exist. If you do publish your changes, you should not be required to notify anyone in particular, or in any particular way.:
Copyrights exist in order to protect authors of documentation or software from unauthorized copying or selling of their work. A Copyleft, on the other hand, provides a method for software or documentation to be modified, and distributed back to the community, provided it remains Libre.
2. A free program must be available for commercial use, commercial development, and commercial distribution. Commercial development of free software is no longer unusual; such free commercial software is very important. You may have paid money to get copies of free software, or you may have obtained copies at no charge. But regardless of how you got your copies, you always have the freedom to copy and change the software, even to sell copies.
4. If you receive software under an Open Source license, you can always use that software for commercial purposes, but that doesn&apos;t always mean you can place further restrictions on people who receive the software from you. In particular, so-called copyleft-style Open Source licenses require that when you distribute the software, you do so under the same license you received it under.
3. (whether to encourage people to cooperate with their neighbors, or prohibit cooperation. The FreeSoftwareMovement raises issues of freedom, community, principle, and ethics)
Some software has source code that cannot be modified by anyone but the person, team, or organization who created it and maintains exclusive control over it. This kind of software is frequently called &quot;proprietary software&quot; or &quot;closed source&quot; software, because its source code is the property of its original authors, who are the only ones legally allowed to copy or modify it. (it is a non free software).
(commercial free software is that provides the software free but they take the service charges For example, GNU Ada is developed by a company. It is always distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL, and every copy is free software; but its developers sell support contracts.) A private program is free software (in a somewhat trivial sense) if its sole user has the four freedoms. In particular, if the user has full rights to the private program, the program is free. However, if the user distributes copies to others and does not provide the four freedoms with those copies, those copies are not free software.
If the source code is in the public domain, that is a special case of noncopylefted free software, which means that some copies or modified versions may not be free at all.
Integrated library systems (ILS) are multifunction, adaptable software applications that allow libraries to manage, catalogue and circulate their materials to patrons. In choosing ILS software, libraries must base their decision not only on the performance and efficiency of the system, but also on its fundamental flexibility to readily adapt to the future demands and needs of their patrons. )
This diagram depicts how the various modules of an ILMS functions and also highlights the connections through which the information is finally passed on to the user. Acquisition , cataloguing , circulation, serial control and OPAC these are the general modules of any software. After processing these modules , it goes to the Database server than from database server ,it divided into two parts like on LAN and Web. Finally End user get the information through LAN and through Web. Now I would discuss the Modules: Acquisition Section: librarian can take many types of reposts as they require i.e. vender list with address, list of purchase orders, ascension register, invoice register, order form, etc. Cataloguing Section: library can make many type of document as per their requirement like books, CDs, Photocopy Books, thesis, gifted books etc. library can provide Current awareness services (CAS are the services that provide information about the latest books, articles, events and news in a field. ) and Selective documentation Information (SDI is the ability of a service to notify a user of material that matches the interests of the user. This involves: scanning of material; recognizing relevant information in the material; summarizing the information; and Presenting the summaries information to the user.) service by e-mail to users. And can take report of total books by accession No.; by class No.; by subject; by document type; or by location etc. librarian can easily make bibliographic data for special books of as user required and make multimedia data for digital library. Circulation Section: it is a most important section in any library automation program. Librarian can make many types of member categories and give them different authentication to different users. Librarian can make different overdue policies for difference users. Libsys provides Overnight Issue for users. Through Libsys, librarian can send overdue notice regularly to students by e-mail. Libsys has a special feature that can inform students to return books before due date by sending overdue Alert by e-mail. And also send the check out or check in slip through e-mail on same time. Serial Section: librarian can enter and manage serials data through this section. Librarian can also make multimedia files in serials also.
OPAC: customizable, RSS feed for searches, comments / reviews by patrons Circulation: checking in/out, overdue notices (email, sms) Patron Management: photos, custom fields, fine management, history Cataloging: data entry, copy cataloging using Z39.50 search, MARC and UNIMARC support, authority control Serials: serials management, receive issues, track late issues, process vendor claims, check-in supplements Acquisitions: track vendors, track orders, receive orders, process claims, budgeting Custom Reporting: Statistics Wizard,Report Wizard,SQL Report.
The above definition of CMS explains the conceptual model of a CMS is also used for the application software that is used for designing, developing and managing digital content, especially on the web.
1. One can create more than one website using one instance of drupal installation.
Application of Open Source
Software in Libraries
Colloquium (4) – 2013-2015
Indian Statistical Institute
Documentation Research and Training Centre
“In India open source software will
have to come and stay in a big way
for the benefit of our billion of
Dr. A. P. J Abdul Kalam
Programmers and developers shared software in
order to learn from each other.
1984 Richard Stallman formed
Free Software Foundation.
Image source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman
1991 Linus Torvalds developed Linux.
Open Source Initiative was formed
in 1998 as an educational, advocacy,
and stewardship organization at this important
moment in the history of collaborative development.
The “open source” label was created at
a strategy session held on February 3rd,
1998 in Palo Alto, California, shortly
after the announcement of the release
of the Netscape source code.
Open Source Initiative (OSI)
• The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit
corporation formed to educate about and
advocate for the benefits of open source and
to build bridges among different
constituencies in the
Open Source Software Movement In India
• In India several organizations are working on
• Open Source Software Resource Center
(OSSRC) established by IBM.
1. Establishing a development portal
2. Develop high-quality training programs
3. Training in development of good quality content in various areas
of education and general awareness
According to Eric Lease Morgan (2002), author
of MyLibrary portal software
• “In many ways I believe OSS development, as articulated by
Raymond, is very similar to the principles of librarianship.
First and foremost with the idea of sharing information.
Both camps put a premium on open access. Both camps are
gift cultures and gain reputation by the amount of "stuff“
they give away. What people do with the information,
whether it be source code or journal articles,
is up to them. Both camps hope the shared
information will be used to improve our place
in the world. Just as Jefferson's informed
public is a necessity for democracy,
OSS is necessary for the improvement of
Image source : http://www.nla.gov.au/librariesaustralia/news-events/forum/libraries-australia-forum-2006-2009/2008-
According to Chudnov
OSS licenses allow libraries to cut budget
on software and use it to other issues
needing more funds.
OSS product is not locked into a single vendor. Thus
even if a library buys an open source system from one
vendor, it might choose to buy technical support from
another company or get it from in-house experts.
The entire library community might share the
responsibility of solving information systems
Image source : http://accessconference.ca/about/past-conferences/2012montreal/speakers/
Open Source and Libraries: The Principles
• Sharing Information Freely with no restriction
collaboration and problem solving to fulfill internal and
• Both depends on human interaction to improve their
• Open access is the main philosophy behind both libraries
• Libraries have limited fund.
• User demand and quick service increase day
• Price of hardware is going down while the
price of software is increasing day by day.
Open source Software Mohit Garg
The Ten Commandments Shiv Shakti Ghosh
Open Source vs. Commercial Software Dibakar Sen
Software for Libraries Samhati Soor
ILMS Software Jaynata Kr. Nayek
Digital Library Software Anwesha Bhattacharya
Content Management Software Tanmay Mondal
Other Value Added OSS Manasa Rath
Conclusion Manash Kumar
• Amin, Saiful ‘ Open Source Software for Libraries : a trend report’ submitted in
partial fulfillment of Award of AIDS, at DRTC, Bangalore
• Tripathi, Aditya ‘ Open Source library Solutions’
• Kandar, Shyamalendu ‘A review of Open Source Software and Open Source
Movement in Developing Countries’
• Lochhaas, Sherry & Moore, Melissa ‘Open Source Software Libraries’
• Dora, Mallikarjun , Maharana, Bulu & Jena, Shashikanta ‘open Source movement
in Indian Libraries : An Analytical Study’
• OSI website : http://opensource.org/
What is Open Source Software (OSS)?
• software is a collection of instructions that
enable a user to interact with the computer or
have the computer perform specific tasks for
Image Source : softwarelicense.arizona.edu
• Instructions to computers are normally
written by programmers in Programming
Languages like – C, C++, Java etc.
• These instructions are readable by humans
and referred as Source Code.
• To make machines i.e. computers to
understand this source code – it
either compiled or interpreted into
machine level codes.
• Here original source code of the software is
• If required, the users can modify the source
code and then compile
the software to use it.
• Thus, the source code
is Opened up.
Image Source : www.timeshighereducation.co.uk
• OSS is typically created and maintained by
developers crossing institutional and national
boundaries , collaborating by using internet
based communication and development tools.
• Quality, not profit, drives open source
developers who take personal pride in seeing
their working solution adopted.
Open Source Software (OSS)
Open source promotes software reliability and
quality by supporting independent peer review
and rapid evaluation of source code. To be
certified as a open source, the license of the
program must guarantee the right
to read, redistribute, modify,
and use it freely.
…….According to the OSI, 2003a
Image Source : http://opensource.org/osd
Reasons to Use Open Source Software
• It promotes creative development
• Those who can't afford proprietary software can download open source
programs for free
• Money saved can be used to purchase other needed materials
• Can easily modify your software to suit patron's needs and your needs
• Little to no upgrade costs
• No more grueling over software that doesn't meet your standards -- create it
yourself based off of a close pre-existing piece of software
• The price (free) makes it easier to change your mind when the software
doesn't live up to its expectations
• Little to no viruses!
• Amin, Saiful ‘ Open Source Software for
Libraries : a trend report’ submitted in partial
fulfillment of Award of AIDS, at DRTC,
• Tripathi, Aditya ‘ Open Source library
• OSI website : http://opensource.org/
The Open Source Initiative (OSI) identified ten
criteria for a software product to be called open
source. The OSI certifies a software license as an
‘OSI Certified License’ on the basis of the
following ‘Ten Commandments.’
Image source : http://www.evangelismhelp.com/the-ten-commandments-in-the-new-testament/
Open Source vs. Commercial
Free Software and Open Source Software
The founding of the Free Software Foundation
(FSF) in 1985 by Richard M.Stallman is widely
considered the start of the free software
The idea was developed in Sept.1983
-announcement of a plan to develop an operating
system called GNU, GNU Not Unix (similarly to
the UNIX OS).
In 1998, a part of the Free Software community
split off and began campaigning in the name of
Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve
“Free software” means software that respects users' freedom and community
“free software” is a matter of liberty, not price.
More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the software:
The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1).
The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the
whole community benefits (freedom 3).
CopyLeft software is FreeSoftware with these additional conditions:
The source code must be made available to users.
Copies cannot be redistributed under a non-FreeSoftware license.
Free Software (contd.)
It is important to note that the GPL does not say anything about price.
As odd as it may sound, you can charge for free software. The “free” part
is in the liberties you have with the source code, not in the price you pay
for the software.
Many people believe - GNU Project is that you should not charge money
for distributing copies of software,
- or that you should charge as little as possible—just
enough to cover the cost.
---Richard Stalman : Actually, we encourage people who
redistribute free software to charge as much as they wish or can.
“Free software” does not mean “noncommercial”.
Nonfree programs are usually sold for a high price, but sometimes a store
will give you a copy at no charge. That doesn't make it free software,
though. Price or no price, the program is nonfree because users don't have
Open source software
Open source software is software that can be freely used, changed, and shared (in
modified or unmodified form) by anyone. Open source software is made by many
people, and distributed under licenses that comply with the Open Source
Definition. (The Open Source Initiative)
The consumer of an open source program has the rights to do the following things
to the source code:
charge money for services related to it, such as copying or support, so long as they
do not infringe on the freedoms of others
Open source isn't PublicDomain. That means there is a license involved and the
license has restrictions, which can include:
distribution must be free
modifications must be distributed
original authors must be acknowledged (i.e. the BerkeleyStandardDistribution
license, although the advertising clause has been rescinded July 22, 1999.)
derivatives must be similarly licensed (i.e. the GnuGeneralPublicLicense)
Open Source vs Free Software
"Free software" and "open source software" are two terms for the same thing: software
released under licenses that guarantee a certain, specific set of freedoms.
According to Bruce Perens, one of the founders of the OSI and Open Source
Definition, the Open Source term was intended as a synonym for Free
The FSF uses a shorter, four-point definition of software freedom when evaluating
licenses, while the OSI uses a longer, ten-point definition. The two definitions lead to
the same result in practice, but use superficially different language to get there.
All Open Source software can be used for commercial purpose.
[ Any other related question : http://opensource.org/faq (open Source Initiative)]
Open Source vs Free Software (Contd.)
Open Source Software Free Software
Open source is a development
Free software is a social movement.
Open Source tends to focus on providing
an economic/business argument for Free
Free Software focuses on providing a
moral/ethical argument for Open Source.
using/providing Open Source Software is
beneficial to you and your business.
using/providing Free Software is a good,
morally right, thing to do.
Open Source vs Free Software (Contd.)
Open Source Software Free Software
Open source considered issues in terms of
how to make software better – in a
practical sense only.
Free software is an ethical imperative,
essential respect for the user freedom
Nearly all open source software is free
software(according to Richard Stollman,
GNU Free software movement)
All existing free software would qualify as
open source. (according to Richard
Stollman, GNU Free software movement)
FreeSoftwareMovement [...] is concerned
not only with practical benefits but with a
social and ethical issue. (According to
OpenSource Movement studiously avoids
these social and ethical issues.(According
to Richard Stallman)
• Source code is not available
• It can’t be modified by any one, other than
the person team or organization who created
• You have to pay.
Proprietary vs Open Source/Free Software
Proprietary Open Source
Cost Mostly available for a fee Must be free to use modify
Support Support provided by the
vendor at a cost.
Community of users and
Ownership of Source Code Organization that created it Free, no ownership
Modification of Source Code Only organization/creator can
Free, anyone can modify
Copyright Licensed; typically for a fee Licensed; typically for a free
Code Provide only Object code not
Provide Source code with
Proprietary vs Open Source/Free Software
Proprietary Open Source
Reliability PS is developed by
specialized teams at
vendor's end. Only finished
products are provided at
outlets. Since there is no
modification, the outcome
is always reliable.
Since OSS are available on
a large number of
unverified websites and
even most of these
distributions may be
modified by any
user, so there is a chance
that a user adds/modifies
some component; it may
works good individually,
but, may clash with other
ultimately degrade the
Other concepts of software
FOSS & FLOSS : According to Bruce Perens, one of the founders
of the OSI and Open Source Definition, the Open Source term was
intended as a synonym for Free Software. Perens eventually
decided to return to the roots of the movement and to speak about
Free Software again.
In the course of time people came up with
additional labels for the same set of software.
FOSS – Free Open Source Software;
FLOSS – Free Libre Open Source Software;
(Source : Free Software Foundation Europe)
Freeware : It is provided to be used without any monetary
charges. However, severe restrictions of its use, modification
and redistribution are still imposed and Source code is not
provided. It can be passed on to anyone free of cost.
(Proprietary software versus Open Source Software for Education. N. Pankaja, Mukund Raj P K, American
Journal of Engineering Research (AJER),Volume-02, Issue-07, pp-124-130)
Other concepts of software (Contd.)
Commercial Software : “Commercial” and
“proprietary” are not the same! Commercial software is
software developed by a business as part of its business.
Most commercial software is proprietary, but there is
commercial free software.
Private software : Private or custom software is
software developed for one user (typically an organization
or company). That user keeps it and uses it, and does not
release it to the public either as source code or as binaries.
Other concepts of software (Contd.)
Shareware : Shareware is software which comes
with permission for people to redistribute copies, but
says that anyone who continues to use a copy is
required to pay a license fee.
Shareware is not free software , because -
i) For most shareware, source code is not
available; thus, you cannot modify the program at all.
ii) Shareware does not come with permission to
make a copy and install it without paying a license fee.
Other concepts of software (Contd.)
Copylefted software is free software whose distribution terms ensure
that all copies of all versions carry more or less the same distribution terms.
This means, for instance, that copyleft licenses generally disallow others
to add additional requirements to the software (though a limited set of
safe added requirements can be allowed) and require making source code
Noncopylefted free software
Noncopylefted free software comes from the author with permission
to redistribute and modify, and also to add additional restrictions to it.
If a program is free but not copylefted, then some copies or
modified versions may not be free at all. A software company can compile
the program, with or without modifications, and distribute the executable
file as a proprietary software product.
Other concepts of software (Contd.)
Public domain software
Public domain software is software that is not copyrighted.
In some cases, an executable program can be in the public
domain but the source code is not available. This is not free
software, because free software requires accessibility of
source code. Meanwhile, most free software is not in the
public domain; it is copyrighted, and the copyright holders
have legally given permission for everyone to use it in
freedom, using a free software license.
• The word “automation” has been derived form Greek
word “automose” means something, which has power
of spontaneous motion or self-movement.
• Automation is technology of automatic working in which
the handling method, the process and design of professional
material are integrated.
• This is the effort to achieve an automatic and self-regulating
chain of processes.
• According to Encyclopedia of Library and Information
Science,“Automation is the technology concerned with the
design and development of process and system that minimize
the necessity of human intervention in operation”. (Kent,1977)
• According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it defines
automation as “application of automatic control to any
branch of industry or science by extension, the use of
electronic or mechanical devices to replace human labour”.
(Simpson & Weiner, 1989)
• Library automation is defined as
the application of automatic and semiautomatic data
processing machines (computers) to perform traditional library
housekeeping activities such as acquisition, circulation,
cataloguing and reference and serials control.
• Improving the level of
service and quality of
• Fulfilling needs that
cannot be achieved by
Sharing of resources
appears only in electronic
format (e.g. Internet
resources, databases etc.)
• Accuracy and Reliability
• Self Survival in the New Environment
• Speeding up the Operation
• Simultaneous and Decentralization Access
• Storage, Retrieval and Protection of Information
• Exception Reporting and New Services
• Automatic Statistics Generation
• Stock Taking
• Benefits for Patrons, Staffs and Institution
Software needs for Digital Library
A Digital library is an organization that provides the resources, including
the specialized staffs, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to
interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of collections of digital works
so that they are readily and economically available for users of a defined
community or a set of communities. (Waters, 1998)
• Digital Documents
• Archival Needs
• Online/Remote Access
• Full-Text Search
• OAI-PMH Needs
Software needs for content management
A content management system (CMS), also called a
Web management system is software or a group or
suite of applications and tools that enable an
organization to seamlessly create, edit, review and
publish electronic text.
Engendering the re-use of information by allowing the
ready integration of data from diverse sources
Permitting the efficient re-purposing of information
Allowing information maintenance to become devolved
but at the same time preserving central control
Ensuring presentational consistency by separating the
design of Web pages from the content they display
• De-skilling the task of putting information on the Web
• Facilitating good information management practice
• Permitting some past state of the Web site to be re-created or restored
4. Open Source Software for Libraries A Trend Report Submitted by Saiful Amin Guided by Dr. A R D
Prasad Project 2 A guided Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Course Leading
to the Award of Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) 2001 – 2003
DOCUMENTATION RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTRE INDIAN STATISTICAL
INSTITUTE 8th Mile, Mysore Road Bangalore – 560 059
List of ILMS softwares
Open Source Proprietary
Kuali OLE Asterisk
OpenBiblio Polaris Library Systems
Koha is a full featured Integrated Library System(ILS). There is no cost
for the license, you have the freedom to modify the product to adapt it
to your needs, etc.
Developed initially in New Zealand (1999-2000) by Katipo
Communications with Horowhenua Library Trust (HLT).
HLT hired a development firm & insisted that they release the software
as open source.First US Public Library goes live in 2003.
It is currently maintained by a dedicated team of software providers
and library technology staff from around the globe.
Latest version 3.14.
Koha Functional Module
• Online Public Access Catalogue
Features of Koha
• Full MARC21 and UNIMARC support for professional cataloguing.
• Multilingual and multi-user support
• Industrial standards & protocols.
• Z39.50 server.
• Full catalogue, circulation, acquisitions, library stock
• Web based OPAC, public to search the catalogue.
• Serial management module.
• Export and import records, ISO2709
Koha is developed using technologies like:
Perl (Practical Extraction and Report
Apache and MySQL.
It runs on Linux, Windows, Mac.
Libraries using Koha in India
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Sandip Foundation, Nasik
Marwadi Foundation, Rajkot
Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi
Central Survey Office, Trivedrum
Central University of Bihar, Patna
Delhi Public Library, Delhi
Asian School of Business, Trivendrum
Chitkara University, Baddi
O. P. Jindal Global Law School, Sonepat
Goa University Library
(New Generation in Library Automation and Networking)
Developed by Verus Solutions Pvt Ltd.
Kesavan Institute of Information and
Knowledge Management in Hyderabad, India.
The latest version of NewGenLib is 3.0.4 R1
released on 13 September 2012.
It runs on both Linux and Windows.
Empower the libraries to offer the best
services to its users
Enable the librarian to manage the library
Following global standards
Features of NGL
• Functional modules are completely web based. Uses Java Web Start™
• Compatibility - Complies with international metadata and interoperability
standards: MARC-21, MARC-XML, z39.50, SRU/W, OAI-PMH
• OS independent - Windows and Linux flavours available.
• Internationalized application (I18N)
• Unicode 4.0 complaint
• Easily extensible to support other languages
• Data entry, storage, retrieval in any (Unicode 3.0) language
• RFID integration
• Networking – Hierarchical and Distributed networks
• Supports multi-user and multiple security levels
• Allows digital attachments to metadata
− Struts framework
− JBoss Application
XCQL – CQL parser(open
XML - JDOM
Libraries using NewGenLib in India
•Bangalore University Library
•Indian Institute of Technology, Rajasthan
•Vivekananda International Foundation
•(Research Resource Certre & Library), New Delhi
•NISCORT Media Training and Research Institute, New Delhi
•Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology
Features Koha NewGenLib
Does a manual have
Table of contents
Short Term Loans
Creation of Virtual Shelve
LDAP authentication YES NO
Generation of Non due certificate
What is a Digital Library?
• A digital library is an integrated set of services for
capturing, cataloging, storing, searching, protecting
and retrieving information ~Reddy et al. 1999
• A digital library typically comprises digital collections,
services and infrastructure to support communication
and preservation ~Wikipedia
What can it do?
• Original use
– Preservation: Archive of digitized copies of rare
documents, books, and historical objects
– For study by people of new generations
• Modern use
– Central repository to store virtually all works of
faculty and staff
– Preservation of all works so that they do not vanish
with time (and technological obsolescence)
What distinguishes a DL?
• DL brings the library to the user
• Improved access - Searching and browsing
• 3 in 1 access- anytime, anyone, anywhere
• Information can be shared more easily
• Information is always available (365*7*24)
• Easier to keep information current
List of Digital Library Softwares Worldwide
Open Source Softwares Commercial Softwares Free Softwares
Cambridge Imaging Systems
Olive Tree Bible Software
Logos Bible Software
•Dspace is a groundbreaking digital institutional repository that
captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and redistributes the intellectual
output of a university’s research faculty in digital formats”.
•Developed jointly Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Libraries and Hewlett-Packard (HP).
•Searches associated metadata to locate and retrieve the items
•Supports submission of, management of and access to digital content
• -Format: text, images, audio, video
•Organized based on organizational needs of a large university
•Licensed under Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) (a family
of permissive free software licenses)
†Digital Object management system
†Create, search and retrieve digital objects
-based on qualified Dublin Core metadata
†Facilitate preservation of digital objects
†An open source software
†Allows open access and digital archiving
†Allows building Institutional Repositories
†Interoperability with other digital library systems
University of Southampton School of
Electronics and Computer Science
Eprints is an open source software package for building open access
repositories that are compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol
for Metadata Harvesting.
Primarily used for institutional repositories and scientific journals.
Developed at the University of Southampton School of Electronics and
Licensed under GNU General Public License (GPL)- a free software license
The software can be installed by any institution world over.
By its integrated advanced search, extended metadata and other features,
the software can be customized to local requirements
Feature DSpace Eprints
Year of creation 2002 2000
License cost Free Free
Resource identifier CNRI Handles OAI identifiers
Metadata formats Dublin Core, Qualified DC,
Dublin Core, METS
Thumbnail preview Images Images, Audio, Video
Searching capabilities Boolean logic No Boolean logic
Browsing options By author, title, subject &
Browsing can be done using
Software platforms Linux, Unix, Solaris,
Linux, Unix, Windows
Databases Oracle, PostgreSQL MySQL, Oracle,
Programming Language Java and JSP Perl
Web Server Apache and Tomcat Apache
SWORD, SWAP, RDF
• A Study on the Open Source Digital Library Software’s: Special Reference to DSpace, EPrints and
Greenstone by Shahkar Tramboo et.al. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 59– No.16, December 2012.
• Digital Library Open Source Software: A Comparative Study by M.S Patil
• Open Source Software and Libraries by Sukhwinder Randhawa*
List of Open Source CMS
logo Software name
CMS Made simple
• Created in 2000 by a Belgian student, Dries
• Written in PHP
• Required of website creation
• Version 7.12 released in
Main features of Drupal
• Multi-sites features
• Administrator can create authenticated users.
• It allows users to register, login, logout maintain
• Advanced search function.
• Comments, forums and polls.
• Multi-lavel menu system.
• RSS Feed
• Security/new release update notification
Libraries using Drupal
• Arlington Heights Memorial Library
• Altadena Library District
• Ann Arbor District Library
• Athens County Public Libraries
• Maryland AskUsNow!
• Ballerup public libraries ;Denmark
• Benicia Public Library
• Brawley Public Library
• Camarena Memorial Library
• Cleveland Public Library
• Coldwater Public LIbrary(OH)
• Daniel Boone Regional Library
• Douglas County Libraries
• Franklin Park Public Library
• Franklin-Springboro Public Library (OH)
• Great River Regional Library (Central Minnesota)
• Hoover Alabama Public Library
• Idaho's statewide public library web site project:
• Jackson District Library
• Kansas City Public Library
• Kinderhook Memorial Library
• Logan-Hocking County District Library(OH)
• London Public Library
• London Public Library (OH)
• Marion Public Library (OH)
• Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (Los Angeles)
• Mead Public Library
• Minverva Public Library (OH)
• Missouri River Regional Library
• Monterey Park Bruggemeyer Library
• New York Public Library
• Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN)
• Oregon Libraries Network
• Palos Verdes Library District
• Piscataway Public Library(NJ)
• Prince Rupert Library
• Red Deer Public Library
• Richland County Public Library
• San Anselmo Public Library
• Schlow Centre Region Library (Central Pennsylvania)
• South San Francisco Public Library
• Skokienet run by Skokie Public Library
• Troy-Miami County Public LIbrary(OH)
• Warner Public Library
• Waterford Township Public Library(MI)
• West Lake Porter Public Library
• West Linn, Oregon Public Library
• Worthington Libraries Wothington, OH
Libraries Using Drupal
• ASU Libraries
• California State University San Marcos
• Cornell University Library
• Cowles Library at Drake University
• Florida Center for Library Automation
• Florida State University Libraries
• Georgetown University
• Hamline Law Library
• Indiana University-Purdue University
• Luther College Library and Information
• McMaster University Library
• University of Montana Mansfield Library
• Monterrey Institute of Technology Library
• Portland State University Library
• Queen's University Library
• Rochester Institute of Technology Libraries
• Simon Fraser University - Learning Commons
Workshop Signup tool
• Simon Fraser University - Multicultural Canada
• St. Lawrence University Library planning site
• University Alaska Fairbanks Libraries
• UMN Biomedical library
• University of Calgary Library
• University of California San Francisco Library
• University of Michigan | MLibrary
• University of Missouri-Kansas City | University
• University of Northern Iowa | Rod Library
• Nash Library | University of Science and Arts of
• New York University Consumer Health Libraries
• New York University Health Sciences Libraries
• University of Technology, Sydney Library
• Università degli Studi di Padova – Sistema
Bibliotecario di Ateneo
• Wilfrid Laurier University Library
• Joomla is an award-winning CMS
• Enables you to build Web sites.
• Developed by The joomla Project team.
• Version 2.5.19 (LTS) released on 6th
Main features of joomla
• Page caching to improve performance.
• RSS feeds.
• Printable version of page
• News flashes.
• Website searching
• Language internationalization
joomla module for Libraries
• Book Library
• Top listing module for book library
• “New book extended” module for book library
• Book library top 10
• Library thing
• Now reading
Image source : http://misteryono.com/kids-in-a-computer-class-royalty-free-clip-art-image/
Libraries Using Joomla
• Airlangga University Library,
• The Assembly on Literature for
• DeKalb County Public Library
• DISCUS Virtual Library
• Dorothy Alling Memorial
Library, Williston, VT
• Greene County Public Library,
• Greenville County Library
• Health Sciences Library, Stony
• Hong Kong Library Assocation,
• Library of Love, Africa
• Mancos Public Library District
• Northville District Library
• Ohio Law Library
• Ord Township Library
• Perdana Library, Malasia
• Paris Carnegie Public Library
• Pioneer Library System
• Portsmouth Pacific Library
• South Carolina State Library
• Susquehanna County Library
• Tyngsborough Public Library,
• Whatcom County Library
Description Drupal Joomla
Application Server Apache, IIS etc., (Any PHP
supported Application server)
Operating system Windows, Linux, Solaris Any
Database (RDBMS) MySQL, Postgre MySQL
Can use Alfresco for
Multi-lingual support Supports
End user accessibility High speed Below-average
Can manage easily with
Other facilities RSS feed, blog Page caching, RSS
feed, blog, search
-written in PHP containing OPAC, Circulation, Cataloguing
and Staff administration
-good for small school,rural and public libraries. It requires
MySql, PHP and works on both Linux and Windows
Information Technology Infrastructure Library
(ITIL) Constituent Group
- aims at automating various library functions encompassing Member
Registration, Requisitions for New Items & their Approval, Accession &
Cataloging of library items, Reservation/ Issue / Return of library items, Order
Generation and maintenance of details pertaining to Inter-Library Loans, Bills,
Orders and Vendors
- requires Lotus Notes Domino server
-free-of-charge Web based Library Integrated System
based on CDS/ISIS
-Has Cataloguing system , OPAC (search), LOAN module .
-complete Integrated Library System that features amongst others an OPAC, circulation
and administration functions, Z39.50 capabilities and 100% MARC compatibility
-MARC compatibility is achieved using Zebra in conjunction with MySQL
-FireFly is a Complete Public Library system
-being written in Python, Perl, with all data being stored in XML
-driving force behind this project is to give public libraries a Free-Software set to run and
maintain library systems
-Glibms is Library management software developed using PHP and PostgreSQL to
automate the different activities carried out in the library
Java Book Cataloguing System
-software is primarily to create a Book Catalog using barcode data from the freely
available in bar code reader
-uses a rdbms backend database, and allow synchronization between different library
OpenBook Open Source Library System
-full feature open source library system developed for use of small school and public libraries
-developed based the original Koha open source library system of New Zealand
-consists of three modules viz. OPAC, Cataloguing and Circulation. In future includes acquisition
- modules are web-interface based
- works on Linux O/S with Apache, Perl and MySql
-software is being developed and maintained by the Georgia Public Library Service for use by the
Georgia Library PINES Program, a consortium of 249 public libraries
-downloaded for free, and anyone can contribute to development efforts
-web-based library software having cataloguing, circulation, web-opac, file management modules,
-supports import of data from ISIS databases. It requires PHP and MYSQL
Python Simple Libary Circulation System
-useful for carrying out circulation activities of the library
Seansoft Library Loan Management System 1.17B
-software for something like a school library. Each student can have a login, from which they loan
books. Keeps track of weeks loaned and will alert a supervisor of overdue books
OSS in Value added services of the library
Document Delivery Services
Research in progress
-Information about the library
-Electronic versions of the traditional
-Access to library content
-web-based content management system
-based on a community model of managing of a large directory resource
-allows one to easily maintain a web-based Yahoo-like directory of resources
using web-based forms.
Dependency: Apache, Perl, RDBMS (MySQL/PostgreSQL)
Supported Platforms: Unix, Linux
License: GNU General Public License
-document delivery service
- Ask a librarian
-An Open Source Internet Document Delivery (IDD) System.
Dependency: Perl, COMCTL32.DLL (for Windows), SAMBA (for Linux)
Supported Platforms: Staff Module (Windows), Server-side (Windows, Linux)
License: GNU GPL
Ask a Librarian(ASKAL)
Ask a Librarian (ASKAL) is a self-managing email-based
service suite for libraries
Dependency: Apache, Mail Server (e.g., Sendmail), PHP,
Supported Platforms: Linux, UNIX, Windows
License: GNU GPL
-focus on a particular subject area
-These are online services and sites that provide that catalogues the Internet based
resources available in a specific field of study. The libraries have an important role
in the building of subject gateway in the area it specializes
-Building such kind of services demanded high level of technical adeptness in the
past. But with availability of good quality public domain OSS tools has removed
that fear. Most of these tools comply with well-accepted metadata standards like
Dublin Core, MARC, etc.
ROADS (Resource Organization And Discovery in Subject-based
Services) is a set of software tools to enable the set up and maintenance of
Web based subject gateways.
Special Features: ROADS is a software tool-kit allowing gateway managers to
pick and choose what parts of the software they require whilst allowing the
integration of other software according to requirement
Barriers and Challenges of OSS
• OSS can lack formal support making it difficult for
• OSS is not always easy to use.
• OSS initiatives do not always do enough to get
• Every version has come changes which creates
problem in exchanging data from one version to
Barriers and Challenges of OSS
• Online assistance is required.
• Installation process is not easy.
• Troubleshooting also difficult for non-
• Open source has paved its way after
the evolution of Unix.
• Eric Raymond gave it strength in 1997
by an article “The Cathedral and the Bazaar ”
• OSI has started a movement in favour of OSS. By
this efforts, today we have uncountable open
source software and projects.
• The open source movement has influenced
almost every flied specially the information field.
• The present study focuses only on Open Source
Software in the area of ILMS, Digital Library and CMS.
• After the presentation we can said that in the area of
ILMS, Koha is the widely used ILMS open source
• On the other hand, in the area of Digital Library
software, DSpace is the more preferred one.
• Another area that is CMS, Drupal and Joomla are the
most popular and have more or less same features.
• Though there are lots of OSS are available , but still
there exists some problems with such systems.
• Tripathi, Aditya ‘ Open Source library Solutions’
• Kandar, Shyamalendu ‘A review of Open Source Software and Open
Source Movement in Developing Countries’
• Lochhaas, Sherry & Moore, Melissa ‘Open Source Software Libraries’
• Dora, Mallikarjun , Maharana, Bulu & Jena, Shashikanta ‘open Source
movement in Indian Libraries : An Analytical Study’