PHD Process         Literature Searching     Tools for evaluating researchJames BissetAcademic Liaison Librarian (Research...
Part 1:LiteratureSearching
Speed searching- Search strategy for your topic- Refine or expand your search  accordingly- Trace academic debate by follo...
Expanding a search (1)• synonyms: power OR energy• alternative spellings/wildcards: behavio?r finds behaviour and behavior...
Expanding a search (2)• truncation: negligen* finds:• “the police were accused of negligence”• “the police were accused of...
• phrase searching:  “nuclear energy”• Proximity searching:  within # strateg*• additional keywords:  AND climate• Excludi...
Combining your results
Public opinion and “nuclear power”                OR               OR      nuclear        atomicAND   Public         popul...
Search strategy activity• Decide in your group which aspect of the  research topic you are going to focus on• Identify the...
Which resources?
Which resources?• Reference works        • Theses• Government             • Newspapers  publications           • Conferenc...
Accessing Resources• Which database?  – Bibliographic details (includes catalogue)    or full-text  – General or subject-s...
Literature ReviewConstruct a bibliography of ten items with atleast one reference to each of the following:• Book         ...
Part 2: Tools forEvaluating
Evaluating resources• Who is the author? What is their affiliation?• What is the status of the source?  Academic, professi...
Morning Star, March 14th 2009                Daily Mail, March 13th 2009.Is this story about how private businesses   Is t...
Citation searching                   Article                       Article                      C                         ...
Citation searching
Citation searching
Journal Impact Factors• Use Sum of citation accounts to gauge  a measure of “academic quality” of a  journal  - on-going d...
Image Credits  [Slide 4] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Ruanon. Original  available at  http://www.flickr.com/photos/7087...
Image Credits  [Slide 30-31] ‘Vitae®, © 2010 Careers Research and Advisory  Centre (CRAC) Limited‘ Available at www.vitae....
Measuring ResearcherDevelopment
Measuring                                              Researcher                                             DevelopmentV...
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)
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Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)

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2x 10-15 minute presentations as part of larger 2-day course. Followed by 3-hour activity with 1-to-1 guidance where needed.

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  • This is a 15 minute session, followed by 15 mins initial group discussion and planning, and then a further 10-15 minute presentation and demo.Part of a larger 2-day course. Following presentation, attendees have c.3 hours to conduct their literature search, evaluate sources, construct their initial bibliography, have a supervisor meeting and compose a review of an article provided by their supervisor.
  • Expanding your search is about two things:Thinking about all possible terms/spellings/concepts which might be applicable to what you are looking at, to ensure you don’t accidentally rule out any useful result simply due to semantics.If you have focussed a search too much, and aren’t finding the results you expect, about widening your net to see what else you can find.You’ll have some keywords in mind but as few of you will be experts in this area you will need to think about how others have framed research in this field. You will find that the keywords you use will change once you start looking for information and finding relevant resources. You can borrow their search terms and add to your list.synonyms: e.g. survey or questionnaire – make sure you don’British and American spellings: use wildcards e.g. colo?r finds colour and colortruncation: e.g. educati* finds education, educating, educationalist
  • This is about making the most of your time.During your PhD, you are going to want to manage your time carefully, and make sure you complete tasks as efficiently as you can with as little wasted effort. Today, this is even more important given the fact that over the next couple of hours you will have to explore a topic you are unfamilar with, create an appropriate and mixed-source bibliography from scratch, schedule in time for a meeting with your tutor and as a result of that, provide an evaluation and summary of a research article provided by your supervisor.This includes the literature review, and so this means: - (Search strategy for your topic ) - thinking about what you need to search for before you start your searching. e.g. most of you will need an intro to nuclear power from a reference text before searching for in depth information. - (Search strategy for your topic ) - focussing your search on a specific aspect or topic of debate - refining and expanding your search accordingly – After thinking about what you need to search for, first think about how to cast your net widely to make sure you don’t miss any potentially useful results (for example because an author has used a slightly different spelling, or referred to “nuclear power” instead of “nuclear energy” … but then also focus your search to limit those to the most useful and relevant so that if you aren’t looking at the entire gammit of political views on nuclear energy, but maybe just one key aspect. - Tracing academic debate by following up citations and references - (thinking about what you need to search for before you start your searching) managing your search, not biting off more than you can chew in the next couple of hours.You have a very specific information need – not writing a real thesis, writing a short thesis over 2 days. You have a specific task to carry out relating to literature searching – not trying to find everything that was ever written on the topic.ImagesApple bit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/70873497@N02/6935006104/
  • Thinking about your search before hand will help avoid biting off more than you can chew.[Image credit slide at end of presentation]
  • Expanding your search is about two things:Thinking about all possible terms/spellings/concepts which might be applicable to what you are looking at, to ensure you don’t accidentally rule out any useful result simply due to semantics.If you have focussed a search too much, and aren’t finding the results you expect, about widening your net to see what else you can find.You’ll have some keywords in mind but as few of you will be experts in this area you will need to think about how others have framed research in this field. You will find that the keywords you use will change once you start looking for information and finding relevant resources. You can borrow their search terms and add to your list.synonyms: e.g. survey or questionnaire – make sure you don’British and American spellings: use wildcards e.g. colo?r finds colour and colortruncation: e.g. educati* finds education, educating, educationalist
  • You’ll have some keywords in mind but as few of you will be experts in this area you will need to think about how others have framed research in this field. You will find that the keywords you use will change once you start looking for information and finding relevant resources. You can borrow their search terms and add to your list.synonyms: e.g. survey or questionnaire – make sure you don’British and American spellings: use wildcards e.g. colo?r finds colour and colortruncation: e.g. educati* finds education, educating, educationalist
  • Cover alternative examples (eg N3, adj3, /3, w/3, within 3, near3)[Image credit slide at end of presentation]
  • Visual representation
  • Example of search strategy sheet in pack
  • Remember to think about which resources you are looking for, and appropriate places to start your search for them…
  • Do you need a general reference work? Will Wikipedia suffice? Remember to evaluate? Will sources such as Credo Reference provide a credible alternative?Academic journals – Google Scholar? If you need to focus your search, will a subject or professional database actually allow you to find more relevant sources more quickly?
  • [animation in slide]Remember speed searching is not about rushing off and randomly clicking through results on Google – it is about planning, finding the best tool and then hopefully needing to conduct a minimum of searches
  • 15 minutes to start discussing search strategy, delegation of tasks etc.
  • Examples: Bias of authors in particular newspapers. Example from previous session “its from a broadsheet, so it is a good quality report” will not hold weight with your supervisor meeting. - bias - who is the author, what is their background - is it a news report, an in-depth profile or investigation, a review or an opinion piece?
  • An obvious example perhaps of opposing bias in the reporting of the same story in the press. Where is the bias? - The headline - The opinion - The sources used and information presented - The context described - Tradition of source, the audience report is aimed at, any alterior motives…[Image credit slide at end of presentation]
  • [Animation in slide]The same is true for other sources…Previous groups have happily included reports on national energy strategy… authored by Shell. It doesn’t mean to say it isn’t a useful source, but you should acknowledge the impact on its value of any potential vested interests which may influence its content.
  • [Animation in slide]The same is true for other sources…Previous groups have happily included reports on national energy strategy… authored by Shell. It doesn’t mean to say it isn’t a useful source, but you should acknowledge the impact on its value of any potential vested interests which may influence its content.
  • [animation in slide]If you are referring to papers delivered at a conference… who are the speakers?
  • [animation in slide]If you are referring to papers delivered at a conference… who are the speakers?
  • Likewise for a publication from any lobby group, such as Greenpeace… we do tend to value higher those sources which agree with our own prejudices.Tip of the hat to session on “Critical Evaluation”, including exploration of cognitive bias.
  • So, moving away from the evaluation you should be making of the resources you use… is there any way you can measure the impact of research in the academic arena?Not just about counting citations…… also need to read the citations to gauge if positive/negative. Compare citation metrics of article against comparable citation metrics, e.g.:Number of citations article has received vs. number of citations other articles published in same journal from that year have received.Author metrics: how does the author’s citation metrics compare to others in his field.[Image credit slide at end of presentation]
  • So, moving away from the evaluation you should be making of the resources you use… is there any way you can measure the impact of research in the academic arena?Not just about counting citations…… also need to read the citations to gauge if positive/negative. Compare citation metrics of article against comparable citation metrics, e.g.:Number of citations article has received vs. number of citations other articles published in same journal from that year have received.Author metrics: how does the author’s citation metrics compare to others in his field.[Image credit slide at end of presentation]
  • Not just about counting citations…… also need to read the citations to gauge if positive/negative. Compare citation metrics of article against comparable citation metrics, e.g.:Number of citations article has received vs. number of citations other articles published in same journal from that year have received.Author metrics: how does the author’s citation metrics compare to others in his field.[Image credit slide at end of presentation]
  • Very brief overview – with demo (following on from previous demo – look at journal impact factor (but explain means little without context) but then use as comparison with publications in same discipline field)However, there is disquiet about using a tool designed to illustrate links between individual articles to then measure the quality of ‘journals’. Some have described as a ‘Mortal Sin’.Emphasise this is a very brief overview, and we cover in more detail in ‘journal and impact’ session. Emphasise ‘Impact Factors’ are increasingly controversial, limited by both data coverage (no. of journals included) and what is being measured (citations are not an indication of quality). Mention of little help with research in non-academic publications (eg which hits the newspapers, blogosphere). Mention Altmetrics.
  • Phd process literature review and evaluation (web version)

    1. 1. PHD Process Literature Searching Tools for evaluating researchJames BissetAcademic Liaison Librarian (Research Support)
    2. 2. Part 1:LiteratureSearching
    3. 3. Speed searching- Search strategy for your topic- Refine or expand your search accordingly- Trace academic debate by following up references and citations- Does not mean do everything quickly
    4. 4. Expanding a search (1)• synonyms: power OR energy• alternative spellings/wildcards: behavio?r finds behaviour and behavior labo?r finds labour and labor
    5. 5. Expanding a search (2)• truncation: negligen* finds:• “the police were accused of negligence”• “the police were accused of acting negligently”• “the police were accused of being negligent”
    6. 6. • phrase searching: “nuclear energy”• Proximity searching: within # strateg*• additional keywords: AND climate• Excluding results: NOT weapons
    7. 7. Combining your results
    8. 8. Public opinion and “nuclear power” OR OR nuclear atomicAND Public popula*AND opinion attitude* engag*AND power energyAND weapon* bomb proliferat*NOT
    9. 9. Search strategy activity• Decide in your group which aspect of the research topic you are going to focus on• Identify the keywords within the question/title and write these at the start of the rows• Write synonyms next to each keyword• Truncate or add wildcards as appropriate
    10. 10. Which resources?
    11. 11. Which resources?• Reference works • Theses• Government • Newspapers publications • Conference• Web proceedings• Books/ e-books • Patents• Journals/ e-journals • Primary sources• E-prints • Images• Statistics/ data • Blogs & wikis
    12. 12. Accessing Resources• Which database? – Bibliographic details (includes catalogue) or full-text – General or subject-specific – Be specific e.g. Energy Policy, Renewable Energy, Public Opinion Quarterly etc.• Use to find out if we have full-text
    13. 13. Literature ReviewConstruct a bibliography of ten items with atleast one reference to each of the following:• Book • Media representation• Journal article • Official perspective• Thesis • NGO/charity viewWrite up the search strategy you employedEvaluate the resources you have found in termsof provenance rather than content
    14. 14. Part 2: Tools forEvaluating
    15. 15. Evaluating resources• Who is the author? What is their affiliation?• What is the status of the source? Academic, professional magazine, verifiable webpage?• How up to date? Does it have a date?• Has anyone else referred to this resource? e.g. citations• How do they refer to it? Negative or positive?
    16. 16. Morning Star, March 14th 2009 Daily Mail, March 13th 2009.Is this story about how private businesses Is this story about British workers beingare taking advantage of their workers? forced out of work by workers from the continent?
    17. 17. Citation searching Article Article C E Article Paper ArticleBook 2 Book 3 B A G 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Book1 Book4 Article Article D F
    18. 18. Citation searching
    19. 19. Citation searching
    20. 20. Journal Impact Factors• Use Sum of citation accounts to gauge a measure of “academic quality” of a journal - on-going discussion on appropriateness and reliability of doing so - does give an indication of key journals in a field and where authors like to publish.
    21. 21. Image Credits [Slide 4] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Ruanon. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/70873497@N02/6935006104/ [Slide 7] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by viZZZual. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/22394551@N03/2655969483/ [Slide 18] Screenshot and text from UWE iSkillZone. Original available at http://iskillzone.uwe.ac.uk/ [Slide 24-26] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Kirsty Andrews. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/47745961@N08/5169765739
    22. 22. Image Credits [Slide 30-31] ‘Vitae®, © 2010 Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited‘ Available at www.vitae.ac.uk/rdf
    23. 23. Measuring ResearcherDevelopment
    24. 24. Measuring Researcher DevelopmentVitae Researcher Development Framework [see image credits]
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