THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
COLLABORATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’
UNDERSTANDING ON SIMPLE PAST AT 10th
GRADE STUD...
2
As asserted by Chomsky cited by Steinberg, one of the fundamental
language ability should be possessed by people in orde...
3
groups are cooperative group. Collaborative learning is a group whose
members are committed to the common purpose of max...
4
So the purpose of a collaborative learning is to increases
interaction among learners as they restate, expand, and elabo...
5
improve students’ understanding on simple past
2. To find out any improvement of student’s understanding on simple past ...
6
the material in front of class, asking and answering questions that would
make the students bored and difficult to memor...
7
they were understood reading English text well. Result of the research
show that the students improve their reading comp...
8
groups, games, tournaments, and team recognition. This method made
students enjoy learning writing in the class. In the ...
9
Collaborative Learning process does not only cooperate in a
group but the stressing is learning process that involves
co...
10
using a collaborative strategy in the classroom deals with preparation
and schedule of activities as an implementation ...
11
emphasized. All members accept the responsibility for providing
leadership.
5) Group processing means team members set ...
12
(+) S + tobe (was, were) + 3 Complements (Noun, Adjective, adverb)
(-) S + Was/were + not + 3 Complements
(?) Tobe (was...
13
c) Did the dog bark this morning?
d. Irregular Verb of Simple Past
Since verbs change form to show the time of the acti...
14
Based on the description above, the researcher proposes the
hypotheses that Collaborative learning strategy can improve...
15
Observation is observing an object.22
Observation in this
research will be used to get the data of students participati...
16
This class action research procedure consists of four stages. In
detail described as follows:
a. Pre Cycle
The writer u...
17
In this activity, the teacher introduced a Collaborative
learning strategy in teaching simple past.
A Collaborative ins...
18
The second cycle is done based on the result of reflection from
the first cycle. If the result from observation tells t...
19
c) Observing
- Observing the teaching learning process focus on observable
behaviours that might indicate the degree of...
20
Total
b. Evaluation Instrument
Evaluation instrument is a tool to obtain results that have been
evaluated in accordance...
21
a. Improving student learning outcome at the 10thth
grade student MA Al-
Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang on simple pa...
22
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Agnes, Michael, Webster’s New World College Dictionary, USA:Willey
Publishing, Inc., 2002
Arikunto, Suha...
23
Thoifuri, Menjadi Guru Inisiator, Semarang: RaSAIL Media Group, 2007
Thomson and Martinet, A Practical English Grammar,...
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Proposal faiz

  1. 1. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING ON SIMPLE PAST AT 10th GRADE STUDENT OF MA AL-ASROR PATEMON GUNUNG PATI SEMARANG A. Background of Research Teaching is an activity to guide and facilitate learning process, to enable the learner, and to set the conditions for learning.1 The purpose of teaching English covers four language skill; listening, speaking, reading and writing. In mastering those skills, students also have to know the language component; vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. As one of language component, grammar is important to be learnt by student. Grammar is a theory of language is put together and how its works.2 Victoria Fromkin states that every grammar is complex, logical, and capable of producing an infinite set of sentences to express any thought.3 In fact, English grammar has many different and difficult rules of the language Grammar, as one of the language components, has function of making a string of words into meaningful utterances. In practicing English, grammar has become a serious challenge by the learners. Therefore, grammar or structure is one of the basic aspects that must be learned for the students because it enables the students to understand the words or sentences of the English language. When the student master grammar especially simple past tense, they should practice their knowledge by writing. It will be balance in learning. According to Elizabeth B. Hurlock learning is development that comes from exercise and effort.4 1 Brown H. Douglas, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, ( New York : Pearson, 2000), p. 7. 2 Gerot and Wignell, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, (Australia : Gerd Stabler, 1994), p.2. 3 Victoria Fromkin, an Introduction to Language, ( US: Thomson Heine, 2003), p.15 4 Elizabeth B. Hurlock, Elizabeth B. Hurlock, Child Development, Tokyo: MC. Graw Hill Book Company, t.th, h. 20. 1
  2. 2. 2 As asserted by Chomsky cited by Steinberg, one of the fundamental language ability should be possessed by people in order to be able to communicate is the ability to produce and comprehend grammatical sentence Simple past tense is one of part of grammar that is difficult lesson items for the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang. Some students' face difficulties in grammar, less of students have motivation in learning activity because teaching learning process is not satisfied and less of students understand on simple past tense. Concerning from this problem, the teacher needs to choose interesting strategy which are best for their students, to reduce students' boredom and motivate them to learn grammar more so it is important to find and apply a strategy to teach it effectively. To make in teaching grammar comprehension effectively, students need to be equipped with effective strategies to help them improve their grammar competency. Collaborative learning strategy is one of strategy that teacher should use in his or her class. Collaborative learning is an approach to teaching that makes maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom.th A Collaborative learning strategy is group of learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others.5 Collaborative learning is an effective alternative to each English grammar comprehension. In collaborative learning, teacher’s role is as facilitator. It means that students take an important role and have responsibility during the process and learning achievement.6 But, not all th Jack C. Richards and Theodore S.Rodgers Approaches in Language Teaching 2 edition, (United States of America: Cambridge University Press,2001), p. 192. 5 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S.Rodgers, Approaches in Language Teaching 2 edition, ,p,195. 6 W Gunawan, Genius Learning Strategy, Petunjuk Praktis untuk Menerapkan Accelerated Learning, (Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2006), p.165.
  3. 3. 3 groups are cooperative group. Collaborative learning is a group whose members are committed to the common purpose of maximizing each other’s learning. Each member takes responsibility for the performance of himself or herself, all teammates, and the group as a whole.7 The success of collaborative learning is crucially depending on the nature and organization of group work. This requires a structured program of learning carefully designed, so that learners interact with each other and is motivated to increase each other’s learning. From the description above, the researcher is interested in researching more about student’s understanding on simple past at the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang after using Collaborative learning strategy. B. Definitions of the key terms 1. Implementation Implementation is something that implementedth . The implementation that the researcher means is implementing Collaborative learning strategy in student’s understanding on simple past at the 10 grade student MAAl-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang. 2. Collaborative learning strategy A Collaborative learning strategy is group of learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others.th 7 David W. Johnson dan Roger T. Johnson, Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive dan Individualistic Learning, (Massachusetts, Allyn and Bacon, 1994) 4th ed, p. 78. th As Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, [London: Oxford University Press, 1995], p.586 th Jack C. Richards and Theodore S.Rodgers Approaches in Language Teaching 2 edition, p,195.
  4. 4. 4 So the purpose of a collaborative learning is to increases interaction among learners as they restate, expand, and elaborate their ideas in order to convey or clarify intended meaning. 3. Improve The meaning of improve is achieving or produce something of a better standard or quality than something else.8 According to Michael Agnes’ opinion Improving is to become better in quality or condition.9 Here, the writer wants to know the improvement of students’ understanding by applying collaborative learning strategy 4. Simple Past The Simple Past Tense is used to report a state or activity which can be ascribed to a definite past time. A past adverbial is either expressed or else understood from the context in which the past tense is used.10 . C. Research Question Based on the problem that has been stated above, there some problems that will be investigated through this study. They are: 1. Can collaborative learning strategy improve student’s understanding on simple past at the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang? 2. How is the improvement of students’ understanding on simple past after using collaborative learning strategy at the 10thth grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang? D. Objective of the research 1. To describe the implementation of collaborative learning strategy to 8 A. S. Hornby, Oxford : Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, p.598 9 Michael Agnes, Webster’s New World College Dictionary, (USA:Willey Publishing, Inc., 2002), p.718 10 George W Wishon and Julia M. Burks, Let’s Write English, (New York: American Book Company ESL/EFL, 1980), p. 195
  5. 5. 5 improve students’ understanding on simple past 2. To find out any improvement of student’s understanding on simple past at the 10th grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang after using collaborative learning strategy? E. Pedagogical Significant The result of this study is hoped useful for students, teacher, and the next researcher. 1. For the students The result of this study may help students to improve their understanding on simple past tense. Understand about how the structure of simple past tense, when we use simple past tense. 2. For the teacher Teacher can use collaborative learning strategy as one of the strategy in teaching learning English, to motivate the students, and it can make the lesson is easier to be understood than nothing. 3. The next researcher The writer hopes this research can be developed by the next researcher in different skill and participant F. The reason for choosing the topic The reason for choosing the topic are as follow: 1. Mastering English is not enough just to know the vocabulary items, but knowing how to organize them into the correct sentence. Grammar guides us how to make the correct form of phrases, clauses, or sentences 2. Most of Senior High School students think that English especially grammar is one of the difficult and boring subject where teacher explained
  6. 6. 6 the material in front of class, asking and answering questions that would make the students bored and difficult to memorize the material 3. Collaborative learning strategy was chosen to improve students’ ability in teaching grammar (simple past tense) because Collaborative learning is an approach that makes maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom. G. Limitation of Research This study is about the implementation of Collaborative learning strategy to improve student’s understanding on simple past at the 10th grade student MAAl-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang. The researcher wants to focus this study on the implementation of Collaborative learning strategy and how is the improvement of learning outcome after using Collaborative learning strategy on simple past. H. Previous Research There have been many researchers which attempt to study the topic related to the method in many classrooms and the teaching learning. Here are some studies in line with the researcher’s. 1. Mu’linatus Sa’adah (Student Number: 3104154) entitled: Enhancing Students’ Participation and Comprehension in Reading Course Using Jigsaw Strategy (Classroom Action Research in English Class at the 9th Grade of MTs Ibtidaul Falah Kudus), the conclusion of the research that 1) Teaching reading comprehension using jigsaw strategy can be enjoyable experience for teacher and students. In fact, students can improve their reading comprehension after taught by jigsaw strategy. It can be seen by students’ achievement in reading course in each cycle. In the first cycle the average of the students’ achievement was 69,4. In the second cycle the average of the students’ achievement was 76,3. In the third cycle the average of the students’ achievement was 83,2. Students’ reading comprehension increased as well as their motivation to learn English and
  7. 7. 7 they were understood reading English text well. Result of the research show that the students improve their reading comprehension efficiently and effectively. They better in comprehending, discussing, teaching the text to their friends, and one of an unpredictable advantage of doing this strategy is that the students begin to respect each other. 2. Ratno (2201403651) with his research The Effectiveness of Using Direct Method Compared with Total Physical Response in Teaching Vocabulary on Hobbies and Daily Activities to The Sixth Graders of Elementary School (A Case Study of MI Al-Iman Banaran in The Academic Year of 2006/2007). He is a student of English Department Faculty of Languages and Arts Semarang State University out of year 2007. His study is an experimental research. The result of the study shows that after the treatment there is a difference in the students’ achievement in learning vocabulary between students’ taught using Direct Method and those taught using Total Physical Response. The students get better if they were taught by using Direct Method than those who were taught using Total Physical Response. The result of the experimental group is 76,23 and the control group is 69,08. From his finding analysis, he concluded that Direct Method is more effective than Total Physical Response in teaching vocabulary for elementary school students at MI Al-Iman Banaran. From his study, teaching vocabulary using Direct Method as an experimental group in elementary school is same with the researcher’s study. But for the control group is different treatment and different method because the researcher doesn’t compare those treatments. 3. Septa Nur Afiani (5311063) Tarbiyah Faculty, in her thesis “Improving Students’ Writing Organization of Descriptive Text Trough The Use of Team Games Tournament (a classroom action research with seventh year students of MTS Sudirman Magelang in the academic year 2009/2010).53 The researcher concludes that the use of TGT in teaching writing organization of descriptive text as follows: class presentation work in
  8. 8. 8 groups, games, tournaments, and team recognition. This method made students enjoy learning writing in the class. In the result of first cycle were 2.75. It means that the total score of students’ writing result was unsuccessful; in the result of second cycle were 3.24. It means that the total value of students’ writing result was near of good, and the results of third cycle were 4.05. It means that the total value of students’ writing result was good. So the use of TGT in this research was success From some researches above, they have relating to the researcher’s that is the use of models, approaches or strategies in the context of creating active learning in students. And the distinguishing this research is this research is focused on creating student’s participation by using Collaborative learning strategy which would forms and the process is different from the research above. I. Review of Related Literature 1. Collaborative Learning Strategy a. Definition of Collaborative Learning Strategy A Collaborative learning strategy is group of learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others.11 Collaborative Learning is a learning which the students are divided some groups based on the needs, intelectual, their ability. There are 4, 5, or 6 for each group.12 11 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S.Rodgers, Approaches in Language Teaching 2 edition, ,p. 195. 12 Thoifuri, Menjadi Guru Inisiator, (Semarang: RaSAIL Media Group, 2007), p. 69
  9. 9. 9 Collaborative Learning process does not only cooperate in a group but the stressing is learning process that involves communication process fully and fair in the class.13 From the definition above, it can be concluded that a Collaborative learning is an instructional strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. b. A General Introductory of a Collaborative Learning Strategy A Collaborative is one of cooperative learning used in Indonesian country in order to make the students in all levels or society get used to work together without paying attention to the gender, ethnicity, religion, and ability.14 A Collaborative learning strategy is one of cooperative learning developed by Kemis designed to reduce racial conflict among school children, promote learning and improve student motivation. This strategy is designed to value the individual and emphasize each individual’s essential role in the learning process. The purpose of a Collaborative strategy is to develop teamwork and cooperative learning skills within all students. In addition, it helps students gain a depth understanding of the grammar by working together and teaching each other. By using a Collaborative strategy in teaching grammar comprehension, students can share the difficulties in the grammar with each other and provide themselves with knowledge. The process of 13 W Gunawan, Genius Learning Strategy, Petunjuk Praktis untuk Menerapkan Accelerated Learning, p. 198 14 http://www.collaborative.org/117/on Monday 24th 2012
  10. 10. 10 using a collaborative strategy in the classroom deals with preparation and schedule of activities as an implementation of a collaborative process. c. The Elements of Collaborative Learning The success of collaborative learning is crucially depending on the nature and organization of group work. This requires a structured program of learning carefully designed, so that learners interact with each other and is motivated to increase each other’s learning. For collaborative to work well, teachers explicitly have to structure five basic elements into group learning situations help ensure cooperative efforts and enable the disciplined implementation of a Collaborative learning for long-term success. Five basic elements of a Collaborative learning:15 1) Positive interdependence means the interaction among students determines the outcomes of learning because a collaborative learning is designed to foster cooperation rather then competition, that is the students encourage and facilitate each other’s efforts to learn 2) Individual accountability means all students in a group are held accountable for doing their share of the work and for mastery of all of the material to be learned. 3) Promotive interaction means students need to do real work together in which they promote each other’s success by sharing resources and helping each other’s efforts to achieve. 4) Interpersonal and small-group skills means members are taught social skills and are expected to use them to coordinate their efforts and achieve their goals. Both taskwork and teamwork skills are 15 David W. Johnson dan Roger T. Johnson, Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive dan Individualistic Learning, (Massachusetts, Allyn and Bacon, 1994) 4th ed, p. 22-23.
  11. 11. 11 emphasized. All members accept the responsibility for providing leadership. 5) Group processing means team members set group goals, periodically assess what they are doing well as a team, and identify changes they will make to function more effectively in the future 2. Simple Past a. Definition of Simple Past According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, Simple past tense is a form that indicates an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.16 According to Thomson and Martinet They stated that the simple past tense is the tense that is used for an action completed in the past at definite time.17 b. The Pattern of Simple Past 1) Verbal sentence Sentence Pattern Affirmative Subject + V2 + object Negative Subject + did not + V1 + object Question Did + subject + V1 + object Example: John studied English yesterday 2) Nominal sentence I/He/She/It + was/wasn't We/You/They + were/weren't Was + I/She/He/It? Were + we/You/They? 16 Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar (United State: Prentice Hall Regent,1989), p. 24. 17 Thomson, A.J. and Martinet, A.V, A Practical English Grammar, (Oxford University Press: Low-Priced Edition, 1986), Pg.161
  12. 12. 12 (+) S + tobe (was, were) + 3 Complements (Noun, Adjective, adverb) (-) S + Was/were + not + 3 Complements (?) Tobe (was/were) + S + 3 Complements Example: We were very busy last night c. The Function of Simple Past 1) To indicate action or event that happened at specific time in the past. Example: I met her two days ago. Mary played tennis last week. Ali went to Yogyakarta yesterday. 2) To indicate past habit Example: He always carried an umbrella. They never drank the wine. We usually spoken English. Last year it rained frequently in this area 3) To indicate an event that really happened in the past but doesn’t mention the time. Example: I bought this car in Jakarta. When did you see me? The trains was ten minutes late. In the simple tense, the interrogative and negative form, always use the auxiliary verb “DID” for all the subject, when the predicate is a verb. Examples: a) Did you Play tennis yesterday? b) We did not study last night
  13. 13. 13 c) Did the dog bark this morning? d. Irregular Verb of Simple Past Since verbs change form to show the time of the action, there are two kinds of verb in the simple past tense. There are: (1) Regular verb and (2) Irregular verb. When Indonesian students face the simple past tense, they sometimes make some errors in the changing verb, as in Indonesia there is no changing verb because of the changing time. Celcia-Murcia and Larsen Freeman state: There are several reasons why learners may make mistakes in the use of regular and irregular forms. They may: 1) (Consciously or unconsciously) have learn the wrong form of a particular verb. 2) Be guessing the form because they do not know what it is. Over-generalize rules (for example, ignoring irregular forms or using past forms in questions or infinitives).18 “Irregular verbs are those verbs that fall outside the standard patterns of conjugation in the languages in which they occur”.19 It makes most grammatical errors happen and it ask the students to make any spelling changes which is required carefully. “The simple past form of each irregular verb must therefore be learnt, but once this is done there is no other difficulty, as irregular verbs (like regular verbs) have no inflexions in the past tense”.20 Irregular verb can be formed by suffixation or by changing the vowel and consonant from the stem. J. Action Hypotheses 18 Celce Mursia Marianne and Diane Larsen-Freeman, The Grammar Book: An Esl/Efl Teachers Course, (Cambridge: Newbury House Publisher, 1999), p 19 Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/irregularsimlpe-past- tense.htm accessed on 27/9/2012 20 Thomson and Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 161
  14. 14. 14 Based on the description above, the researcher proposes the hypotheses that Collaborative learning strategy can improve students’ understanding on simple past at the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang K. Research Method 1. Research Approach According to Ernie Stringer suggests that action research is a “form of collective, selfreflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices, as well as their understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out.th Besides, Nunan argues that the three defining characteristics of action research are; it is carried out by practitioners (for our purpose classroom teachers) rather than outside researchers, secondly that it is collaborative, thirdly that it is aimed at changing things.21 2. Setting of the study In this research, an action research will be conducted at the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang in the academic year of 2011/2012 3. Subject of the Study The subject of the study is all students at the 10thth grade student MAAl-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang. 4. Method of Data Collection To collect the data the researcher uses instruments: a. Observation th Ernie Stringer, Action Research in Education, (New Jersey: Library Congress, 2008), p. 10 21 David Nunan, Research Method in Language Learning, (Australia: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 17
  15. 15. 15 Observation is observing an object.22 Observation in this research will be used to get the data of students participation in implementing process Collaborative learning strategy at the 10 grade student MAAl-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang. b. Test Test is giving questions or drills that used to measure the knowledge, intelligence, the ability from individual or group work.th Test method is used to get learning outcome data after using Collaborative learning strategy process on simple past at the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang as an evaluation after action process taking place. c. Documentation Documentation is searching the data. It is about note, book, news paper, magazine, etc.th Documentation in this research will be used to know some informations of data such as, lesson plan, the students at the 10 grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang, the material of study, etc. 5. Procedure of Research The Classroom action research was developed by Lewin (1946) and developed by Schon (1983) and Carr and Kemmis (1986) amongst others, is clearly a cyclical process involving stages of action and research follow by action. This often takes the design form illustrated below:th 22 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta: PT.Rineka Cipta, 2006), 6th Ed p. 156 th Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, p. 150 th Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, p 231 th Graham Hitchock and David Hughes, Research and The Teacher A Qualitative introduction to school-based research, (New York: T J Press, 1995), p. 64
  16. 16. 16 This class action research procedure consists of four stages. In detail described as follows: a. Pre Cycle The writer uses writing test, it contains of ten questions to measure the student’s ability before implementing Collaborative learning strategy. b. First cycle 1) Planning: - Arranging a lesson plan based on the teaching materials. - Preparing the teaching materials. - Preparing the instruments - Preparing the observation scheme. Preparing the student’s attendance list 2) Action
  17. 17. 17 In this activity, the teacher introduced a Collaborative learning strategy in teaching simple past. A Collaborative instructional strategies are : 1) The teacher introduces and explains simple past. 2) The teacher asks students to give a question 3) The teacher gives a feedback. 4) The teacher organizes the class into some groups 5) The teacher a problem to each group. 6) The teacher gives a chance to the students to collaborate with the other group. 7) The teacher asks the students to present the result. 8) The teacher clarify 9) The teacher closes the class 3) Observations a) Observing the teaching learning process focus on observable behaviours that might indicate the degree of participants. b) Observing the student’s participation.. 4) Reflection Evaluate the steps in the teaching learning process and discuss the result of observation for the improvement of the student’s understanding on simple past. c. Second cycle
  18. 18. 18 The second cycle is done based on the result of reflection from the first cycle. If the result from observation tells that the quality is still low, so it is needed another action in order the next cycle makes some improvement of the quality. a) Planning - Arranging a lesson plan based on the teaching materials. - Preparing the teaching materials - Preparing the instruments - Preparing the observation scheme - Preparing the student’s attendance list b) Acting In this activity, the students did the same activities with the first cycle. The activities in the teaching learning process are: 1) Each group must explain to their group (one student must be a leader). 2) The teacher asked the students about their problems on the previous lesson. 3) The teacher explained the problem. 4) The teacher helped the students to find the change of verb. 5) The teacher asked the students about their understanding of changing verb. 6) The teacher gave the test.
  19. 19. 19 c) Observing - Observing the teaching learning process focus on observable behaviours that might indicate the degree of participants. - Observing the student’s participation. d) Reflecting The result that is obtained on the observation is analyzed in this phase. Then, the teacher and the researcher reflect the activities that have been done. It can be known the student’s motivation and the student’s mastery learning. The result of analysis can be used as consideration the use of a collaborative learning strategy. 6. Research Instrument This research uses the instrument of observation to know the student’s participation: a. Observation Sheet The observation sheet is to be filled by the observer. Observation Sheet contains students’ activities in learning. In this research there are several aspects of the subject of research observations are: A. Student listens to teacher’s explanation B. Student’s activeness in asking questions C. Student’s activeness in collaborative D. Student’s activeness in command friend’s presentation Table 1 The example of Observation Sheets Table No Name Aspects of Observation Number of Activities A B C D
  20. 20. 20 Total b. Evaluation Instrument Evaluation instrument is a tool to obtain results that have been evaluated in accordance with reality. Whereas the evaluation forms are being conducted to know the learning outcomes of students is writing test, it contains of ten multiple choice questions. The criterion of the scoring are: 1) Students get score 1 if the student’s answer that is true. 2) Students get score 0 if the student’s answer is false Table 2 Assessment Model of Test No Name Test Result Note 2. Achievement Indicator The data that is obtained from the research either through observation, tests or by using another method then processed by descriptive analysis to know the increased attainment and indicators of success of each cycle to know the success of the implementation of collaborative learning strategy process on simple past at the 10 grade student MAAl-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang. The formula to measure the student’s understading is: Scores achieved Value = X 100% Number of Students To know the success rate of this action research if:
  21. 21. 21 a. Improving student learning outcome at the 10thth grade student MA Al- Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang on simple past after doing action by using collaborative learning strategy that characterized the average value of the quiz more than 70. And average students who obtain these values are 80%. b. There is an improvement in student’s activeness on simple past at the 10th grade student MA Al-Asror Patemon Gunungpati Semarang after taking action by using collaborative learning to good and excellent categories which reached 70%.
  22. 22. 22 DAFTAR PUSTAKA Agnes, Michael, Webster’s New World College Dictionary, USA:Willey Publishing, Inc., 2002 Arikunto, Suharsimi, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, Jakarta: PT.Rineka Cipta, 2006 Azar, Betty Schrampfer, Understanding and Using English Grammar United State: Prentice Hall Regent, 1989 Douglas, Brown H., Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, New York : Pearson, 2000 Fromkin, Victoria, an Introduction to Language, US: Thomson Heine, 2003 Gerot and Wignell, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, Australia : Gerd Stabler, 1994 Gunawan, Genius Learning Strategy, Petunjuk Praktis untuk Menerapkan Accelerated Learning, Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2006 Hitchock, Graham and Hughes, David, Research and The Teacher A Qualitative introduction to school-based research, New York: T J Press, 1995 Hornby, As, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, London: Oxford University Press, 1995 http://www.collaborative.org/117/on Hurlock, Elizabeth B., Child Development, Tokyo: MC. Graw Hill Book Company, t.th Johnson, David W. dan Johnson, Roger T., Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive dan Individualistic Learning, Massachusetts, Allyn and Bacon, 1994 Marianne, Celce Mursia and Freeman, Diane Larsen-, The Grammar Book: An Esl/Efl Teachers Course, Cambridge: Newbury House Publisher, 1999 Nunan, David, Research Method in Language Learning, Australia: Cambridge University Press, 1992 Richards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S. Approaches in Language Teaching 2 edition, United States of America: Cambridge University Press, 2001 Stringer, Ernie, Action Research in Education, New Jersey: Library Congress, 2008
  23. 23. 23 Thoifuri, Menjadi Guru Inisiator, Semarang: RaSAIL Media Group, 2007 Thomson and Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, New York: Oxford University Press, 1986 Thomson, A.J. and Martinet, A.V, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press: Low-Priced Edition, 1986 Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/irregularsimlpe-past- tense.htm Wishon, George W and Burks, Julia M., Let’s Write English, New York: American Book Company ESL/EFL, 1980

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