1. QUANTUM LEVITATION (superconductors) Presented By Soumya Ranjan Pattanaik Regd No - 0901106239 Electrical Engineering College of Engineering & Technology, Bhubaneswar Submitted To Dr. Abhimanyu Mohapatra Dr. Ranjan Kumar Jena
2. Preface• Definition• Concept• Timeline• Definition of Quantum locking• Description of Quantum locking• Applications• Future of superconductors
3. What is a SUPERCONDUCTOR?Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactlyzero electrical resistance and expulsion ofmagnetic fields occurring in certain materialswhen cooled below a characteristic criticaltemperature.
4. What is electrical resistance ?Electrons collide with atoms and dissipate energy in theform of heat due to electrical resistance.
5. Zero electrical resistanceBelow a certain critical Temperatureno collision occurs inside asuperconductor.
6. Meissner’s effectBelow the critical temperature(Tc) thesuperconductor expels the magnetic flux bydeveloping circulatory currents inside itsbody i.e. opposing magnetic fields. Bc T<Tc , B<Bc
7. HTS superconductors • Cheaper coolingHTS • High Reliability • Simpler Technology • High costLTS • High Thermal Stability • Difficult Technology
8. Superconducting VS Normal cablesNormal cables HTS cables• No critical Temperatures. • Zero resistivity below Tc.• Lesser conductivity. • Conductivity 10^6 times better than• With increase in current density size Cu. gets bigger than superconductors. • Can carry enormous amount of• Power is dissipated in the form of currents in small sizes. heat .Hence reliability is less. • No power dissipation. Hence higher• Cost is higher in a long run . reliability. • Cost is lesser.
9. Superconductor TimelineSl Year Invention Scientists Applications1. 1911 Zero electrical Resistance Kamerling onnes Lossless power cables,Maglev2. 1933 Diamagnetic behavior Meissner Quantum levitation3. 1957 BCS theory Bardin-cooper- Explanation schreiffer of SC4. ----------- Type-2 superconductors Abriskov Abriskov state5. 1986 High temperature superconductors Bednoz & muller Cheaper & available apps6. 2012 Quantum locking Eugene Quantum Podkletnov levitation
10. Quantum LockingMagnetic flux lines(flux-ons) do not move and arepinned inside a Type-2 ultra-thin superconductor . 100 billion flux lines
11. Why Quantum locking ?Magnetic Flux is QUANTIZED inside the superconductor i.e.Magnetic flux enclosed in a superconductor is integralmultiples of fluxons. Discrete Magnetic lines Pictured From Above
12. TED 2012 BOAZ ALMOG
13. What is it made of ?It is made of a ceramic compound YBa2Cu3O7-x .Tc = 93 K Cooled with liquid N2 .Consists of :• .5 micron superconducting layer• 500 micron sapphire crystal• Gold plated Coated with Gold for protection
14. Maglev Vs Q.levMaglev (non-zero potential) Q.Lev (zero potential)• This is based on the repulsive • Based on the quantum locking nature of the magnetic fields. principle.• Conductive property of the • Diamagnetic property of superconductors are superconductors are used. used(Electro-magnets).• Type-1 as well as Type-2 • Only occurs in Type-2 superconductors may be used. superconductors. • High stability . Multiple vehicles• Low stability. on the same track at same time is possible.• Lift lesser loads in comparison. • Can lift very high loads.• Electromagnets required on both • Electromagnets required on the rails and the train as well. rail only.
15. ApplicationsGenerators TransformersPower cables Energy storage
17. Future of Quantum levitation1. Gravity loopholeAs superconductor locks a particleabove and below its surface, it canbe used anywhere to create anenvironment without gravity.2. Frictionless BearingsA lot of energy is wasted in bearingfriction even though the contactarea is too small .It is because ofthe perpendicular force. But in caseof quantum levitation the bearingremains suspended in mid air.
18. Future of Quantum levitation3. Q.lev TrainsQuantum levitating trains are far morestable and practical . They require lessermagnetic field to operate and also cancarry heavy loads in comparison.4. Lossless Electrical MachinesGenerally Electrical machines faces a lot of losseslike Hysterisis loss, Eddy current loss, Copper loss ,Friction & Windage losses .With the help of HTSpower cables copper losses have already beenminimized. But this Q.lev will help us in minimizingthe windage and friction losses. This will also helpin minimizing the leakage flux to zero.
19. Future of Quantum levitation Estimated Electronics Energy Transportation Industry MedicalYear 1995 2000 2010 2020 Evolution of the superconductors materials application Source: ISIS – International Superconductivity Industry Summit.