CHAPTER III
METHOD OF INVESTIGATION
A. Setting of Study
The researcher conducted the classroom action research at MTs
I’an...
c) Teaching learning process
The improvement of students’ comprehension and achievement in
reading teaching learning proce...
interpret data), reflecting ( develop an action). All these aspects are made a
cycle, as stated by Kemmis and Mc Taggart: ...
(observing), and develop an action (reflecting).5
Classroom action
research usually conducted cyclic in which seeks to uni...
text, less students’ motivation in learning activity because teaching
learning process was not satisfied and less students...
Planning 1
Action I
The Problem of Student
Reflection I
Observation 1
The Problem of Student
Planning 2
Action 2
The Probl...
a. Pre – cycle
The first step in making Classroom Action Research, the researcher
began with an observation to know the co...
- Teacher asked
students about the
problems on the
previuos lesson.
- Teacher gave a test
to evaluate students.
3 Observin...
- preparing the teaching
material.
- preparing the test
instrument.
- preparing the
observation scheme
attendance list.
- ...
- Observe students’
respond toward mind
mapping technique.
participation.
4 Reflecting - The researcher and
teacher discus...
2 Acting - The researcher as
observer during the
teacher taught reading
comprehension using
mind mapping
technique.
- Rese...
The last activity in Classroom Action Research, the students will be
evaluated by giving a post – test. It was done to got...
scoring is easy and it is more practical for students to answer. There will
be 20 multiple choice questions in every test....
The score of students’ achievement can be calculated by using
this following formula:15
%100x
questionsofnumberThe
answerr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

4 bab iii

292

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
292
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "4 bab iii"

  1. 1. CHAPTER III METHOD OF INVESTIGATION A. Setting of Study The researcher conducted the classroom action research at MTs I’anatut Thalibin Pati. This setting is located in Cebolek Margoyoso Pati. It is located at jalan Raya Tayu – Juana. The researcher chooses this setting because it geographical location was not far from the researcher to reach. The students were come from different intelligence, social background, and characteristic of student setting and subject of the research. B. Subject of Study The subject of this study was students of VIII B of MTs I’anatut Thalibin Cebolek Margoyoso Pati, where the total number 40 students. The whole subject in the research was female because since the students were subdivided into the class separately based on the gender. This research was done at 2nd semester in academic year 2008 / 2009. C. Focus of Study In this Classroom Action Research, the research focuses on : a) Students Students as subject of the study can be seen from students’ activity in teaching learning process: students’ understanding and comprehend about text which is indicated by students’ achievement, students’ activity during teaching learning process. b) Teacher In this research, focuses on teachers’ way in constructing teaching learning condition using Mind Mapping Technique: Organizes conducive class when teaching learning process, presents the lesson, and gives question to students. 25
  2. 2. c) Teaching learning process The improvement of students’ comprehension and achievement in reading teaching learning process by using mind mapping technique. D. Method of Study 1. Research Design In this research, the researcher used the form of action research as stated by Wallace that is a kind of research which is done systematically in collecting the data on the lesson and analyzing it in order to come to some decisions about what the future lesson should be.1 It means that in action research, a researcher not only needs the theories which supports research but also needs to practice and to act with the subject of research. Action research is the name given a series of procedures teachers can engage in, either because they wish to improve aspects of their teaching, or because they wish to evaluate the success and or appropriacy of certain activities and procedures.2 Furthermore, classroom action research is a reflective study done by teacher in a classroom for getting solution about the problem until it can be solved. As stated by Grabe and Stoller : Classroom Action Research is the type of structured teacher reflection in which teacher looks critically at their own classrooms for the purpose of improving their own teaching and enhancing the quality of learning that place there.”3 The researcher intends to elaborate Classroom Action Research it is a kind of research to be used in her research and it could be done by a teacher in which involve a group of students to improve the teaching and learning process. There are four steps in Classroom Action Research, they are planning (identify the problems ), acting (collect the data), observing( analyze and 1 Michael J Wallace, Action Research For Language Teachers, ( New York : Cambridge University, Press, 1998 ), p. 17 2 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice Of English Language Teaching, ( New York :Longman, 2002 ), p. 344 3William Grabe and Fredricka L. Stoller, Teaching and Researching Reading (England: Pearson Education, 2002), p. 156 2
  3. 3. interpret data), reflecting ( develop an action). All these aspects are made a cycle, as stated by Kemmis and Mc Taggart: 4 : Figure 1 Action Research Cycle Classroom action research has several characteristics which will be elaborated as follows: 1) On the job problem oriented Problem which is being investigated appears from the authority of the researcher herself. The problem is the real problem faced by students’ everyday. 2) Problem solving oriented This research is oriented in the problem solving. This short of research puts the researcher as the agent of change. 3) Improvement Oriented This research gives emphasizes on the improvement of quality. This concept is according to the principle of critical research has to construct product oriented. 4) Multiple Data Collection In fulfilling the critical approaches principle, there are several ways of collecting data, such as observation, test and interview. 5) Cyclic The sequences of the classroom action research are identify of a problem (planning), collect data (acting), analyze and interpret data 4 Suharsimi Arikunto, et. al. , Penelitian Tindakan Kelas,(Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara, 2008), 6th ed., p.16. 3
  4. 4. (observing), and develop an action (reflecting).5 Classroom action research usually conducted cyclic in which seeks to unit. Its two central concerns, improvement in practice and increased knowledge and understanding is by linking them into an integrated cycle of activities in which each phase learns from the previous one and shapes the next. 6) Participatory Researcher makes such collaboration with an English teacher to do the classroom action research. 2. Design of Study This research is Classroom Action research, the researcher that uses data was analyzed through some cycles in action. Generally, Classroom Action Research involves a cyclical approach there are identify the problem (planning), collect data (action), analyze and interpret data (observing), develop and action plan (reflecting)6 . Before the researcher does the cycles in action, she will be done preliminary observation (pre cycle). Research design can be done with some steps as follows : 1. Preliminary Observation In this step, the researcher intended to find out: 1) Collect data such as documentation includes the number of the students, students name list, and average scores’ students. 2) The researcher interviewed an English teacher interrelated teaching learning process in English subject. 3) Identify the problem Based on the interview with an English teacher, can be identified the problem of teaching learning process at MTs. I’anatut Thalibin Pati especially in reading comprehension. The problems of this research were some students face difficulties in reading English 5 Geoffrey E. Mills, Action Research; A Guide for the Teacher Researcher, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc, 2000), p. 6. 6 Hitchock, and David Hughes, Research and Teacher: A Qualitative Introduction To School –Based Research (London ;Routledge , 1989 ) p.29 4
  5. 5. text, less students’ motivation in learning activity because teaching learning process was not satisfied and less students’ understanding in comprehend a text. 2. Planning in Action In this research, the researcher planned to conduct three cycles of Classroom Action Research. There are four steps process in each cycle for doing Classroom Action Research: 1) Planning Planning an action by focusing on who, what, when, where, and how the action will be done. This research is a collaborative research which is the action is done by teacher and the researcher’s rule as observer. In making a plan, teacher and researcher work together to decide teaching material. 2) Acting In this step, the teaching technique will be applied in teaching learning process. That is using Mind Mapping Technique in teaching reading comprehension. 3) Observing In this phase, the researcher observes and takes notes during teaching learning process. 4) Reflecting Reflecting means to analyze the result based on the data that have been collected to determine the next action in the next cycle. In this phase, the researcher could observe whether the acting activity had resulted any progress, what progress happened, and also about the positives and negatives.7 Result from observation then being reflected together by teacher and researcher, this includes analysis, and evaluation toward observation result. A cyclical process involving stages of action research is followed by action. It can be illustrated below:8 7 Suharsimi Arikunto et. al. Op.Cit, pp.75-80. 8 Ibid, p.16 5
  6. 6. Planning 1 Action I The Problem of Student Reflection I Observation 1 The Problem of Student Planning 2 Action 2 The Problem of Student Reflection 2 Observation 2 Reflection 3 Observation 3 Action 3 Planning 3 The problem was solved Figure 2 Cyclical Process Of Action Research E. Procedure of Study In this Classroom Action Research, the researcher planned to conduct three cycles. In this research, the teacher taught Reading Comprehension using Mind Mapping Technique. The activities that will be done in each cycle is as follows: 6
  7. 7. a. Pre – cycle The first step in making Classroom Action Research, the researcher began with an observation to know the condition of teaching learning in the classroom when the reading comprehension is implemented. Through the observation the researcher tried to get the information about students’ achievement and problems in reading comprehension. In this activity the teacher taught students with conventional method. After that, the teacher gave pre – test to check the students’ reading ability in comprehending the story. After the researcher got the data from observation and pre – test, the researcher decided to analyze the problems faced by the students. After recognizing the possible cause of problems faced by students, the next is designing a plan which is the reflection problem. b. The first cycle No Steps Researchers’Activity as colaborator Teachers’Activity 1 Planning - Arranging a lesson plan based on the teaching material. - preparing the teaching material. - preparing the test instrument. - Preparing the observation scheme - preparing the teaching material - preparing students’ attendance list. 2 Acting - The researcher as observer during the teacher teaches reading comprehension using mind mapping technique. - Researcher and teacher together enter the classroom. - The teacher introduced the mind mapping technique - Techer gave overview mind map and how to created this technique. - The teacher taught reading comprehension using mind mapping technique. 7
  8. 8. - Teacher asked students about the problems on the previuos lesson. - Teacher gave a test to evaluate students. 3 Observing - The researcher as observing the teaching learning process used observation scheme. - Observe students’ respond toward mind mapping technique. - The teacher applied this technique. 4 Reflecting - The researcher and teacher discuss about teaching learning process that have been done to find weakness and how to improvement in the next cycle. - The teacher and researcher evaluate the step in teaching learning process and discuss the result of observation for the students’ ability in reading. - Teacher and researcher discussed the results of the observation for the improvement of students ability in reading class. c. The second cycle The second cycle is done based on the result of reflection from the first cycle. If the result from observation showed that the quality is still low, so it is needed another action in order the next cycle makes some improvement of the quality. No Steps Researchers’Activity as observer Teachers’Activity 1 Planning - Arranging a lesson plan based on the teaching material. - preparing the teaching material - preparing students’ 8
  9. 9. - preparing the teaching material. - preparing the test instrument. - preparing the observation scheme attendance list. - Teacher arranged improvement action to be developed become learning improvement point 2 Acting - The researcher as observer during the teacher teaches reading comprehension used observation scheme. - Researcher helped teacher to spread the reading text. - Teacher asked students about their problems on the previous lesson. - Teacher divided students into some group consist of four students. - Teacher spread the reading text for students. - Teacher helped the students to find the meaning of the difficult word. - Teacher gave key word from each paragraph to help students more easy to understand the text. - Teacher explained the problem. - Teacher helped the students to find the meaning of the difficult words. - Teacher gave the test to check their understanding after gave treatment. 3 Observing - The researcher as observing the teaching learning process used observation scheme. - The teacher applied this technique - Observing students’ 9
  10. 10. - Observe students’ respond toward mind mapping technique. participation. 4 Reflecting - The researcher and teacher discuss about teaching learning process that have been done to find weakness and how to improvement in the next cycle. - The teacher and researcher evaluate the step in teaching learning process and discuss the result of observation for the students’ ability in reading. - Teacher and researcher discussed the result of the observation, for the improvement of students’ ability in reading. d. The third cycle The third cycle is done based on the result of reflection from the second cycle. The result from observation showed that the students got improvement score, but they still need difficulties in understanding English reading a text, so it was needed another action in order the next cycle better. No Steps Researchers’Activity as observer Teachers’Activity 1 Planning - Arranging a lesson plan based on the teaching material. - Preparing the teaching material. - Preparing the test instrument. - Preparing the observation scheme - Preparing the teaching material - Preparing students’ attendance list. - Teacher arranged improvement action to be developed become learning improvement point 10
  11. 11. 2 Acting - The researcher as observer during the teacher taught reading comprehension using mind mapping technique. - Researcher helped teacher to spread the text for each students. - The teacher introduced the mind mapping technique - The teacher taught reading comprehension using mind mapping technique - Teacher helped students to understand the text and gave a test to evaluate students. 3 Observing - The researcher as observer the teaching learning process used observation scheme. - Observe students’ respond toward mind mapping technique. - Observe students participation. - The teacher applied this technique. - Observing the teaching learning process. 4 Reflecting - The researcher and teacher discuss about teaching learning process that have been done. The result of observation was analyzed, so it could be seen the improvement of students’ comprehension on narrative text. - The teacher and researcher evaluate the step in teaching learning process and discuss the result of observation for the students’ ability in reading. - The teacher and researcher reflect the activity that have been done. The result of this analysis could be used as review to use mind mapping technique in teaching reading comprehension. e. Post – cycle 11
  12. 12. The last activity in Classroom Action Research, the students will be evaluated by giving a post – test. It was done to got students’ final score after taught using Mind Mapping Technique and check students’ achievement in reading comprehension. The researcher will analyze the result of post- test and compare the whole result test to know how far this technique works in improving students’ achievement in reading comprehension, then the researcher will make conclusion in conducting Classroom Action Research. F. Technique of Data Collection 1. Source of Data The source of data was the subject where the data can be got in detailed, those data were the field data, they are: a) Data from the teacher especially the English teacher of eight grade involves teaching learning process and students’ name. b) Data from the students involves: students’ achievement that was obtained from students’ score in the end of every cycle, data observation from students during teaching learning process took place, data from the picture documentation during the research. 2. Data Collection Method The methods will be used by the researcher to get the data in this research is as follows: 1.Test Test is a set of questions and exercises used to measure the achievement or capability of the individual or group.9 In this research, will be held in four reading test the first,second,and third are three evaluation tests that will be given in the end of each treatment to know the result of the students after they are treated by using mind mapping technique in the action and the last one is Post- test. These tests used to measure the students’ progress in comprehend reading material. The researcher uses multiple choice tests. This type of test is chosen because technique of 9Ibid, p. 158. 12
  13. 13. scoring is easy and it is more practical for students to answer. There will be 20 multiple choice questions in every test. 2. Observation Observation is the activity of giving total concern to research object of the sense.10 The purpose of observations is to explain the situation in class activities, individuals involved in some activities and relation between situation, activity, and individual.11 In conducting the observation, the researcher will use the observation scheme to make it more systematic, containing list of activity or happening which might happen.12 In this research observation is used to know how the implementation of mind mapping technique in teaching reading comprehension. It used to know the condition of class and the obstacles appeared during teaching learning process and it also used to saw students’ difficulties, problems and understanding about material given. 3. Interview Is the process of getting explanation by asking questions face to face between researcher and respondent using interview guide.13 In this research, interview is used to get the data from an English teacher and students. It can be used to investigate the students’ understanding about the lesson. G. Technique of Data Analysis Data analysis is an effort which is done by teacher and researcher to embrace the data accurately.14 After collecting the data, the researcher will analyzed the data .It can be defined as the process of analyzing data required from the result of the research. Qualitative data was gained from field notes, observation, interview, that is analyzed by data triangulation. 10 Suharsimi Arikunto, Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta : PT Rineka Cipta, 2006 ).p.149 11Bambang Setiyadi, Metode Penelitian Untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing: Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2006), p. 239. 12 Suharsimi Arikunto, op.cit., p. 157. 13 Moh Nazir, Metode Penelitian, (Jakarta :Ghalia Indonesia, 1999), p. 234 14 IGAK Wardhani dan Kuswaya Wihardhit , Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta, Universitas Terbuka, 2001 ), p. 189 13
  14. 14. The score of students’ achievement can be calculated by using this following formula:15 %100x questionsofnumberThe answerrightofnumberThe Score = The mean score of the class can be searched by using this following formula:16 )( studentsofnumbertheFrequency Scores Mean = 15 Slameto, Evaluasi pendidikan, ( Jakarta, Bumi Aksara, 2001), p. 189 16 Suharsimi Arikunto, Op. Cit., p.264 14

×