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# Chapter iii

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### Chapter iii

1. 1. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH A. Time and Setting The writer did research at SMAN 1 Pegandon Kendal in the second semester of the academic year of 2011/2012. She conducted this research in second semester for about half mount began 21 May up to 29 May 2012. B. Population and Sample 1. Population Population is “the whole subset of research”. Population is generally areas which consist of object/subject which has certain quality and characteristic which decided by the researcher to study and then collected the summary.1 Population of this research was eleventh grade students of SMAN N 1 Pegandon Kendal in the academic year 2011/2012 second semester. The eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Pegandon was divided into eight clases. There were class XI IPA 1, IPA 2, IPA 3, IPA 4, 1PS 1,IPS 2, IPS 3 and IPS 4. 2. Sample “Sample is a subset of individuals from a given population”. 2 Sample is taking of a part population using certain procedure. So, that can be expected to represent its population. In this case, sample must be representative with the true example (population) in the field. In this research, the researcher used cluster random sampling technique to choose which class to be the sample. Cluster random sampling is a technique to choose sample by random each class (population) and it is based on lottery. In this case, the researcher took sample from eleventh grade students ( XI IPS 4 as an experimental class and XI IPS 1 as a control class) of SMAN 1 Pegandon Kendal in the academic year 2011/2012. C. Variable of the Research Variable can be defined as an object of research. In this study there are two variables. They are Independent Variable (x) and (y). 1. Independent Variable (x) 1 Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R & D, ( Bandung: Alfabeta, 2008), p. 117 2 David Nunan, Research Methods in Language Learning, (New; York: Cambridge University Press , 1992), p.27.
4. 4. front of class and give example to the students c) Teacher gives chance to the students in order to choose partner maximally four person in every group d) Teacher asks students to discuss about the product and make situation that contain advertise certain product (under teacher controlled). e) Teacher points group randomly to perform their project in front of class 2 a) Teacher provides some products. b) Teacher give chance to the students in order choose partner maximally four person in every group c) Teacher asks every group to choose on product that will be advertised in front of class d) Teacher asks students to try become good advertiser by asks them to practice advertise the product that has they choose. e) Teacher gives chance to the students in order to choose partner maximally four person in every group. 2x45’ c. Post-test Post-test was held after all treatments were conducted. This test was used to measure students’ achievement after they were given treatments. The result of test was analyzed statistically. 2. The Activities of Control Group a. Pre-test
7. 7. communicative skill which is being the test. The test will be conducted to both control and experimental class which consists of 38 of control class and 37 students of experiment class in form of advertisement text to evaluate students’ speaking before and after the treatment. The scoring system will pay attention to the five aspects of speaking; grammar, vocabulary, fluency, pronunciation, and comprehension. Test is used to measure the person’s competence and to achieve the objective. The data was collected by giving speaking test. Speaking was conducted twice, there are pre-test and post-test. The form of the test is direct speaking test and the teacher gave scores on pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. b) Documentation Documentation is a piece of written or printed material that provides a record of evidence or event an agreement ownership, identification etc. Documentation is the accumulation, classification and dissemination of information. It refers to the archival data that help the researcher collect the needed data. In this research, this method is used to get the data that related to the object research such as students name list are included in the population. In this case, the data was gained by the help of the English teacher. F. Scoring Technique The researcher gave speaking test to the students to analyze their scores on pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. In giving scores to the students, the researcher used analytic scale which categorized by some categories and the researcher follows these scoring criteria for each category. This analytic scale which categorized by some categories and the researcher follows these scoring criteria for each category. This analytic score has five items and each item scores five. So, the maximum is 25. But it will manipulated with 4, so the final maximum score will be 100. Analytic scoring of speaking could be seen on the following figures: Aspects Score Description Pronunciation 5 Have few traces of foreign accent.
8. 8. 4 Always intelligible, though one is conscious of a definite accent 3 Pronunciation problem necessitate concentrated listening and occasionally lead to misunderstanding. 2 Very hard to understand because of pronunciation problem, must frequently be asked to repeat. 1 Pronunciation problems so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible. Grammar 5 Makes few ( if any) noticeable errors of grammar and word order. 4 Occasionally makes grammatical and/or word order errors which do not, however obscure the meaning. 3 Make frequent errors of grammar and word order which occasionally obscure meaning. 2 Grammar and word order errors make comprehension difficult. Must often rephrase sentences and/or restrict himself to basic patterns. 1 Errors in grammar and word order so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible. Vocabulary 5 Use of vocabulary and idioms is virtually that of a native speaker 4 Sometimes use inappropriate terms and/or must rephrase that idea because of lexical inadequate vocabulary.
9. 9. 3 Frequently uses the wrong words; conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary. 2 Misuse of word and very limited vocabulary make comprehension quite difficult. 1 Vocabulary limitations so extreme as to make conversation virtually impossible. Fluency 5 Speed as fluent and effortless as that of a native speaker. 4 Speed of the speech seems to be slightly affected by language problem. 3 Speed and fluency are rather strongly affected by language problems. 2 Usually hesitant; often forced into silent by language limitations. 1 Speech is so halting and fragmentary as to make conversation virtually impossible. Comprehension 5 Appears to understand everything without difficulty. 4 Understand nearly everything at normal speed, although occasional repetition may be necessary. 3 Understand most of what is said at slower than normal speed with repetition. 2 Has great difficulty following what is said. Can comprehend only “social conversation” spoken slowly with frequently repetitions. 1 Can not be said to understand even simple conversation virtually impossible.
10. 10. Adopted from “ Inta Aulia Asfa, The Effectiveness of Using Describing Picture to Improve Students’ Speaking Skill in Descriptive Text (An Experimental Research at the Eight Grade Students of SMP H. Isriati Semarang in the Academic Year of 2010/2011 G. Methods of Data Analysis There are three kinds of test that will be held in experimental research, they are pre-requisite test, try-out test, item analysis, and hypothesis test. So there must be there process of analyzing the data collected from test. 1. Pre-requisite Test Before the researcher determines the sample, the researcher should conduct a homogeneity test by choosing 2 classes with cluster random sampling. Before testing the hypothesis that is to compare the difference of students academic achievement using t- test formula, there is a pre requisite test to know the legality of the sample. Here, the normality and homogeneity test are employed. This test conducted to determine whether the data are homogenous or not. After conducted the test, data analysis was carried out to find out the data normality and the homogeneity of the sample. It was meant to check if the research result met the requirement of good research or not. Data analysis discussed two main things: a) Test of data normality The first step that had to be done before doing the research was to test the data normality. It was aimed to know whether the data came from normal distribution or not. The researcher used Chi Square formula, as follows: ( ) Ei EiOi X k i 2 1 2 − Σ= = Cited from Sudjana.9 Where: X2 = Chi- Square Oi = Frequency that was obtained from data Ei = Frequency that was hoped 9 Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, (Bandung: Tarsito, 2002), p. 273.
11. 11. k = the sum of interval class If the obtained score was lower that t-table score by using 5% alpha of significance, Ho was accepted. It was meant that Ha was rejected. b) Test of homogeneity It was meant to get the assumption that sample of research came from a same condition or homogenous . The researcher used the formula as follows: F = VarianceSmallest VarianceBiggest Cited from Sugiono.10 2. Try out Test According to Mouly in Tiowati, a try out test is necessary since the result will be used to make sure that the measuring instrument has such characteristic as validity and reliability.11 The instrument to be tried out was the composition test. The result of test was used to find out the validity and reliability. a) Validity Heaton states that validity is the extent to which it measure what is supposed to measure and noting else.12 The result was consulted to critical score for r-product moment. If the obtained coefficient of correlation was higher than the critical score for r-product moment. If the obtained coefficient of correlation was higher than the critical score for r-product moment, it meant that a paragraph was valid at 5 % alpha level significance. To calculate the validity, the researcher used the formula as follows: ( )( ) ( ){ } ( ){ }∑ ∑∑ ∑ ∑ ∑∑ −− − = 2222 YYNXXN YXXYN rxy 10 Sugiyono, Statistika Untuk Penelitian, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2007), p. 140. 11 Husni Mubarok, The Effectiveness of Animated Film as Media in the Teaching of Narrative Writing (An Experimental Research at the Tenth Grade Students of MA Futuhiyyah 2 Demak2009/2010 Academic Year). (Semarang : IAIN Walisongo, 2009), p. 32. 12 J. B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, (London: Longman, 1975), p. 153
12. 12. Cited from Arikunto.13 Where: rxy = the correlation of the scores on two halves of the test N = the number of the students in each group X = the score of each component of speaking scoring Y = the sum of all dialogue’s score X∑ = the sum of total X score in each group Y∑ = the sum of total score from each student XY∑ = the sum of multiple score from each student with the total score 2 X∑ = the sum of the square score in each component of speaking 2 Y∑ = the sum of all dialogue’s score square b) Reliability Reliability refers to the stability or the consistency of the test scores. Heaton states that reliability is a necessary characteristic of any good test; for it to be valid at all, a test must first be reliable as a measuring instrument.14 In this study, the reliability of the test was measured by comparing the obtained score with r-score product moment. Thus, if the obtained score was higher than the table r-score, it could be said that the test was reliable. To calculate the reliability of the test, the researcher used the formula as follows: 13 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, p. 170. 14 J. B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, p. 153.
13. 13. Cited from Zainal Ariffin15 Where: α : reliability : The number of items variance S2 i : total variance K : number of items 3. Item Analysis After scoring the try-out test, item analysis was carried out to find out the effectiveness of the items. It was meant to check whether each item met the requirement of good test item or not. Item two analysis discussed main things: a) Difficulty Level Heaton states that “the index of difficulty of an item simply shows how easy or difficult the particular item proved in the test”.16 If the teacher knows deeply about item difficulty in making a test, he can make his test easy, medium, or difficult. To know the item difficulty, the writer used the formula: DL = N G x 100% Where: DL = difficulty level G = The number of students who fail 15 Zainal Ariffin, Evaluasi Pembelajaran, (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 2009), p. 264 16 J. B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, p. 172.
14. 14. N = The number of students Taken from Zainal Ariffin17 b) Discriminating Power Item of discrimination power tells how well the item performs in separating the better students from the poorer students do badly on the same item, then the item is a good one because it distinguishes the good students from the bad students. Heaton states, “The discrimination index of an item indicated the extent to which the item discriminated between the tested, separating the more able tested from the less able. The index of discriminating power told the researcher if students who perform well on the whole test tended to do well or badly on each item in the test.”18 To calculate the index of discriminating power, the researcher used the formula: Where : MH : The Average lower class ML : The Average of lower class : The number deviation individual of upper class : The number deviation individual lower class Ni : 27 % x N, where N: the number of the students Taken from : Zainal Ariffin19 17 Zainal Ariffin, Evaluasi Pembelajaran. p. 273. 18 J. B. Heaton, Writing English Language Test, p. 173. 19 Zainal Ariffin, Evaluasi Pembelajaran, p. 278 ( ) ( ) 2 2 1 2 1i i MH ML t x x N N − =  +   −  ∑ ∑ 2 1x∑ 2 2x∑
15. 15. c) Hypothesis Test Firstly, the test was done in both groups, experimental and control group. Secondly, the result of the test was scored by using analytic scale. Thirdly, the means score of the two groups were determined. Finally the two means were compared by applying t-test formula. T-test was used to differentiate if the students’ result of students’ speaking skill in speaking of advertisement by using advertisement video and without advertisement video was significant or not. If the variance is significant we can use the formula : 21 21 11 nn s xx t + − = Where: 2 )1()1( 21 2 22 2 11 −+ −+− = nn snsn s Cited from Sudjana.20 Where: 1x = the mean score of the experimental group 2x = the mean score of control group 1n = the number of the experimental group 2n = the number of the control group s = standard deviation 2 s = variance If the obtained score was higher than t-table score by using 5% alpha of significance, Ho was rejected. It meant that Ha was accepted: “There was a 20 Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, p. 239.
16. 16. significant difference in speaking achievement between the experimental and control group.” If the variance is not significant we can use the formula : SUDJANA METODA STATISTIKA H. Procedures and Timeline 1. The researcher asks permission the headmaster and English teacher at school (first week) 2. The researcher collects documentation such as list of participants’ name and the previous speaking score of the participant. (first week) 3. The researcher chooses two classes that will be the control and experimental class (second week) 4. The researcher conducts the try out for validating the instrument (third week) 5. The researcher conducts pre test for control and experimental class. (third week) 6. The researcher gives treatment two times a week in control and experimental class. (fourth week) 7. The researcher conducts post test to give evaluation in control and experimental class. (fourth week) 8. The researcher analyzes the data collected from documentation, pre-test, and post-test. (fifth week) 9. The researcher concludes the research from the result of the data analysis. (seventh week)