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Anal inggris-rinamayasa-5852 Anal inggris-rinamayasa-5852 Document Transcript

  • THE USE OF GROUP INVESTIGATION TO IMPROVE STUDENTS' ABILITY IN WRITING SKILL ON ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT (A Classroom Action Research with 11 th Grade Students of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in the Academic Year of 2011- 2012) Thesis Submited in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Education in English Language Education By RINA MAYASARI Student Number: 073411020 FACULTY OF TARBIYAH WALISONGO STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES SEMARANG 2012 A THESIS STATEMENT I am, the student with the following identify: Name Student Number Department : Rina Mayasari : 073411020 : English Language Education certify that this thesis is definitely my own work. I am completely responsible for the content of this thesis. Other writer's opinions or findings included in the thesis are quoted or cited in accordance with ethical standards. Semarang, December 2011 The Writer, Rina Mayasari NIM. 073411020 ii
  • ADVISOR NOTE Semarang, Nopember 29 , 2011th To The Dean of Education Faculty Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies Assalamu'alaikum wr.wb. I inform that I have given guidance, briefing and correction to whatever extent necessary of the following identification: Title : The Use of Group Investigation To Improve Students' Ability In Writing Skill On Analytical Exposition Text (A Classroom Action Research With 11 Grade Students th of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in The Academic Year of 2011-2012) : Rina Mayasari : 073411020 : Tadris : English Language Education Name of Student Student Number Department Field of Study I state that the thesis is ready to be submitted to Education Faculty Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies to be examined at Munaqasyah session. Wassalamua'alaikum wr.wb. Advisor I, Daviq Rizal, M. Pd. NIP: 19771025 200701 1 015 iii
  • ADVISOR NOTE To The Dean of Education Faculty Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies Semarang, Nopember 29 , 2011th Assalamu'alaikum wr.wb. I inform that I have given guidance, briefing and correction to whatever extent necessary of the following identification: Title : The Use of Group Investigation To Improve Students' Ability In Writing Skill On Analytical Exposition Text (A Classroom Action Research With 11 Grade Students th of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in The Academic Year of 2011-2012) : Rina Mayasari : 073411020 : Tadris : English Language Education Name of Student Student Number Department Field of Study I state that the thesis is ready to be submitted to Education Faculty Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies to be examined at Munaqasyah session. Wassalamua'alaikum wr.wb. Advisor II, Drs. Mahfud Junaedi, M.Ag NIP: 19690320 199803 1 004 iv
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  • ABSTRACT Rina Mayasari (student number: 073411020). "Using Group Investigation method to improve students' writing ability in analytical exposition text (a classroom action research with eleventh graders of MA Manahijul huda Pati in the academic year of 2011/2012)". Thesis, Semarang: Bachelor Degree of English Language Education of State Institute for Islamic Studies Walisongo Semarang 2011. This thesis based on phenomena which happen in school, there were how many students who like writing but they do not know how to write. Teacher uses technique to teach students that often makes students feels bored to join English lesson. The thesis discusses the use of group investigation to improve students' ability in writing skill on Analytical Exposition. The study is aimed at responding the following question: (1) how is the implementation of group investigation to improve students' writing organization of analytical exposition text? (2) To what extent is the improvement of students' writing organization of analytical exposition text after being taught through group investigation? This thesis uses a classroom action research with 11 th Grade students of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in the Academic year of 2011-2012. The number of the population is 35 students. The researcher take one of class to be sample. It was class 11C. The research design used was a classroom action research design. The instrument used to collect the data was observation and test. The assessment of the test result was focused students' ability in writing analytical exposition. The research findings show that: (1) The Implimentation of Group investigation is improvement of learning tool, motivates students in doing work or jobs (2). The research improve students ability in writing, It looks from their score in doing test in every cycle. The last cycle show the significant improvement of students' ability. Score from pre-cycle was 57.71, the score from the first cycle was 65.71, and score from the second was 75. Based on the result of this research, the writer suggests that group of investigation be used as alternative media in teaching writing especially in teaching writing text type, in order that the students can write text more easily and more interested in writing activity. vi
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All Glory is to almighty Allah Who bestowed His blessing upon the researcher in her life and enabled her to accomplish this thesis entitled The Use of Group Investigation to Improve Students'Ability in Writing Skill on Analytical Exposition Text (Classroom Action Research with Eleventh Grade Students of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in the Academic Year of 2011-2012) The prayer and salaams are always offered for the Prophet Muhammad the most beloved Prophet of Allah, his relatives and companions. In this opportunity, the writer extends her gratitude to: 1. Dr. Suja'i, M.Ag. as the Dean of Tarbiyah Faculty for providing academicals facilities which supported the researcher in completion of this thesis. 2. Siti Tarwiyah, M.Hum. as the Head of English Department and all the English lecturers for providing academicals assistance and support. 3. Daviq Rizal, M.Pd. as the first thesis advisor and Drs. Mahfud Junaidi M.Ag. as the second thesis advisor who both had the responsibility for their patience in providing careful guidance, helpful corrections, very good advice as well as suggestion and encouragement during the consultation. There is no single wo except, " Thank you very much for guiding me as good as my parent. You are a nice lecturer." 4. Zaenal Arifin, S.Pd., As the Headmaster of MA Manahijul Huda Pati, thanks for the permission to do the research in the school which he lead and mahmudah, S.Pd., as the English Teacher who has given the good guidance to do the research. 5. Library official who always give good service related with the reference in this thesis so that the writer could do this well. 6. My beloved father (Laswi) and mother (Badriyah), thank you very much for your prayer and love which are always accompany me. My brother, Edy vii
  • purnomo and my sisters, Heny Hikmawati, Endah kurniawati and Winda Kumaladevi, thanks for your pray and spirit. 7. My lovely friends Andy, Islamiyah, mbak ika, tami, zezen, hariz, dian and ani. I love you all so much. 8. My lovely friends in boarding house, wiwid, wirda, evi, inna, ume. Thanks for giving me motivation. 9. My lovely friends at English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies Walisongo Semarang who can not mention one by one, thanks for giving me a lot of assistance and motivation. Semarang, December 2011 The writer, Rina Mayasari NIM.073411020 viii
  • TABLE OF CONTENT Title ...................................................................................................................... Thesis Statement................................................................................................... Ratification Note................................................................................................... Abstract.................................................................................................................. Acknowledgement................................................................................................. Table of Content................................................................................................... The List of figure................................................................................................. The List of tables.................................................................................................. i. ii. iii. vi vii ix xi xii The List of Appendices.......................................................................................... xiii Chapter I Introduction ............................................................................... Chapter II A. Research Background..................................................... B. Reason for Choosing Topic C. Question of the Research................................................ D. Objective of the Study.................................................... E. Pedagogical Significance. F. Limitation of The Study.................................................. Review of Related Literatures ................................................... A. Previous Research.......................................................... B. Theoritical Framework................................................... 1. The General Concepts of Group Investigation ....... 2. Writing................................................................... 3. Genre ......................................................................... 1 1 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 12 16 4. Analytical Exposition................................................. 18 5. Text ............................................................................ 20 6. Group Investigation Method in Teaching Writing Ability on Analytical Exposition Text............................ C. Action Hypothesis........................................................... 21 23 ix
  • Chapter III Method of Investigation ............................................................. A. Research Design B. Subject ...................................................................... 25 25 27 C. Setting of the study.......................................................... 27 D. Technique of Data collection.......................................... E. Scoring Technique.......................................................... F. Technique of Data Analysis............................................ G. Procedure of text ............................................................ 27 30 33 35 Chapter IV Research Finding......................................................................... 39 A. Research Finding ............................................................ 39 B. Research Analysis........................................................ C. Discussion ................................................ Conclusion and Suggestion........................................................ 50 58 60Chapter V A. Conclusion ...................................................................... 60 B. Suggestion ...................................................................... C. Closing ........................................................................... 61 62 Bibliography Appendices Curriculum Vitae x
  • LIST OF FIGURE Figure: 1. Picture Sample of clustering14 2. Figure 1 CAR Design............................................................................. 26 3. Chart of the Test Result from the Pre-Cycle until the Second Cycle.....58 xi
  • LIST OF TABLES Table: 1. Table of Analytic Scoring of Writing...................................................... 31 2. Table of Level Achievement ................................................................... 32 3. Table of activities in Experimental Group ............................................. 43 4. Table of Cycle 1 ...................................................................................... 35 5. Table of Cycle 2 ...................................................................................... 37 6. Table of Score Aspect Observing in Cycle 1 .......................................... 43 7. Table of Score Aspect Observing in Cycle 2 .......................................... 48 8. Table of Test Result on Pre-Cyle ........................................................... 51 9. Table of Test Result on Cyle 1............................................................... 53 10. Table of Test Result on Cyle 2.............................................................. 55 11. Table of the Result from the Pre-Cycle until the Second Cycle ............ 57 xii
  • LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix: 1. Lesson Plan in Cycle 1 2. Lesson Plan in Cycle 2 3. List of the Students 4. List of Group Members 5. Writing Test on Pre Test 6. Writing Test on Cycle 1 7. Writing Test on Cycle 2 8. Aspects Observed 9. Writing Test of Sudents 10. Picture of research 11. School profile xiii
  • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Background of the study Men are social creatures; they use language in order to communicate with each other. Language plays an important role in human life. People will have many difficulties in getting along with one another without language. They use language in order to communicate with each other to express their thought, ideas and feeling. 1 In the world, English is the most important language. Almost every country uses English as an important element in everyday activities. English as an international language is used as a means of communication among people in trade, politics, and professional field. A great deal of academic discourses around the world takes place in English. In Indonesia, English is taught as the first language optionally from the six year elementary school (SD), and obligatory from the first year of junior high school (SMP) through the third year of senior high school (SMA) even for some semesters at university. Learning language in general involves the mastery of four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Here, the writer focuses on writing, because it is the important language skill to be developed. Realizing that writing is very important for English learners in addition to the other skills, it is essential for the students to develop their writing skills in English. Allah decrees in the Holy Qur'an:       1 Mary Macken. A Genre-Based Approach To Teaching Writing,(Australia:NSW department of School education, 1991).p.9 1
  •       "Nun. By the Pen and what they write." (QS Al Qalam:1-2) From the verse above, we know that writing has an important role in human life. Because of writing activities make life easier, so people in big cities even small villages may get newest information from media, such as newspaper, magazines, and tabloid and so on. Writing is very important for many people because it will help them understand many paragraphs written in English, and also to obtain information for scientific purposes or just relaxation. Through writing, the students can enlarge their point of view of their atmosphere and knowledge. They can also convey or write their ideas, imagination, and experiences into a paragraph and it can be explored to become histories. Writing is the important language skill to be developed especially in classroom. Although the writing and oral skill are combined in the classroom and the one clearly benefits from the other, written language become more complex and has certain characteristics which seem to make it difficult for 2 students to get to group with especially for young learners. 3 In teaching learning process, students may still have problems in writing. There are many factors that influence someone's difficulties in writing, such as in mastering vocabulary to arranging the structure or grammar. To teach English, teacher usually uses certain methods of teaching 4 English. In this way, the teachers want to make English more interesting than before. 2Mahmud Y. Zayid, The Quran, (Beirut: Dar Al-Choura, 1980), 1 st Ed., p. 425. 3 language, 1992), p.6 4 Barli Bram, Write Well Improving Writing Skill, (Yoyakarta: Kanisius, 1995), p.25 Jenny Hommond, English for Social Purposes, ( Sydney: national centre for English 2
  • Seeing the difficulties of writing, it is understandable that students have a fear felling and little enthusiasm in writing class. Commonly, they are afraid of making mistake and worried about their ability in choosing and arranging the words to produce sentences. Those feelings seem to make the students unconfident in a writing class. Having a little confidence can make them reluctant to try to write, even dislike writing. It is duty of English teachers to create an exciting and conducive writing class as well as to give cautions guidance to the students. The teachers should try to find productive strategies in encouraging the writing class in order to encourage students to like writing. It is really hard work, but students should be given strong foundations for their writing skill before entering higher level educations. English teaching method is changeable. The method should be interesting and student-centered. One of the teaching methods is cooperative. Through this method, students are active in the learning process, because they will learn more through a process of constructing and creating, working in group and sharing knowledge. Nevertheless, individual's responsibility is still the key of success in learning English. A cooperative learning method is believed as being able to give chance for students to be involved in discussion, has courage and critical thinking and is willing to take responsibility of his/her own learning. Although it considers as an active role of students as more important, does not mean that teacher in the classroom is not participating. In learning process, teacher has roles as designer, facilitator and guide in the learning process. A cooperative learning method has several types, namely write-pair- share, Group Investigation, Students Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), 3
  • Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT), Team Assisted Individualized (TAI) and Jigsaw. One of its interesting types is group investigation. 5 Group investigation is an organizational approach that allows a class to work actively and collaboratively in small groups and enables students to take an active role in determining their own learning goals and processes.Group investigation method requires the students to form small interest groups, plan and implement their investigation, synthesize the group members' findings, and make a presentation to the entire class. 6 This method is viewed as a solver for the problem stated above. Adopting this method, teacher is expected to be able to run the teaching learning process effectively, especially teaching of writing. They will work in groups by explain materials that given. Thus, when teacher put the students in groups he or she has to ensure that the students whose levels are different are put together. In addition, the activity offered in Group investigation is interesting so that the students will feel the new atmosphere in classroom and are interested in learning writing. The methods choose by the teacher become one of researcher's considerations as well. In this case, the researcher attempt to offer one method that makes the students interested in studying writing through. GI method in which the activity is more emphasized on students' involvement. Basically, cooperative learning corresponds to Islamic teaching which is stated in Qur'an Surah al-Maidah:   "Help one another in what is good and pious,not in what is wicked and sinful."(QS. Al-Maidah: 2) 5 Isjoni, Pembelajaran Kooperatif, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2009), p. 73 6 Isjoni, Pembelajaran Kooperatif, p.87 7 Mahmud Y. Zayid, The Quran, (Beirut: Dar Al-Choura, 1980), 1 st Ed., p. 73 7 4
  • The verse above explains that cooperation is very suggested in every goodness, in this point is English language learning. Lets' put this verse in language teaching learning context by connecting it with the cooperative learning. In cooperative learning, there is mutual relationship among students which enable them to reach the goal of teaching learning. B. REASONS FOR CHOOSING THE TOPIC There are some reasons for choosing the topic: 1) The monotonous technique of teaching writing makes student not comfortable and enjoyable. Because to teach junior high school teacher must creative to improve technique appropriate to the class. 2) To introduce a method in teaching analytical exposition text for senior high school students by using Group Investigation method. C. Limitation of the study A researcher should be limited in its scope, so that the problem being examined is not too wide and the researcher is effective. To limit the scope of the research and research to analyze the problems, the findings of the research should be limited by following factors: 1. Using group investigations to improve student's writing skill of analytical exposition text at eleventh grade of MA Manahijul Huda Ngagel Dukuhseti Pati at the preparation activity, main activity, and evaluation activity. 2. The assessment of students' writing covers the part, qualities, and characteristics of the object to determine the improvement of students' writing analytical exposition text. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5
  • This study is intended to answer the following questions: 1) How is the implementation of group investigation to improve students' writing organization of analytical expositions text? 2) To what extent is the improvement of students' writing organization of analytical expositions text after being taught through group investigation? E. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study are as follow: 1) To describe the implementations of teams group investigation to improvestudents' writing organization ofAnalytical Expositions text. 2) To identify of improvement of students' writing organization of Analytical Expositionstext after being taught the use of group investigations method. F. PEDAGOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE Based on the objectives above, the significance of the study can be stated as follows: 1) For writer By doing this research, the writer will get many experiences and know ledges about her study and it will be useful in the future. 2) For teacher By doing this research, the writer hopes that the output of the study will be useful to give contribution of developing English teaching especially in teaching writing on analytical exposition text. And the writer hopes teacher can use group investigations as an alternative method in teaching writing process. 3) For the students By doing this research the writer hopes that the students will enjoy following the English class. They will be easy to understand the lesson and 6
  • memorable, so that it can improve their understanding on writing organization of analytical expositions text. 7
  • CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. PREVIOUS RESEARCH There are some researches done in writing implementation. One of them is a study by Indah Jannatun Nisfah, Faculty of English Education and Department, Muria Kudus University 2009. She made thesis about "The Ability of Writing Recount Text of the 11th Grade Students of SMA Muhammadiyah Kudus in the Academic Year 2008/2009 Taught by Using Group Investigation Method" 7 She did this study because based on the teacher experience in teaching English it was assumed that most of the students were able to express their thoughts well especially in written language. They made some errors in spelling grammar and the choosing of appropriate words, which had to be used in expressing their ideas, when they were asked to write. The result of the research that group investigation gave the students different nuances of teaching. They could learn and write using group investigation. They were also interested and developing their English through writing. The similarity between her research and the writer's is on the method and the data analysis. Second researcher is Siti Ulinnikmah (3104056), Tarbiyah Faculty, IAIN Walisongo Semarang 2008. She conducted study about "The Use of Cooperative Learning of Teams Games Tournaments for 7 Indah Jannatunnisfah ( 00544569), The Ability of Writing Recount Text of the 10 Grade th Students of SMA Muhammadiyah Kudus in the Academic Year 2008/2009 Taught by UsingGgroup InvestigationAapproach .Education Faculty of Muria Kudus University, 2009. 7
  • Teaching Grammar to Eight Grader of MTsN Kudus in Academic Year of 2008/2009. 8 She did that study because there many students have difficulties in learning grammar. She used cooperative learning of Teams Game Tournament to teach grammar. The result, the activity offered in Teams Game Tournament is interesting so that the students will feel the new atmosphere in classroom and are interested in learning grammar. The similarity between her research and the writer's is on method of collecting the data. B. THEORETICAL REVIEW 1. The General Concept of Group Investigation a. Definition of Group Investigation Method Robert E. Slavin stated that Group Investigation as follow; "Group Investigation is a form of cooperative learning that dates back to John Dewey, but has been refined and researched in more recent years by Shlomo and Yael Sharan and Rachel Herts-Lazarowitz in Israel." Group Investigation is one of cooperative learning method which focused on student's participation and activity. The teacher who use this method firstly he/she divides the class into small heterogeneous groups. This group consists of four to five and may form around friendships or around an interest in a particular topic. Students select topics for study, then every group decides what subtopics are to be investigated as well as the goals of their study, and 8 SitiUlinnikmah,The Use of Cooperative Learning of Teams Games Tournaments for Teaching Grammar to Eight Grader of MTsN Kudus in Academic Year of 2008/2009. TarbiyahFaculty,IAINWalisongo Semarang, 2008. 9 Allyn& Bacon, 1995), p. 111 9 Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice, (London: 8
  • 10 to the student's abilities of communication or the group skill. Group Investigation model exercises the students to grow up their brain skill. The students as the followers actively will show from the first step until the last step of the learning process. Group investigation is Cooperative Learning in which students help define topics for study and then work together to complete their investigations. In Group Investigation method students divides into four or five members with heterogeneities in each group. The group may form about friendship form the students' group based on their friendship or the same interest, students are likely to feel more comfortable in their groups and possibly to share in similar working style. The Group Investigation involves students in planning both the topics for study and the ways to proceed with their investigations. Students choose the subject based on the topic given by teacher, the subject will be discussed in their group to make a draft, than arranged as composition text. b. The Steps of Group Investigation Method In Group Investigation, pupils progress through six steps. The then prepare and present a report in front of class. This type demands steps of using Group Investigation (GI) as follow; 11 1) Topic Selection, Students choose specific subtopics within a general problem area, usually described by the teacher. Students are placed into small two-to six member task oriented groups. Group composition is academically and ethnically heterogeneous. 10 11 H.Isjoni,, Pembelajaran Kooperative, (Yogyakarta: PustakaPelajar, 2009), p.87. Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice, p. 115- 117 9
  • 2) Planning the investigation in group, in the second steps Students in each group and the teacher plans specific learning procedures, tasks and goals consistent with the subtopics of the problem selected in step 1 (first). 3) Implementation or carrying out the investigation, typically this is the longest steps. Each group gathers information, review the subtopic, analyze or evaluate it, reach some conclusions and apply their share of new knowledge to the resolution of the group's research problem. Kinds of sources of information can be obtained both inside and outside the school. 4) Preparing final project, Students preparing final project, analyze and evaluate information obtained during step 3 (third) and must prepare a summary activity. It may be in form of plan their reports. 5) Presentation of Final Project, Each group in the class give an interesting presentation of the topics studied in order to get classmates involved in one another's work and to achieve a broad perspective on the topic. Group presentations are coordinated by the teacher. 6) Evaluation, in cases where groups followed different aspects f the same topic, students and the teacher evaluate each group's contribution to the work of the class as a whole. Evaluation can include either individual or group assessment or both. c. The advantages of group investigation method In group investigation, students not only work together but also help plan both the topics for the study and the investigation procedure used. Group investigation has many advantages: 1) Providing a share cognitive set of information between students. 2) Motivating students to learn the material. 10
  • 3) Providing that students construct their own knowledge. 4) Providing formative feedback. 5) Developing social and group skill necessary for success outside the classroom, and 6) Promoting positive interaction between members of different cultural and socio-economic groups. 12 2. Writing a. Definition of Writing Most of people believe that the ability in writing is a natural gift that is given by God to the human. The people with this belief that they are the only ones whom writing is unbearably difficult. They feel that everyone else finds writing is easy or tolerable. Many people have mistaken idea that being able to write well is a talent that one either has or doesn't have. 13 Writing is one of the basic tools of civilization. Without it, the world as we know it could not exist. It means that the development of writing was one of the great human writing. It is difficult for many people imagine language without spoken word seems intricately tied to the written word. Children speak before they learn to write and millions of people in the world speak languages with no written form. 14 Writing overcame such problems and allowed communication across the miles and through the years and 12 David W. Johnson, Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning, ( New Jersey, A Paramount Communication Company: 1994), p. 138 13 Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Writing Academic English, (California: Wesley Published Company, 1978), p. xiii 14 2001), p.3 Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach Writing, (England: Pearson Education Limited, 11
  • centuries. Writing permits a society to permanently record its poetry, its history and technology. Writing is speaking, to others on paper or on a computer screen. Writing is partly a talent, but it's mostly a skill, and like a skill, it improves with practice. . The purpose of writing is to give 15 some information, express thought, feeling, ideas, and experiences by writing it down, etc to convey a specific purpose. The purpose of writing is to give some information. 16 b. Process of Writing Writing as one of productive skill needs a process. This processes writers to write in sequence stages. Harmer states that the writing process is the stages that a writers goes through in order to produce something (a written text) before to be a final draft. 17 Writing is a process that involves several steps. And there are many steps of writing process at least three steps, they are; planning, rescanning and revising. 18 1. Planning or pre-writing. At this stage, the writer must think about three main issues. Those are the purpose, the audience (the reader), and content structure. 19 The point of writing will pressure not only the type of text that the writer wants to create, the language that the writer uses, but also the information the writer chooses to include. Secondly, the writer must think of the audience. The 15 Alan Meyers, Gateway Academic Writing Effective Sentences, Paragraph, and Essays, ( New York Pearson Education, Inc 2005) p. 2 16 Essays, p.4 17 18 Alan Meyers, Gateway Academic Writing Effective Sentences, Paragraph, and Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach Writing, p.4 Alice C Omaggio, Teaching Language In Context, (Boston, Heinle&Heinle Publisher Inc,1986),p.224 19 Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach Writing, p. 5. 12
  • audience will influence not only the shape of the writing (how it is laid out or how the paragraph is structured) but also the choice of language (formal or informal language). Thirdly, the writer has to consider the content structure of the piece. It means that how the writer sequence the fact, ideas or argument. This stage is often called by pre-writing process. Pre- writing is the thinking, talking, reading and writing you do about your topic before you write a first draft. Prewriting is a way of warming up your brain before you write, just as you warm up your body before you write. There are two ways of warming up the brain; choosing and narrowing a topic and brainstorming . 20 The first is brainstorming, is often used to create new product, improve existing, or solve problem. You can brainstorm to find a topic, and to find supporting details. 21 There are five steps that must be done by writers to brainstorm: a) Writers must begin with a broad topic. b) Writers must write down as many ideas about the topic as writers can do in five minutes. c) Writers can add more items to their list by answering the questions what, how, when, where, why, and how. d) Writers group similar items on the list together. e) Writers can cross out items that do not belong. 20 Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Writing Academic English, (California: Wesley Published Company, 1978),p.4 21 Education Inc, 2003),p.41 Karen Blanchard and Christine Root, Ready to Write, (New York: Pearson 13
  • Second is choosing and narrowing a topic and is often called by clustering, is another prewriting technique. Here, you have to make given free choice subject and write about something that you are interested in, and your ideas are connected using circles and lines like spider map. 22 There are five steps that must be done by writers to cluster: a) Writers must write the topic in the center of blank place of paper and draw a circle around it. b) Writers can write any ideas that come into their mind about the topic in circle around the main circle. c) Writers must connect these ideas to the center word with a line. d) Writers think about each of their new ideas, write more related ideas in circles near the new ideas, and then connect them. e) Writers repeat the process until they run out of ideas. Prince Her sisters Her aunt Foes Friends Cinderella Characters Palace Kind Beautiful Where did she live The picture 1 above is an example of clustering 22 Alan Meyers, Gateway Academic Writing Effective Sentences, Paragraph, and Essays, (English: Addison Wesley Longman, 2005), p.6 14
  • 2. Writing. After you have finished in planning, you can continue to the next step, writing or rescanning. As you write, the opening draft on your paragraph, use the thoughts you generated as of prewriting as a guide. Remember to: 23 a) Begin with a topic sentence that states the main ideas, include several sentences that support the main idea. b) Stick the topic does not include information that does not directly support the main idea. c) Arrange the sentences so that the other ideas make sense. d) Use signal words to help the reader understand how the ideas in your paragraph are connected. 24 3. Revising. The last point, the most important after writing (drafting) is revising content and organization of your writing. 25 It is almost impossible to write a perfect paragraph on the first try, so it needs to be revised, because writing is a continuous process of discovery. Therefore, as you writing, you will think of new ideas that may not be in your brainstorming list in your outline. It is almost impossible to write a perfect paragraph on the first try, so it needs to be revised. The steps are: a) Add new ideas to support the topic. b) Cross out sentences that do not support the topic. c) Change the order of the sentences. 23 Alan Meyers, Gateway Academic Writing Effective Sentences, Paragraph, and Essays, p. 12 24 Essays, (English: Addison Wesley Longman, 2005), p 12 Alan Meyers, Gateway Academic Writing Effective Sentences, Paragraph, and 25 Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Writing Academic English,p,12 15
  • d) Using the following checklist to revise your paragraph; 1. Make sure you have a topic sentence. 2. Cross out sentences that do not relate to the main idea. 3. Check to see if the sentences are in the right order. 4. Add new ideas if they support the topic sentences. 5. Make sure you have included signal words to help guide the reader. 6. Check the punctuations, spelling and grammar. c. Purpose of Writing When person writers something, he or she has purpose for writing, the purpose will most often be to explain, to entertain and journalistic writing. According to Betty, there are three 26 purposes of writing that describe the kinds of students writing, those are: informative writing, expressive writing, and persuasive writing. 27 First is informative Writing, informative writing helps writers integrate new ideas and examine existing knowledge. So, writers can share knowledge and give information, directions, or ideas. Example of informative writing include describing events or experiences, analyzing concept, speculating on causes and effect, and developing new ideas or relationship. Second is expressive or narrative writing, is a personal or imaginative expression in which the writer produces story or essays. This type of writing often used for entertainment, pleasure, discovery, poems, or short play. 26 Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Writing Academic English,p 327 2005), p.7 Betty Mattix Dietsch, Reasoning & Writing Well, (NY: Marion Technical College, 16
  • The last is persuasive writing. In persuasive writing, writers attempt to influence others and initiate action or change. This type of writing includes evaluation of a book, movie, consumer product, or controversial issues. The writers have to decide what the primary purpose, before writing something. They have to focus on the purpose of their writing since this will affect what language they choose and how they use it. When they have determined their purpose, they know what kind of information they need, how they want to organize develop that information. 3. Genre Swales and Bhatia state that: "A genre is recognizable communicative event characterized by a set of communicative purpose(s) identified and mutually understood by the members of the professional or academic community in which it regularly occurs" 28 Genre is a term for grouping texts together, representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situations. For many people, it is an intuitively attractive concept that helps to organize the common sense labels we use to categorize text and the situations in which they occur.29 Genre is a type of writing which members of discourse community would instantly recognize for what it was. Genre has important role in teaching learning process, because it can produce the goal of communication based on the function of language in social 28 Marianne Celce-Murcia and Elite Olshtain, Discourse and Context in Language Teaching, (NY:Cambridge University Press, 2000), p.6 29 Michigan Press, 2004), p.4 Ken Hyland, Genre and Second Language Writing, ( USA: The University of 17
  • interaction. The meaning of the genres intended is that students are able to understand the concept and they would be able to identify a kind of texts that students will have to write. There are many kinds of genre which are taught to the students. This is story genres, called as literary texts, which are constructed to appeal our emotions and imagination. It involves narrative, news story, exemplum, anecdote and recount. The other one is factual genres. The texts present information or ideas and aim to show and tell or persuade the audience. It involves procedure explanation, report, discussions and exposition. Exposition has two kinds, analytical exposition which its aim to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case and hortatory exposition, which is to persuade the readers or listeners that something should or shouldn't be the case. 30 4. Analytical Exposition Text An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. 31 It also collaborate that writer's idea about the phenomenon surrounding. The purpose of an analytical exposition text is to persuade the readers or listener by presenting one side of an argument. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people 30 Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English , (South Yarra: Machmillan Education Malaysia, 1997) p.2-3 31 antipodean Educational Enterprises, 1994), p.197 Linda Garot and Peter Wignel, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, ( Australia: 18
  • Analytical exposition text have 3 components, they are: constructing an exposition, language feature an exposition and generic structure. 32 First is constructing an Analytical Exposition. In constructing an analytical exposition text, there are three basic steps, the first step is called as an introductory statement that gives the author's point of view and previews the arguments that will follow-in some texts, the opening statements may be attention grabbing. The second step is by constructing a series of arguments that aim to convince the audience, pictures might also be used to help persuade the audience. The last one is by constructing a conclusion that sums up the arguments and reinforces the author's point of view. After constructing an analytical exposition text, then language features of an Analytical Exposition text. The language features of Analytical Exposition consist of three kinds. First, the use of words that shows the author's attitude, or we usually call it as modality. The second one is the use of words to express felling or we usually call it as emotive words. The last one is the use of words to link cause and effect. The next step after we know about language feature of an analytical exposition text is the generic structure of analytical exposition. The generic structure of analytical exposition consists of three main parts: thesis, arguments and reiteration. 33 The first part is called as thesis. Thesis is used for introducing topic and indicates the writer's position. Besides, thesis is also used as the outline of the main argument, to be presented. 32 33 Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English,p,124 Linda Gerot and Peter Wignal, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, p.197 19
  • The second part is called as argument. The use of arguments is to restate main argument outlined in preview. It consists of the elaboration, development, and support to each point of argument. The last one is reiteration. It is usually used for restating the writer's position and to conclude the whole argument. Some dominant features that usually used when writing analytical exposition text, it is usually focused on generic human and non-human participants. It means that the subject of the general things can be human and non-human. 34 Another characteristic is the use of simple present tense. This tense is used because it shows the events that exist now, in the past and in the future. There are also the uses of relational processes to express the cause and effect event. The use of internal conjunction is to stage the argument and to show the series of argument that contain more than one argument. Last but not least is the reasoning through causal conjunction to show the conclusion of the whole arguments in the text. 35 34 35 RECYCLING Much of what we throw away could be used again. Recycling puts "garbage" to good use. Recycling helps preserve precious resources because it saves on the use of raw materials and energy. It also reduces the pollution caused when the waste is dumped. (Thesis) Glass can be remelted. This is better than making fresh glass from raw materials, Linda Gerot and Peter Wignal, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, p.198 Linda Gerot and Peter Wignal, Making Sense of Functional Grammar, p.198 20
  • but it is even better to reuse the bottle whole. Metals can be recycled by being remelted and then used tomake other new items. The metals to recycle from an ordinary household are aluminums and steel from cans. (Argument) Scrap from cars gives several different metals for recycling. Paper is easy to recycle. Every home and office should have a paper reclining routine. Plastics are the worst problem because they do not biodegrade (breakdown) easily. (Argument) They are also hard to recycle and cause Harmful pollution when burned. So, it is important to use as little plastics as Possible, and then only ones that are recyclable or biodegradable (Reiteration) 36 5. Text We live in a world of words. When these words are put together to communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created. When you speak or write to communicate a message, you are constructing a text. When you read, listen to or view piece of text, you are interpreting it is meaning. Text is the language unity that the meaning contextually. The limitation of the text is not measure the number of sentence or page, but the text is measured from the meaning expressed and context. 37 Thus, the quality of the text is not measured from the quantity of the sentences. 36 Achmad, Doddy, Developing English Competencies for Senior High School, ( Jakarta, Departement Pendidikan Nasional, 2008), p. 54 37 University Press, 1985),p.11 M.A.K.Halliday and Ruqaya Hasan, Language, Context, and Text, (Australia, Deakin 21
  • There are two types of the text, they are: 38 First is literacy text, literacy texts play with our emotion. It can make us laughs or cry, think about on our life and considers our beliefs such as aboriginal dreaming stories, movie script, limericks, fairy tales, plays, novels, song lyrics, mimes, and soap operas. They are including appealing to our emotions and imaginations. There are three main text types in this category: narrative, poetic and dramatis. Media text such as films, videos, televisions shows, and CDs can also fall in this category. Second are factual texts, it shows information or ideas, purpose to confirm and tell or persuade the audience. The main text types in this category are recount, response, explanation, discussions, information report, exposition and procedure.Factual texts include advertisements, announcements, internet web sites, current affairs shows, debates, recipes, reports and instruction. 6. Group Investigation Method in Teaching Writing Ability on Analytical Exposition Text. In this group investigation method there are 3 concepts: enquiry, knowledge, and the dynamic of the learning group. The research here is the dynamic of the learning group. The students give the responses the problems and solve it. The knowledge is the learning experience that has been founded directly or indirectly. And the dynamic of the learning group that shows describing a group of student which has a good interaction and share about their ideas, exchange their experiences, in their opinions. 38 Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 1, (South Yarra: Machmillan Education Malaysia, 1997), p. 1-3 22
  • Thing have to do in Group Investigation are: 39 First is grow up the group ability, When they do their homework, every member of group has their own opportunity to show their contribution. In the research, the student will find the information from the inside or outside class. Then, the students collect the information from every member of the group to do the task. Second is cooperative Planning, all of the students having an investigation for their problem. Which one of the sources is needed, who want to do it and how to presenttheir project in the Class. And the last is the teachers' roles, The teachers will prepare the source and facilitators. The teachers role their rule among the students groups and they pay their attention to also organize the students job and help the students to organize their job and help them when they get the trouble of the learning process in their group. Group investigation is one of the methods that can be used in teaching writing on analytical text. By using group investigation method the students more interest and motivate in the study. If the students more interest and motivated, they are a lot of ways to do it. Teacher can gives students group investigation and ask them to write the analytical exposition text. The use of group investigation method in writing analytical exposition text is to help students construct their arguments in every sentence which have to be explained in some paragraphs. Sometimes, students especially in senior high school are still confused about what with that they should write. When the students are asked to write their arguments, they need much time to think what kind true word that they should be write in the sentence of arguments. It is possible that after 39 Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice, p.215 23
  • spending a lot of time thinking hard, the idea has not come out. They are still confused of what to write, to start with the first, the second, and the third sentences in order to make the paragraph. C. ACTION HYPOTHESIS Based on the description above, there is action hypotheses that can be describe as follows: "The use of group investigation can improve student's ability in writing skill on analytical exposition text at eleventh grade students of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in academic year of 2011/2012". It means that group investigation method can improve students' in writing skill on analytical exposition text. 24
  • CHAPTER III METHOD OF INVESTIGATION A. Research Design In this study, the writer used classroom action research (CAR). Action research is a kind of research that is conducted in the classroom by a teacher. Classroom action research (CAR) is a kind of research that has re- emerged as a popular way of involving practitioners, both teachers and supervisors, so that they better understand their work. 37 Therefore classroom action research is a form of research that is conducted by practitioners to improve practices in educational setting. This study is used observation data on the process of teaching learning in the classroom. Those data analyzed through some steps in the cycles. Kemmis and Taggart stated that action research as follow; Kemmis and Mc Taggart state that: "Action research is concerned equally with changing individuals, on the one hand, and, on the other, the culture of the groups, institutions and societies to which they belong. The culture of a group can be defined in term of the characteristic substance and form of the language and discourses, activities and practices, and social relationship and organization which constitute the interaction of the group." 38 From the explanation above, the writer can conclude that classroom action research is a classroom action in a research, which can be done by teacher, researcher, and teacher with his or her colleague, etc with involves a group of students to improve teaching and learning process or to enhance the understanding of the students to the lesson. In this research, the writer using group investigation (GI) method to improve students' writing ability. 37 Mulyasa, Praktik Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Bandung: Rosdakarya, 2009), p. 1138 Louis Cohen, Research Methods in Education, (London: MPG Books Ltd, 2007),p.298 25
  • In order to be clear, the writer would like to present the Kurt Lewin's model of classroom action research. It can be depicted as follows:39 Planning Planning Reflecting Acting Reflecting Acting Observing Cycle I Figure 1 CAR Design Observing Cycle II There were two cycles applied in conducting this study. Each cycle consisted of two meetings. According to Kemmis and Mc Taggart there are four components in one cycle for doing classroom action research. It consists of (1) planning, (2) acting, (3) observing, and (4) reflecting. 40 1. Planning Plan as the first step of research procedure is done to give solution for the identified problems. It is a plan to conduct treatments. In order to improve students' reading comprehension ability, the writer tended to use Group Investigation method. It was hoped that by using Group Investigation as learning method, students would be able to improve their reading ability. 2. Acting After planning the concept, the writer carried out the treatment referring to the plan has been made. The writer conducted a pre-cycle before applying the treatment. 3. Observing Observation is the activity of observing the data collected in order to know what extent the action activities has reached the objectives of the study. In this step, the writer identified and analyzed the data collected during the treatment. 39 Wijayakusumah, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta: PT Indeks, 2010),p. 2040 Louis Cohen, Research Methods in Education, p.303 26
  • 4. Reflecting Reflection is the activity of evaluating critically the progress or change of the students. In this step, the writer could observe whether the action activity resulted any improvement. To support the study, the researcher used interview and test to gather the data. B. Subject This study will be conducted at the 11 grade students of MA th Manahijul Huda NgagelDukuhsetiPatiin the academic year of 2010/2011. There are four classes in eighth graders, they are class 11A has 40students, class 11B has 36 students, class 11C has 35 students and class 11D has 43 students. The researcher uses class 11C as sample in this research. So participants in this study are students on class 11C at MA Manahijul Huda NgagelDukuhsetiPatiin the academic year of 2011/2012 C. Setting of the Study In this study, an action research will be conducted at the eleventh grade students of MA Manahijul Huda Ngagel DukuhsetiPatiin the academic year of 2011/2012.This research is conducted on the first semester in the academic year of 2011/2012 for about 1 month. Began from August 1, up to August 25, 2011. It is located on Ngagel Street number 3 DukuhsetiPati. The researcher chooses this Senior High School because she believes that students in this school still low in writing ability. This is proved that the achievement score of students in final exam is still low. So, the researcher can apply the research in the eleventh grade. D. Technique of Data Collection The researcher must uses instrument in order to get the better data. The instrument of the research is a tool or facility that is used by researcher for collecting the data in order to get better result; it can be occurred complete and systematic. 27
  • To make this research successful, the researcher uses some instruments to collect data, they are follows: 1. Observation Observation is an activity which concern to research object by the sense. 41 In conducting observation, the researcher used the observation scheme to make it more systematic containing list of activity or happening which might happen. It needed for monitoring condition of class and students and to know students difficulty with material and method that used during teaching learning process. 42 In observation step, the researcher is helped by the teacher in observing what happen in the class during the lesson from opening until closing. In addition, the researcher also observes what is going on in the classroom and observes the effect of her teaching to improve students' writing ability. In addition, the researcher also observed what was going on in the classroom and observed the effect of her teaching to improve students' ability in writing analytical exposition text. Aspects observed in this study are as follow: a. Students concern toward teacher's explanation b. Students cooperative in group c. The students activeness in present the material d. Students concern toward other group presentation e. The students' activeness in asking question f. The students' activeness in answering questions in group Criterion: The criterion of scoring from the observation checklist such as below: a. Score 1 if the student's participation was poor. b. Score 2 if the student's participation was fair c. Score 2 if the student's participation was average 41 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta: PT RinekaCipta, 2006), p. 22242 Louis Cohen, Research Methods in Education, p.396 28
  • d. Score 2 if the student's participation was good e. Score 2 if the student's participation was excellent. Observation is carried out four times: pre cycle, cycle 1, cycle II and cycle III. 2. Test Test is sequence of questions or exercises or other apparatus to measure skill knowledgeintelligence, ability or aptitude of individual or group. 43 According to Oxford Advantage Learners dictionary, test is short examination of knowledge or ability. In conducting to this study, the 44 researcher uses test as the second method of collecting the data. The test is used to collect the students' writing that must be analyzed to identify students' achievement on writing analytical exposition text. Based on the statements above, the researcher conducted the achievement test in his research. This test was used to measure students' achievement. The test, which was conducted before the treatments, called pre-test. It was used to find out the initial condition of students before treatment. There are two kinds of writing test, namely subjective test and objective test of writing. In this study, the writers used composition test 45 of writing. In this assignment, the students are required to compose some paragraph of analytical exposition based on the picture on group (a group consist 5-7 students in heterogeneities), example about healthy and global warming, which every paragraph consist of 10-15 sentences. 43 Suharsimi Arikunto, Ibid, p. 15644 A S Hornby, Oxford learners' Dictionary Of Current English Fifth Edition, ( NY: Oxford University Press, 1995), p.1233 45 J.B.Heaton, Writing English Language Test, (London: Longman Group Limited, 1975), p.11 29
  • In this research, test are divided into three sessions, they are: First is pre test, in the pre test the writer gave pre-test as the first meeting to collect the data. It was used to identify the students' achievements in analytical exposition text. Second is test, test is given during treatment as an exercise and practice for students. It was used to measure the improvement of the treatment. The last is post-test, post test was conducted to measure the students' ability after treatments. Test was similar to pre test and the result will be analyzed to see how to influence of group investigation method for helping students produces an effective analytical exposition text. Students had to pay attention to the five aspects of writing which would be used in the assessment. These five aspects were as follow; content, organization, vocabulary, grammar and mechanics. E. Scoring Technique In measuring the test, a standard technique should be used to show the result of research were reliable. To measure the writing test the writer used the analysis method. According to J.B.Heaton analytic scoring test in writing test, there are five major items or categories. They are grammar, vocabulary, fluently, relevance and mechanic. 46 To analyze the students' test in writing recount text, the writer focused on the items in the elements of writing as states by Heaton. The elements of writing are fluently, relevance vocabulary, grammar and mechanic. After classifying the test items, the writer gave score for each item with focused on organization of the content. Where score' organization higher than element of writing other. 46 J.B.Heaton, Writing English Language Tests, p.137 30
  • Table 1 Analytic Scoring of Writing Score 27-30 22-26 17-21 13-16 Aspect Contents Organization 18-20 14-17 Criteria Excellent: knowledgeable, substantive Good: some knowledge of subject, adequate range Fair: limited knowledge of subject, little substance Poor: does not show knowledge of subject, non substantive Excellent: the organization of contents and arrangement the generic structure is clearly. Good: the organization of contents and arrangement the generic structure is loosely organized but main idea stand out. Fair: the organization of contents and arrangement the generic structure is confused or disconnected. Poor: no organization of the contents and arrangement the generic structure is does not communicate. Excellent: effective word and usage, master words forming Good: occasional of word and usage but meaning not obscured Fair: frequent errors and usage Poor: essentially translation, little knowledge of English vocabulary. Excellent: effective complex construction, the employing of grammatical forms and the use of past tense. Good: effective but simple construction the employing of grammatical forms and the use of past tense. Fair: major problem is simple but complex construction of grammatical forms and the use of past tense. Poor: virtually no mastery of sentence construction rules of grammatical forms and the use of past tense. Excellent: demonstrated mastery the use of capitals, paragraphing, and punctuation. Good: occasional errors of the use of capitals, paragraphing, and punctuation. Fair: frequent errors of the use of capitals, 10-13 1-9 Vocabulary Grammar 18-20 14-17 10-13 7-9 22-25 18-21 11-17 5-10 Mechanic 5 4 3 31
  • 2 paragraphing, and punctuation. Poor: no mastery of the use of capitals, paragraphing, and punctuation. 47 Explanation: Relevance organization Vocabulary Grammar Mechanic : the substance of writing, the ideas expressed : the style and case of communication : The choice of idioms, words, and lexical item to give a particular tone or flavor to writing : The employing grammatical and syntactic forms : The use of graphic convention of the language, punctuation and spelling. 48 After getting the total mean score, the writer categories it into the following criterions: Table 2 Level of achievement The Percentages of Grade Correct Answer 86% - 100 % 71% - 85 % 56% - 70% 41% - 55% 26% - 40% Level A = Excellent B = Good C = Fair D = Less E = Poor Outstanding Above average Satisfactory Below average Insufficient 47 J. Charles Alderson and Lyle F. Bachman, Analitic Scoring, (Cambridge University Press, 2002), P. 116 48 J.B.Heaton, Writing English Language Tests, p.137 32
  • F. Technique of Data Analysis The writer analyzed the data using quantitative data. Quantitative data can be found through conducting test, the writer analyzed data by using statistical analysis. In knowing whether the students' writing ability of analytical exposition text is improve or not. The writers used the steps which were done by the writer in analyzing the result of students' writing ability. The researcher used criteria of assessment that is since the content of students' writing covered the generic structure. The element of writing is content, organization, grammar, vocabulary, and mechanics. After classifying the test items, the researcher will give score for each item. To see whether the improvement of students' writing ability after being taught through using group investigation method is significant or not, the writer used score of students' achievement. 1. Data from observation Researcher uses observation scheme during the teaching and learning process in pre-cycle research, cycle I, and cycle II. Data from observation is described as detail as the researcher gets. Data from observation are grouped based on students' behaviour and students' response that can be taken as a clue or indicator for students' understanding when the analytical exposition thought.In this observation, the researcher observed 6 aspects with criterion of scoring from the observation checklists such as below: 49 In which a. Poor b. Fair c. Average d. Good e. Excellent percentage 0%-35% 40%-59% 60%-74% 75%-84% 85%-100% 49 J. Michael O'Malley and Lorraine Valdez Pierce, Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners, (London: Longman, 1996), p.144. 33
  • The observation is analyzed by using the following formula: Score = Scored got x 100 Maximum score 2. Data from test In this research, the researcher also uses mean formula to know the average of students' score and to check students' improvement in learning analytical exposition text. In analyzing the students' test papers in writing an analytical exposition text, the researcher used 5 elements proposed by Heaton, who suggest those 5 elements to be used in scoring, and the maximal score for each item is 5, so the total of maximal score will be 25. She thought that those elements were suitable and completes to score a writing test. While the average of the students' result was counted by using the 50 following formula: 51 X    Explanation:  The average of students scoreX    The sum of item scores  The number of the students 50 51 Louis Cohen, Research Methods in Education, p.411 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta: PT RinekaCipta, 2006), p. 34
  • Mean of score from the pre-cycle will be compared with mean of the first cycle and second cycle. It is to know how far the improvement of students in this research. G. Procedure of the Study In the classroom action research, the researcher conducted a pre- cycle formerly and two cycles by using group investigation method. There are 4 steps in action research, they are planning (plan to use group investigation method), acting (implement of group investigation method), observing (the researcher observes the teaching learning process and students' activity in classroom), and reflecting (teacher and researcher). 1. Pre cycle Pre test was the first activity of the action research. The writer began to distribute the instruments, at that time the writer explained a little about what analytical exposition text is and asked them to do pre test. 2. First Cycle (1 meeting)st N o 1 Steps Table 3. Cycle 1 Activity of researcher Teacher activity Planning - collaborator arranging a lesson plan based on the teaching material Preparing the teaching material Preparing the test instrument Preparing the observation scheme The researcher as observer and - - - - - - 2 Acting - Preparing the teaching material Preparing student's attendance list Preparing the poster contains analytical exposition test. - The teacher introduces the 35
  • teacher teaches analytical exposition text by using group investigation method - - - - 3 Observing - The researcher is a observer of the teaching learning process Observing students' respond by using Group Investigation method The researcher and teacher discuss about teaching learning process that have been done to find weakness and how to Improve it in - - - 4 Reflecting - method The researcher divided students to the heterogeneous group consists 5-6 students in each group. The teacher teaches analytical exposition text by using Group Investigation method The teacher gives the students poster about analytical exposition text. Teacher gives a test to students based on the poster. The teacher applies this method Observing the teaching learning process - Te teacher and researcher evaluate the step in teaching learning process as the result of observation for the student's ability on analytical exposition text. 36
  • the next cycle 3. The second cycle Table 4. Cycle 2 No Steps Activity of researcher as 1 Planning - collaborator Arranging the lesson plan based on teaching material. Preparing the teaching material Preparing the test instrument. Preparing the observation scheme. The researcher is - - - - - - 2 Acting - - as observer and teacher teaches analytical exposition text. - - - - Teacher activity Preparing the teaching material. Preparing the students attendance list. Teacher arranges improvement action to be developed became learning improvement point. Teacher asks to students about their problem on the previous lesson. The teacher explained the students' problem and discussed. The teacher asked the students their understanding about group investigation method that had been given in the day before. The teacher asked the students to back in their groups and work cooperatively. The teacher asked the students to write analytical 37
  • 3 Observing - The researcher is as observer of the teaching learning process. Observing students' respond by using Group Investigation method. - - - - 4 Reflecting - The researcher and the teacher discuss about teaching learning process that have been done to find weakness and how to improve it in the next step. - exposition text by using group investigation method based on the movie. The teacher explained the material clearly. Observing students' participation. The teacher encouraged the students in order they were confidents to write. The teacher and researcher evaluate the step in teaching learning process and discuss the result observation for the students' ability in analytical exposition text. 38
  • 39 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING A. Research Findings In this chapter, the writer would like to describe and discuss the findings of the research. This study is classroom action research on the use of group investigation method in teaching writing ability on analytical exposition text. Its purpose is to know the use of group investigation method in teaching writing ability, and to identify the improvement of students' writing ability, especially at the eleventh grade students of MA Manahijul Huda Pati in the academic year of 2011/2012. In this study there were two cycles and before conducted the cycle, the researcher gave preliminary test (the researcher got base score students writing ability) and compared with each cycle after taught using Group Investigation method. The descriptions of each are as follow: 1. Pre-cycle Before conducting this action research, a pre-test was given. The purpose of pre-test was to know the students' ability in writing analytical exposition paragraph. Pre-test was conducted on Monday, 1 August 2011. They were 35 students who followed the test. In this meeting, the teacher was doing teaching learning process as usual, that is writing. But, many students did not pay attention to the teacher. They tended make noisy in class, such as talk with other friend and they do other activity that is not related with learning activity. There were only some students active to ask questions to the teacher. They were Nurul Unika Rohmah, Fitri Hidayah, Ahmad Romadhon, and M.Shofa Ahwadi. They had to write a analytical exposition paragraph about "is smoking good for us?." The length of paragraph consists of 15 sentences. The time allotment was 40 minutes. The pre-test result would be
  • 40 compared to the students' test result after treatment to know the improvement of the students' ability in writing analytical exposition text. The students' written analytical exposition text was not coherent and united. They constructed a paragraph in which the content did not have good supporting ideas. They wrote an analytical exposition paragraph about smoking with the lack of idea development. The students were also poor in grammar and some of students ignored about punctuations such as capital letters, period, and commas. Based on the explanation above, the average of students' result in pre-test was poor. The teacher and researcher decided to use another method to make students interested in the learning process in order to improve students' ability in writing analytical exposition text. 2. First Cycle This activity was done on Saturday August 6 and Monday August th 8 2011. The teacher announced the result of yesterday's writing test. The th teacher told the students score of the test was not satisfying enough. Here, the teacher brought the students to a clear importance of comprehending the English texts, which can be facilitated through the group-work. The limitation of time made the teacher only did the first step in applying Group Investigation method. The teacher motivated the students that the method would be useful for them. The teacher introduced the role and group investigation learning. The first cycle was about teaching and learning process and achievement test. The topic was about healthy. The test is followed by 35 students. The researcher did research of using Group Investigation method to improve students' writing ability at class XI MA Manahijul Huda Pati. Because this researcher was classroom action research, there were four steps: planning. Acting, observing and reflecting.
  • 41 a. Planning 1) The researcher and the teacher discussed to solve the problem of pre-cycle and decided to use group investigation method to improve students' writing skill 2) The researcher and the teacher identified the learning design, such as arranging lesson plan which was using group investigation method, 3) The researcher and the teacher prepared the teaching learning resources, such as prepared material, the test instrument, and the observation checklist. The teacher taught used a lesson plan as the form to implement of action. In every cycle, the teacher used different writing text. In the first, the teacher used analytical exposition text with the theme "health" b. Acting This step, the teacher began from pre- writing activity, while-writing activity, and post-writing activity. 1) Pre-writing activity is the activity of students and teacher prepares themselves for the task and makes them familiar with the theme. Purposes of this step are; to introduce and arouse interest in the topic, to motivate learners by giving a reason for writing, and the last to provide some language preparation for the text. 2) While-writing activity where the teacher gave clearly explanation about the material, grammatical feature, and generic structure of analytical exposition text, introduced group investigation method and introduced the way and the rule of the method. After that, the students asked to do the writing in groups, each group that consists of four or five students.
  • 42 3) Post-writing activity, the post-writing activity is intended as kind of follow-up activity. In this activity the students must present the report of group work in front of class. Then the teacher gave conclusion and test. In this activity, the researcher became a teacher and she was accompanied by the teacher as observer.Learning process was started by greeting, asked students to pray together, checking students' attendance and then the teacher gave brainstorming before started the material by asking the students "Do you know about analytical exposition text and the features of the text?" if you know, raise your hand. In this case, there some students answer the question, they were: Zahrotul Alfiliya, Dian Novita dewi and Ahmad Romadhon. After that, the teacher explained about analytical text and the features of the text. The teacher introduced the theme about "health". Then, students divided into seven groups. Each group consist of four to five people based on random system both in academically and gender. Then, students each group found out data about their material and prepare who investigated and prepared a report in form of analytical text. After finished, the students each group presented their report in the class. During presentation, the researcher observed the students cooperative in group, the students' activeness in present the material, students concern toward other group presentation, the students' activeness in asking question, and the students' activeness in answering questions in group. Then, students helped the teacher if they faced the problem. In the last, the students and the teacher evaluated each group contribution to the work of the class. c. Observing The researcher observed the students' writing skill by using group investigation method by using observation sheets,
  • 43 evaluated the result, collected data and monitored the teaching learning process. It was used to find out to what extent the action result reached the objective. The steps were as follow: 1) The researcher observed the teaching learning process in order to know the influence of using group investigation in writing skill on analytical exposition text. 2) The researcher observed the students' activity in preparing their investigation. 3) The researcher wrote the success and the problem when the teaching learning process in progress which was not enough sufficient in reaching the objectives. Table 5 result of aspect observed in cycle 1 Poor Fair Averag Good (0- (40- e (75- 35%) 59%) 60- 1 2 74%) 3  3 84%) 4 Excelle nt 85- 100%) 5 No Indicators 1 Students concern toward teacher's explanation. Students' cooperative in group. The Students activeness in present the material. Total score 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
  • 44 4 Students concern toward other group presentation. The students' activeness in asking question. The students' activeness in 4 4 5 2 2 6 4 4 answering questions in group. 19 Score = Total Score Maximum score Score = 19 30 =63,33% x 100 x 100 According to the result of the observation above it can be concluded that the teaching learning process was sufficient learning. Although some of students made noisy with other friends at teacher's explanation, Students did not cooperate in their group, Students did not take part in deliver the material, students did not concern toward presentation and make noisy in learning activity,
  • 45 students did not ask question and students did not give answer the question. The students' writing skill was improved by using group investigation method. It was proved by the results of the observation that were more than 60% students could improve writing skill in four aspects although there were one aspect less than 60%. The improvement of students' writing skill by using group investigation method, it was resulted that the students' writing skill mean was 63, 33%. d. reflecting Based on the activity during cycle 1, the researcher noted that there were some problems should be solved in the next cycle, the problems were as follow: 1) Because of the results of cycle 1 were not good enough, the teacher and the researcher discussed about the activity in cycle 2 to solve the problems. Especially in group work. 2) Class should be conductive during teaching learning process, before teacher started the activity. There are 6 students shouted that make noisy. The teacher should control the class well. 3) When the activity in progress, the researcher found some students were passive in group. They were not fully joining in the investigation although they were in group pairs. It was the duty of the teacher to give more attentions and motivation toward the students in order to have a will or interest to join in group work activity. It can be done by calling their name and approached them, and asked their problems in joining the writing class. 4) Time management was very important factor in teaching learning process. The students need a longer time to investigate
  • 46 their material. So, teacher should manage and provide time perfectly. 3. Second Cycle The activity of cycle 2 was in line with the steps of planning activity. Cycle 2 activity was in two meetings. Cycle 2 was conducted on 13 of August and 15 of August 2011. a. Planning 1) The researcher and the teacher started the lesson by motivating the students and she also announced the result of yesterday's writing test. The teacher told the students score of the test was better than the pre-cycle score. 2) The researcher and the teacher identified the teaching learning design, such as arranging lesson plan which was according to the teaching learning process, in this meeting the teacher used the same method as the previous meeting and the teaching learning process ran well. The students paid attention toward teacher's explanation and they were interested with the topic on the day. They more cooperative in to do the group work and they were to be more active than previous meeting. The topic based on the video. The test is followed by 35 students. 3) The researcher and the teacher prepared observation sheet, worksheet, and added of documenting for the second cycle. 4) Prepared present list in order to know students' activeness in joining teaching learning process. b. Acting The researcher did some activities such as in the first cycle.Learning process was started by greeting, asked students to pray together, checking students' attendance. Then teacher asked the students to repeat previous lesson and asked about global issues like global warming. The teacher gave brainstorming before started the material by th th
  • 47 asking the students "what your opinion about global warming?" if you know, raise your hand. In this case, there some students answer the question. They were: Windartik, MuhLutfiAdib and FitriHidayah. The students were introduced using group investigation method in writing skill for the second time. The teacher offered knowledge to know steps and characteristic of group investigation method. After that, the teacher introduced new theme based on the video. Then, students divided into seven groups. The member of group was same with the first cycle. In the second cycle, the teacher prepared video. Each group got the task to investigate in theme based on the video. Students' representative from every group came forward in class to choose one theme. Then, students each group found out data about theme based on video and prepared a report in form of analytical exposition text. After finished, the students each group presented their report in the class. During presentation, the researcher observed the students cooperative in group, the students' activeness in present the material, students concern toward other group presentation, the students' activeness in asking question, and the students' activeness in answering questions in group. Then, students helped the teacher if they faced the problem. In the last, the students and the teacher evaluated each group contribution to the work of the class. After all of the process had finished, the teacher evaluated students by givinga test. The test conducted in next day on Monday August 15st 2011. The last, the teachergave suggestions to the students to study hard and also increasedtheir vocabulary and learned grammar. Because vocabulary and grammar have role important in writing ability. Then, the teacher asked students to say hamdalah together then closed the meeting. c. Observing The researcher observed the students' writing skill on analytical exposition by using group investigation method by using the observation sheets, evaluated the result, collected the data and monitored the teaching
  • 48 learning process. It was used to find out to what extent the action result reached the objective. The steps were as follow: 1) The researcher observed the teaching learning process in order to know the influence of using group investigation to improve students' ability in writing skill on analytical exposition text. 2) The researcher observed the students' activity in preparing investigation. 3) The researcher wrote the success and the problems when the teaching learning in progress which was not enough sufficient an reaching the objectives. The observer observed students in learning process at class by using observation checklist like at the first cycle. It could be seen in the table below: Table 6 result of aspect obcerved in cycle 2 Poor Fair Averag Good Excelle (0-35%) (40- e (75- 59%) 60- 2 74%) 3  3 No Indicators 1 1 Students concern toward teacher's explanation. Students' cooperative in group. The Students activeness in present the 84%) 4 nt 85- 100%) 5 Total score 3 2 4 4 3 3 3
  • 49 4 material. Students concern toward other group presentation. The students' activeness in asking question. The students' activeness in 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 4 answering questions in group. 22 Score = Total Score Maximum score Score = 22 x 100 x 100 30 =73, 33% According to the result of the observation above, it can be concluded that the majority of the students joined the class enthusiastically. It was better than the result of cycle 1. All activities in the second cycle could run well. It can be seen from their responses. The students paid attention toward teacher's explanation. They more cooperative in to do the group work and they were to be more active than
  • 50 previous meeting. They took active in answering question although helped by the teacher. d. Reflecting The result of the second cycle was also considered as implementation. It was better than previous one. There was an improvement in this cycle. The condition of the class was getting better. The students listen to the teacher's explanation and did not make noisy in learning activity. The students took active part in cooperation and can associate with member group. It was because they are interesting to study with Group Investigation method that the teacher never uses it as teaching method before The researcher concluded that the problems have been solving using Group Investigation method to teaching English writing ability.The teacher should motivate students to always writing a lot in English text and motivate the passive students in order to be brave to express their idea. All of the students had positive responses toward the teaching activity by using Group Investigation method. They felt enjoy when they were taught using Group investigation, because could help the students to introduce with other friend who have different background both in academically and gender. So, they could work together. Most of students also said that they were any improvement in writing ability after the teaching learning process with Group investigation method. It proved that the use of Group Investigation method could motivate the students' interest in learning English and improve students' writing ability. Through this method not only helped students improve their writing ability but also helped them to introduce with other friends both in academically and gender.
  • 51 B. Research Analysis After the researcher implemented the use of group investigation method to improve students' writing ability, the researcher got the datafrom every cycle. It was analyzed of pre-cycle and two cycles the researcher got the result of classroom action research. The result of researcher shows that there was significant improvement of student's ability in writing analytical exposition text after taught using group investigation method. 1. Pre-cycle The pre-cycle was conducted on Sunday, August 1 2010. In st this meeting the teacher was doing teaching learning process as usual that is the teacher used reading aloud method. a. Measuring the students individual improvement After conducting the test, the researcher gave score. The maximum score was 100. After finding the research of students test score in reading class, the researcher went to further analysis by using percentage of scoring as follow: Score= C1+C2+C3+C4+C5 The test result of pre-cycle can be seen in the table below. Table 7 The test result of pre-cycle No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Students code C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 Score 50 60 55 70 55 50 65 65 60 Percentage 50% 60% 55% 70% 55% 50% 65% 65% 60%
  • 52 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C-30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 M 55 55 60 50 80 65 60 60 70 75 50 70 65 50 45 60 70 65 60 55 75 45 50 55 60 55 2090 55% 55% 60% 50% 80% 65% 60% 60% 70% 75% 50% 70% 65% 50% 45% 60% 70% 65% 60% 55% 75% 45% 50% 55% 60% 55% From the result of pre-cycle showed that many of students still low in their writing ability. From 35 students, 1 student get 80 and 2 students get 75 or good mark, 4 students get 70, 5 students get 65, and 8 students get 60 or fair mark, 7 students get 55, 6 students get 50, and 3 students get 45. b. Measuring mean The mean score of writing class can be searched by using this following formula: X   
  • 53 X  = 2090 35 59.71 The average achievement of students in the pre-cycle was 59.71. The result of pre-cycle was lower than the criterion that has been stipulated by KKM (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal/ Minimum Passing Grade Criteria) there are 70. The researcher concluded that the treatment in each cycle was necessary to improve students' writing ability result. 2. Cycle 1 The first cycle was conducted on Saturday August 7 th and Sunday August 8 2010. It was held 07.40 - 09.00 am and 07.40 -th 08.20 am. In the first cycle the teacher taught writing using group investigation method. There were some obstacles in apply this method, it was made class noisy and some students did not join with other. a. Measuring the students individual improvement After conducting the test, the researcher gave score. After finding the research of students test score in writing class, the researcher went to further analysis by using percentage of scoring as follow: Score= C1+C2+C3+C4+C5 The test result of cycle 1 can be seen in the table below. Table 8 The test result of cycle 1 Students code C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 Score 60 60 65 80 70 No 1 2 3 4 5 Percentage 60% 60% 65% 80% 70%
  • 54 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C-30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 M 70 65 70 65 60 65 70 65 80 65 70 75 60 70 60 75 60 65 70 60 70 85 65 65 90 55 70 60 65 70 2370 70% 65% 70% 65% 60% 65% 70% 65% 80% 65% 70% 75% 60% 70% 60% 75% 60% 65% 70% 60% 70% 85% 65% 65% 90% 55% 70% 60% 65% 70% From the result of pre-cycle showed that many of students still low in their writing ability. From 35 students, 1 students get 90, 2 student get 80 and 2 students get 75 or good mark, 10 students get 70, 10 students get 65, and 8 students get 60, 1 students get 55. b. Measuring mean The mean score of reading class can be searched by using this following formula:
  • 55 X X   =   2370 35 67.71 The average achievement of students in the cycle 1 was 67.71. It means the students score in the first cycle can be categorized as fair. The researcher concluded that the treatment in cycle 1 was necessary to improve students' writing ability. Because there were one students test score still unsatisfied yet, so the researcher could continue to the next cycle. 3. Cycle 2 The second cycle was conducted on Sunday August 14 and st Monday August 15 2010. It was held 07.40 - 09.00 am and 07.40 nd - 08.20 am. In the second cycle the teacher taught writing using the same method as previous meeting that is group investigation method and using video. This activity makes the students enjoy the lesson more than before. They worked in their groups and did their roles better than before. a. Measuring the students individual improvement After finding the research of students test score in writing class, the researcher went to further analysis by using percentage of scoring as follow: Score= C1+C2+C3+C4+C5 The test result of cycle 2 can be seen in the table below. Table 9 The test result of cycle 2 No 1 2 3 Students code C-1 C-2 C-3 Score 70 75 70 Percentage 70% 75% 70%
  • 56 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C-30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 M 80 75 80 70 85 70 75 65 70 70 75 65 80 70 70 90 85 90 70 75 75 65 85 85 70 70 85 75 75 70 80 65 2625 80% 75% 80% 70% 85% 70% 75% 65% 70% 70% 75% 65% 80% 70% 70% 90% 85% 90% 70% 75% 75% 65% 85% 85% 70% 70% 85% 75% 75% 70% 80% 65% b. Measuring mean The mean score of reading class can be searched by using this following formula: X X     2625 35
  • 57 = 75 The average achievement of students in the last cycle was 75 or very good mark. It can be said the second cycle was successful since the result was better than in the pre-cycle and in the first cycle. The researcher concluded that there is improvement students' writing ability from pre-cycle until cycle 2. The result of the test from the pre-cycle until second cycle briefly can be seen in table 4 below. Table 10 The tests result from the pre-cycle until the second cycle No Students code Pre- Cycle 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 cycle 50 60 55 70 55 50 65 65 60 55 55 60 50 80 65 60 60 70 75 50 70 65 50 45 60 60 60 65 80 70 70 65 70 65 60 65 70 65 80 65 70 75 60 70 60 75 60 65 70 60 Cycle 2 70 75 70 80 75 80 70 85 70 75 65 70 70 75 65 80 70 70 90 85 90 70 75 75 65
  • 58 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Sum Mean Low score High score C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C-30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 70 65 60 55 75 45 50 55 60 55 2090 59.71 45 80 70 85 65 65 90 55 70 60 65 70 2370 67.71 55 90 85 85 70 70 85 75 75 70 80 65 2625 75 65 90 C. Discussion The data were obtained from the students' achievement scores of the test of writing analytical exposition text by using group investigation method there was a significant improvement in every test and good responses by the students. Based on calculation result after getting all of the treatment using Group Investigation method, the student's average score increased significantly, the student's average score from pre cycle was 57.71, score from the first cycle was 65.71, and score from the second cycle was 75. The following is the chart of the test during the Classroom Action Research: Table 11 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pre-cycle Cycle 1 Cycle 2
  • 59 From the diagram above, the use of group investigation method to improve students' writing ability can help students to understand the writing material. So, in this classroom action research of the implementation of group investigation method to improve students' writing ability in analytical text at MA Manahijul Huda Pati was success. It can be seen from the result of each cycle show any improvement not only in teaching learning activity but also the result of test. Based on the observation with the students, many factors that influenced the result of study. One of factors is using method in teaching learning process. The method is suitable in teaching writing ability, so the students can enjoy the lesson. Process in writing is more complicated intellectual undertaking than other. So, writing is difficult. Students need to be creative enough to generate ideas and goal directed enough to organize those ideas into meaningful text in writing. But, the use of group investigation to improve students' ability in writing skill on analytical exposition text made students easy to understood analytical exposition text material that is delivered by the teacher. A fun learning can stimulate students' spirit to be active connecting material with the practice of analytical exposition text such as is smoking good for us, global warming and so on. By considering the students' final score after getting treatment, the teaching of analytical exposition text using group investigation as a method was better than without group investigation ( method).
  • CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION This chapter presents conclusion and suggestion. The conclusions are drawn from the result and discussion in the chapter IV. The suggestions are proposed to the English teacher, students in senior high school, the next researcher and the education stake holder in common. A. Conclusion Based on the result from the chapter IV of the researcher that had been done in the two cycles in the research in the entitled "Using Group Investigation method to improve students' writing ability in analytical exposition text (a classroom action research with eleventh graders of MA Manahijul huda Pati in the academic year of 2011/2012)" can be applied to stimulate and give motivation to students to write analytical exposition text. It can be seen by significant different of students' ability between pre-cycle until the last meeting, it can be concluded that as follows: First, the implementation of Group Investigation method to improve students' writing ability has been applied through action research they are: The improvement of learning tool, teacher chooses interesting analytical exposition text in every cycle that appropriate for senior high school in order to make students interested with the text. Motivate students to cooperate in group. Since the students accustom to think individually, teacher should motivate students to discuss the writing material cooperatively and cooperate in group when they are assigned to do the group work. Motivate the passive students to be more active during the lesson. This relates with student ability to pay attention during the lesson, to understand the material and to speak up their mind in order to brave to express their mind. Students' engagement in writing ability. This related to students' effort to understand the text, to know new vocabulary and understand the meaning of the writing text. Students writing ability not only in the text but, writing ability will be developed best in association with speaking, listening, and speaking activities. 60
  • Second, this research shows us that the use of Group Investigation (GI) method in improving students' writing ability can help the students to solve their problems. The test result indicated that the students varied in their writing skill achievement. After the researcher conducted pre cycle up to second cycle, there was a significant improvement in every test and good responses by the students. Based on calculation result after getting all of the treatment using Group Investigation method, the student's average score increased significantly, the student's average score from pre cycle was 57.71, score from the first cycle was 65.71, and score from the second cycle was 75. B. Suggestion In this study, the writer would like to offer some suggestions to improve the students' ability in writing skill in order to get better result. 1. For the teacher It is important that the teacher usesof group investigation (GI) sometimes as an alternative method in teaching writing skill. Usually, writing is such kinds of activities that often bored the students. So, the use of this method will always give the students fresh and new condition. Hopefully, it can motivate the students and make them interested in writingand the students can cooperate with other friends who have difference background both in academically and gender. 2. For the student It is very useful for the passive students' to improve their abilities of communication or the group skill. 3. For the next researcher a. Hopefully, there will be an improvement for the next study. b. The writer hopes other researchers can use it as a reference to conduct their research on the same field. It is really possible that there is another more effective way to teach writing ability. 61
  • C. Closing Praise be to Allah SWT, that has been giving protection and guidance so that this thesis can be finished. The writer realized that this paper is far from perfection. Because of that, criticies and suggestion from the reader are very expected for the perfection of the paper. Hopefully, this paper is useful for all of us. Amin. 62
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  • Suprijono, Agus, Cooperative Learning TeoridanAplikasiPaikem, (Yogyakarta: PustakaPelajar, 2009) Ulinnikmah, Siti, The Use of Cooperative Learning of Teams Games Tournaments for Teaching Grammar to Eight Grader of MTsN Kudus in Academic Year of 2008/2009. TarbiyahFaculty,IAINWalisongo Semarang, 2008. Wijayakusumah, MengenalPenelitianTindakanKelas, (Jakarta: PT Indeks, 2010) Zayid, Mahmud Y., TheQuran, (Beirut: Dar Al-Choura, 1980) Zingaro, Daniel, Group Investigation: Theory and Practice ( Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 2008) Yusuf Ali, Translation, Retrieved from http://www.harunyahya.com/quran- translation30.php http://dudy-adityawan.com/education/group-investigation-method-learning/ cited on Friday 7 Jan, 2011th
  • Appendix 1 LESSON PLAN 1 School Subject Class/Semester Kind of text Skill focus Time allocation Standard of Competence Basic Competence : MA Manahijul Huda Pati : English : XI/1 : Analytical Exposition text : Writing : 3 x 40 minutes : Expressing meaning in short functional text and monologue in report, narrative, and analytical exposition in the context of daily life. : To express meaning and rhetorical stage in essay written language accurately, fluently and acceptably in the context of daily life in report texts, narrative texts, analytical exposition texts. :Indicator - - Students are able to use grammar, vocabulary and punctuation accurately Students are able to identify the generic structure of analytical exposition text I. Learning Outcomes By the end of the lesson, students are able to: - - - Identify the main idea of analytical exposition text Identify the detail information from the text related to the theme Identify the features of analytical exposition text II. Material : Write analytical exposition text based on the poster III. Teaching Method : GI IV. Learning Activities A. Pre Activities - - Teacher greets the students Teacher checks students' attendance by calling the roll 1
  • - Teacher asks students' condition B. Main Activities 1. BKoF (Building Knowledge of Field) - - - Teacher reviews previous lesson Teacher asks students the following questions:  How about your test yesterday?  Is it difficult for you?  Do you know about analytical exposition text?  Do you know about features of analytical exposition text? Students answer the question orally 2. MoT (Modeling of Text) - - - - - Teacher explains about analytical exposition text and the features Students are divided into groups Teacher distributes the passage to the students Teacher divide posters to the students Students identify the structure of text, the main idea, detail information, generic structure. 3. JCoT (Join Construction of Text) - - - - - - - - Each group writes name of person in around them Each group collects the paper name of person Students find out data about people who write in paper Students make investigation about material Students prepare a report (in the form of analytical exposition text) Students deliver the report for the whole class Teacher gives chance for students to ask or respond to the presentation Teacher helps students if they face the problem 4. ICoT (Independent Construction of Text) - Teacher gives students test 1 C. Post Activities - - Teacher invites the students to raise some questions Teacher closes the lesson 2
  • V. Source : Th.M.Sudarwati dkk, Look Ahead an English courses for SMA Grade X1 Jakarta, Erlangga , 2007 VI. Assessment a. Form b. Technique on the poster c. Aspect to be assessed mechanic d. Scoring guidance : Written test : Students are write analytical exposition text based : content, organization, vocabulary, grammar and : 1) Percentage of correct answer The Percentages of Grade Correct Answer 86% - 100 % 71% - 85 % 56% - 70% 41% - 55% 26% - 40% Level A = Excellent B = Good C = Fair D = Less E = Poor Outstanding Above average Satisfactory Below average Insufficient 2) Maximal score 100 3) Maximal grade 100 4) Students score= C1+C2+C3+C4+C5 5) VII. Instrument & Summary of the Material VII. ASSESSMENT 3
  • Appendix 2 LESSON PLAN 2 School Subject Class/Semester Kind of text Skill focus Time allocation Standard of Competence Basic Competence : MA Manahijul Huda Pati : English : XI/1 : Analytical Exposition text : Writing : 3 x 40 minutes : Expressing meaning in short functional text and monologue in report, narrative, and analytical exposition in the context of daily life. : To express meaning and rhetorical stage in essay written language accurately, fluently and acceptably in the context of daily life in report texts, narrative texts, analytical exposition texts. :Indicator - - Students are able to use grammar, vocabulary and punctuation accurately Students are able to identify the generic structure of analytical exposition text I. Learning Outcomes By the end of the lesson, students are able to: - - - Identify the main idea of analytical exposition text Identify the detail information from the text related to the theme Identify the features of analytical exposition text II. Material : Write analytical exposition text based on the poster III. Teaching Method : GI IV. Learning Activities A. Pre Activities - - Teacher greets the students Teacher checks students' attendance by calling the roll 5
  • - Teacher asks students' condition B. Main Activities 1. BKoF (Building Knowledge of Field) - - - Teacher reviews previous lesson Teacher asks students the following questions:  How about your test yesterday?  Do you like watching video?  What video do you like? Students answer the question orally 2. MoT (Modeling of Text) - - - - - Teacher explains about analytical exposition text and the features Students are divided into groups Teacher distributes the passage to the students Teacher divide posters to the students Students identify the structure of text, the main idea, detail information, generic structure. 3. JCoT (Join Construction of Text) - - - - - - - - Each group writes name of person in around them Each group collects the paper name of person Students find out data about people who write in paper Students make investigation about material Students prepare a report (in the form of analytical exposition text) Students deliver the report for the whole class Teacher gives chance for students to ask or respond to the presentation Teacher helps students if they face the problem 4. ICoT (Independent Construction of Text) - Teacher gives students test C. Post Activities - - Teacher invites the students to raise some questions Teacher closes the lesson 6
  • V. Source : Th.M.Sudarwati dkk, Look Ahead an English courses for SMA Grade X1 Jakarta, Erlangga , 2007 VI. Assessment a. Form b. Technique on the video c. Aspect to be assessed mechanic d. Scoring guidance : Written test : Students are write analytical exposition text based : content, organization, vocabulary, grammar and : 1) Percentage of correct answer The Percentages of Grade Correct Answer 86% - 100 % 71% - 85 % 56% - 70% 41% - 55% 26% - 40% Level A = Excellent B = Good C = Fair D = Less E = Poor Outstanding Above average Satisfactory Below average Insufficient 2) Maximal score 100 3) Maximal grade 100 4) Students score= C1+C2+C3+C4+C5 5) VII. Instrument & Summary of the Material 7
  • VII. ASSESSMENT The teacher asks students to write an analytical exposition text based on the poster. Aspects to be assessed - content, organization, vocabulary, grammar and mechanic Semarang, August 13 , 2011 The Researcher, Rina Mayasari NIM.073411020 Approved by Headmaster English Teacher Zaenal Arifin, S.Pd Mahmudah, S.Pd. 8
  • Appendix 3 The list of students NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 STUDENTS AHMAD ROMADHON ANIQOTUL' ATIYYAH ANITA FITRIANI ATIK ROHMAWATI DEVI ANDIKA SARI DIAN NOVITA DEWI DIYAH HANIFIATI EVA FITRIANA FARIKHATUN NI'MAH FAUL ZAHROTUN N FINALIAAGUSTINA FITRI HIDAYAH IKA LAILIN NISFAH INAYATUS SA'ADAH JUMIATUN KARTINI LAILIYATUL MU'AFIYAH M.SHOFAAHWADI MAHYA RIZKIYA MUFATTIKATUL FIKRIYAH MUH LUTFI ADIB NAYLI IFFATUL MAULA NOVIYATUN NURUL ANAM NURUL UNIKA ROHMAH NUSROH ULFAH PARMI PARMONO PUJI LESTARI RIZKAAYUK ANDRIYANI WAKHID ANDRA PRASTA WINDARTIK WINDI VIRONIKA YULI ASTUTI YULI NUR HIDAYATI ZAHROTUL ALFILIA CODE C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 9
  • Appendix 4 The list of group members Group 1 1. IkaLailinNisfah 2. FaulZahrotun N 3. Anita Fitriani 4. Noviyatun 5. MuhLutfiAdib Group 2 1. NurulUnikaRohmah 2. Parmi 3.MahyaRizkiya 4. Kartini 5. FitriHidayah Group 3 1. LailiyatulMu'afiyah 2. M. ShofaAhwadi 3. NusrohUlfah 4. ZahrotulAlfilia 5. Aniqotul 'Atiyyah Group 4 1. InayatusSa'adah 2. Jumiatun 3. DiyahHanifiati 4.Ahmad Romadhon 5.Windartik Group 5 1. FarikhatunNi'mah 2. Devi Andika Sari 3. Dian NovitaDewi 4. Eva Fitriana 6. YuliNurhidayati Group 6 1. WindiVironikaYuliAstuti 2.Parmono 3. FinaliaAgaustina 4. AtikRohmawati 5. RizkaAyukandriyani Group 7 1. MufattikatulFikriyah 2. NayliIffatulMaula 3. NurulAnam 4. Puji Lestari 5. WakhidAndraPrastya 10
  • Appendix 5 Name Class No : : : WORKSHEET Pre-test Theme Kind of text Time Allotment Instruction : fast food, healty eating? : Analytical exposition text : 35 minutes : 1. Write your name and class on the top of the paper. 2. Write an analytical exposition text based on theme. 3. The duration of writing is 35 minutes. 4. You have to write at least 15 sentences. 5. If you need, you can open your dictionary. Title: Thesis: ... 11
  • Arguments: ............................................................................. ............................................................................................................ Reiteration: ............................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................ 12
  • Appendix 6 Name of group: Class : WORKSHEET Cycle 1 Theme Kind of text Time Allotment Instructions : : Analytical exposition Text : 35 minutes 1. Write your name and class on the top of the paper. 2. Make a short analytical exposition text about healthy life based on the poster 3. The duration of writing is 35 minutes. 4. You have to write at least 15 sentences. 5. If you need, you can open your dictionary. Title: Thesis: ... 13
  • Arguments: ............................................................................. ............................................................................................................ Reiteration: ............................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................ 14
  • Appendix 7 Name of groups: Class : WORKSHEET Cycle 2 Theme Kind of text Time Allotment Instruction : : : Analytical exposition text : 35 minutes 1. Write your name and class on the top of the paper. 2. Write an analytical exposition text based on the video you just wacthed. 3. The duration of writing is 35 minutes. 4. You have to write at least 15 sentences. 5. If you need, you can open your dictionary. Title: Thesis: ... 15
  • Arguments: ............................................................................. ............................................................................................................ Reiteration: ............................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................ 16
  • Appendix 8 Aspects observed: 1. Students concern toward teacher's explanation Score 1: Score 2: Score 3: Score 4: Students make noisy with other friends at the teacher's explanation Students do not make noisy in learning activity but they do other activity that is not related with learning activity and they do not listen to the teacher's explanation Students listen to the teacher's explanation but they do other activity that is not related with learning activity Students concern toward teacher's explanation really 2. Students cooperative in group Score 1: Score 2: Score 3: Score 4: Students do not cooperate in group Students take active part in cooperation but they can not associate with member of group Students take active part in cooperation and can associate with member of group Students take active part in group cooperation correctly and active in presentation 3. The Students activeness in presenting the material Score 1: Score 2: Score 3: Score 4: Students do not take part in delivering the material Students are not clear in delivering the material, students' voice is low and English writing ability is still bad Students are clear in delivering the material, but the presenter is not directed to audience and the presenter is good in English writing ability Students face to audience and look at the audience at presentation, deliver the material clearly with loud voice and the presenter is good in English writing ability 4. Students concern toward other group presentation Score 1: Students do not concern toward presentation and make noisy in learning activity 17
  • Score 2: Score 3: Score 4: Students listen to other group presentation, but they do other activity that is not related with learning activity Students listen to other group presentation Students concern toward other group explanation seriously and note it 5. The students' activeness in asking question Score 1: Score 2: Score 3: Score 4: Students do not ask question Students ask question but the question is not match with the material Students ask question as many as possible, but the question is not focus of the problem Students ask question with a good question 6. The students' activeness in answering questions in group Score 1: Score 2: Score 3: Score 4: Students do not give answer the questions Students give answer the question but the answer is not match Students give answer but helped by the teacher Students give complete answer without helped by the teacher ASSESSMENT CRITERION: 1 2 3 4 = Less = Fair = Good = Excellent ASSESSMENT PERCENTAGE EXPLANATION: 86% - 100% = Excellent learning 71% - 85% = Good learning 56% - 70% = Sufficient learning < 55% = Bad learning 18
  • Appendix 10 Students make planning the investigation in group Students analyze and reach some conclusion in implementation or carrying out the investigation.
  • Students work in group in cycle 1 and the researcher observe it Students work in group in cycle 2 and the researcher observe their activities
  • Students do their investigation in cycle 1 Students preparing final project in cycle 2
  • Appendix 11 Profile of MA Manahijul Huda Pati MA Manahijul Huda Pati was officially founded on August 6, 1960. It is institutions which located at Jl. Kauman no 3 Ngagel Dukuhseti Pati Vision Menjadi sekolah unggul yang menghasilkan siswa berakhlaq mulia dan berprestasi tinggi. (To be an excellent school that produces noble students with high-achievement). Mission 1. Membina mental dan budi pekerti luhur melalui pendidikan. (To build a good character through education). 2. Melaksanakan kegiatan belajar mengajar secara efektif dalam mendukung peningkatan prestasi. (To conduct the teaching learning effectively to support achievement enhancement). 3. Menumbuhkan sikap komunitatif, koordinatif dan suportifitas. (To promote the communicative, coordinative and sportive attitude) 4. Menjunjung wibawa sekolah. (To promote the school's prestige). Programs of Study 1. Science Program 2. Social Program 3. Language Program Address Phone Website : Jl. Kauman No.3 Pati 59158 : (0295) 7605578-7609076, fax. (0295) 7605578 : http://www.MAMMHPT.sch.id Accreditation : B
  • CURRICULUM VITAE Name Date of Birth Student Number Address : Rina Mayasari : Pati, April 21 , 1989th : 073411020 : 1. Home Ngagel Rt 01 Rw 03 No.34 Dukuhseti Pati 59158 2. Boarding House Jl. Segaran atas Rt 02 Rw 11 No 19 Ngaliyan Semarang Educational Background 1. RAAisyah Pati 2. SDN Ngagel 02 Pati 3. MTs Manahijul Huda Pati 4. MA manahijul Huda Pati 5. Fakultas Tarbiyah IAIN Walisongo Semarang Semarang, Dec 12 2011 The Writer, th Rina Mayasari NIM 073411020