Publishing your research 
Bibliometrics, Journal Impact 
Factors and maximising the cite-ability 
of journal articles 
Jam...
Session outline 
- Intro: what can you measure? 
- Citations 
- Monitoring and assessing 
- Author metrics 
- Networking o...
Quick Survey (1)… 
• How many have already published any 
research papers in journals or conference 
proceedings? 
• How m...
Intro 
What can 
you 
measure?
What can you measure with 
bibliometrics? 
• Article/Book Impact: One measure of the impact of individual journal articles...
Are bibliometrics 
effective & reliable 
measures of 
academic impact?
Quick Survey (2) 
• Web of Science 
• JCR 
• SciVerse Scopus 
• PoP software 
• Sherpa ROMEO 
• Sherpa JULIET 
• Sherpa FA...
Part 1 
Introduction: 
Citations & 
Citation 
Indices
Citations 
• Links between papers that have something in 
common 
• Building on or challenging research 
• Help make a jud...
Citation indices 
1955 Eugene Garfield 
- the idea of creating a citation index for 
science to…
Citation indices 
“eliminate the uncritical citation of 
fraudulent, incomplete or obsolete data 
by making it possible fo...
Citation indices 
1955 
Eugene Garfield - the idea of measuring the “impact” of journal 
articles using citations 
1960s 
...
Citation indices 
(2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, 
issue 9. p. 5 
Science subjects 
Social-science subjects
Citation indices 
“reference lists are held under 
copyright by academic publishers 
which makes tracking citations 
impos...
Web of Science 
• Provided by Thomson Reuters. 
• Includes the Sciences, Social Sciences, Arts & 
Humanities & Books Citat...
SciVerse Scopus 
• Launched in 2004 by Elsevier 
• Main commercial competition to Web of Science 
• Main emphasis on scien...
Google Scholar 
• Beta version launched late 2004 . 
• Pulls data from a much broader range of 
documents (eg books, repor...
Things you can do 
• Count citations to an article 
• Link to other related articles 
• Citation mapping 
• Set up citatio...
Demo 
Web of Science / 
Google Scholar
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Part 2 
Author 
metrics
Citation metrics 
• h-index (Hirsch, 2005) 
– An author’s number of articles (h ) that have received at 
least h citations...
H-index
Author: Smith, J 
Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which 
have been cited as follows: 
a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13...
h-index – what’s in a 
number? 
• Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W 
Higgs 
- H-index (Google Scholar) = 
- H-index (Web of...
G-index
Author: Smith, J 
Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which 
have been cited as follows: 
a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13...
g-index – what’s in a 
number? 
• Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W 
Higgs 
- g-index (Web of Science) = 
- g-index (Google...
Demo 
Web of Science
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Google Scholar 
• Track citations to your publications 
– Check who is citing your publications. Graph your 
citations ove...
Demo 
Google Scholar 
- My citations
Issues 
• Author identification 
• eg Professor Gordon Love 
A name is not unique... 
- Prof. Gordon Love, University of C...
Issues 
• Author identification 
• eg Professor Gordon Love 
...so you need an alternative identifier (or 3) 
- ORCID prof...
Demo 
Researcher ID 
ORCID
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Publish or Perish Software 
• Anne-Wil Harzing (2006), current version 
4.6.4 (6th June 2014) 
• Aimed at individual resea...
Part 3 
Journal 
metrics
Journal Citation Reports 
• JCRs – annual publication of journals and 
their impact factors. 
• Over 10,800 titles, across...
Journal Impact Factor 
Citations in 2013 (in journals 
indexed in Web of Science) to all 
articles published by Journal X ...
Journal Ranking 
(2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 2
Journal Ranking 
(2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 3
Demo 
JCRs 
Journal Impact Factors
Other journal impact metrics 
• Eigenfactor - http://www.eigenfactor.org/ 
– Web of Science data 
• SCImagoJR - http://www...
Hands-on 
Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackc...
Issues 
• Author identification 
• Register on ResearcherID - eg Dr Dan Smith 
or ORCID 
• Citation cultures vary across d...
Part 4 
Maximising 
Cite-ability
Optimising your cite-ability 
• Title & Abstract 
(1) Discoverability; (2) Readability; (3) Length 
• Reference list 
• Jo...
Title & Abstract 
(1) Discoverability…
Title & Abstract 
• Construct a clear, descriptive title 
- describe what the research is about 
- think about what potent...
Australia’s Forgotten 
Victims 
“Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the 
disappearance of the i...
Genocide and Holocaust 
Consciousness in Australia 
“Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the dis...
Title & Abstract 
(2) Readability
Abstract Readability 
• Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) 
- Looked at 16,058 Biology/Biochemistry articles, 16,378 Chem...
Title & Abstract 
(3) Length
Abstract Length 
• Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) 
“abstract length significantly associates with 
increased citation...
Reference list 
“The impact [factor] and the number of cited 
references are … significant determinants of 
increased cita...
Journal and means of 
publication 
(1) JIF
Journal of publication 
“… the JIF is the main determinant of article citation 
impact …” 
Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2...
Impact?
Journal and means of 
publication 
(2) Open Access
Open Access 
• Boost’s potential access and visibility of 
research 
• Removes the research from behind paywall 
barriers…...
Open Access 
• 4633 articles across ecology, applied 
mathematics, sociology and economics. 
• 2280 were open access, and ...
Open Access 
By October 2012, the OA 
version had seen nearly 3 
times more downloads than 
the version sitting behind a 
...
Demo 
Sherpa Romeo 
Sherpa FACT
Optimising your cite-ability 
• Think carefully about your abstract and 
title. 
- keyword usage 
- clear, descriptive and...
Other suggested tips… 
• Dr Michael Taylor, Dept. Earth Sciences (Bristol) 
- Discusses strengths and weaknesses of his 
a...
Part 5 
Altmetrics 
(in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief) 
“Unlike the JIF, altmetrics reflect the 
impact of the article itself, not its venue. 
Unlike citat...
Altmetrics (in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief) 
• But you must still approach altmetrics as you 
do any metric... 
... with a critical head. 
• Any...
Altmetrics (in brief)
Altmetrics (in brief)
Further Reading 
Pendlebury, D.A. (2009) The use and misuse of journal metrics and other citation indicators. Archivumimmu...
Image Credits 
[Slide 10] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Kirsty Andrews. Original 
available at http://www.flickr.com/pho...
Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles (web version)
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Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles (web version)

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Most recent version of slides from Durham "Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles" session.. Delivered as part of the Durham University Researcher Development Programme.

[Last Devlivered November 2014]

Further Training available at https://www.dur.ac.uk/library/research/training/

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  • There is a no single data set covering all academic literature.

    Still only about 2427 Arts & Humanities journals covered in WoS (March 2012 data)
  • Higher quantity of data

    But WoS does have some unique content Scopus does not

    Also, different ‘quality control’ processes to decide which journals are included (and of course, deals with publishers to include data where publisher holds copyright).
  • Citation index updated annually… current date was (previously June 2013 and April 2012) June 2014, so may not pick up very recent citation data in metric tools.

    “Take the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by M Nielsen and I Chuang (2000 Cambridge University Press), for example. According to Web of Science, this book has been cited more than 2800 times. However, Scopus says it has been cited 3150 times, Google Scholar 4300 times, Physical Review Online Archive 150 times, ScienceDirect 375 times, the Institute of Physics Journal Archive 290 times, and arXiv.org 325 times. If only Web of Science is used, we would miss all of the citations found through Google Book Search and arXiv.org plus hundreds of the citations found through the other databases or tools. “ Meho 2007

    Meho: We compared results of citation coverage from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar for a sample of 25 highly published researchers in our field of information science and found that Scopus and Google Scholar increase the citation counts of scholars by an average of 35% and 160%, respectively.
    Increase in data means that multiple citation tools allow us to generate much more accurate maps or visualizations of scholarly communication networks in general, such as establishing links between authors, departments, disciplines, journals or countries that cite or
  • Demo 1 – (Web of Science) Search for citations to a particular article
    Demo 2 – (Web of Science) Search for citations to articles in that journal for that particular year

    Demo 3 – (Google Scholar)
  • Suggestion: locate an article, follow the citations. Possibly compare to other articles published in the same year.

    Then, compare the article on Google Scholar, explore some of the citations.
  • Explain more complex means of measuring citation than just counting numbers: both different ways of looking at consistency – obv penalises newer researchers

    That is why citation report for journal in a specific year is good so you can compare like with like

    Both indexes and others calculable using Google Scholar data via ‘Publish or Perish’ software – free to download. Search for any name and select a subset of publications.
  • Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)
    H-index = 3
    - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)
    G-index = 5
    - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared.
    - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)



  • HAS BEEN PUBLISHING FOR SEVERAL DECADES, MIGHT BE CONSIDERED TO HAVE MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON HIS FIELD OF RESEARCH DURING THAT PERIOD. AVERAGE H-INDEX IN HIS FIELD IS ABOUT 35 9BUT CONSTANTLY CHANGES AND VARIES BY WHICH DATA SET IS USED TO CALCULATE IT)

    Examples of taking h-index with a pinch of salt…

    Higgs – 2 issues. Comparatively low h-index compared to some researchers in field. H-index does not reflect several of his articles having multiple thousands of citations.
  • Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)
    H-index = 3
    - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)
    G-index = 5
    - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared.
    - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)



  • Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)
    H-index = 3
    - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)
    G-index = 5
    - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared.
    - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)



  • Actually, the g-index for Professor Higgs doesn’t have a huge impact, simply because he has not published as widely or frenetically as other colleagues in the same field.

    Highest cited article attracted at least 1369 citations.

    Does this lack of citations and low citation metrics mean that he has not had a significant impact in his and other fields or study, or that he is not seen as a valuable asset to his institution or research community?

    (Link to Google Scholar results – point out that once past page 2, results are actually duplicates, or odd inclusions such as talks at discussions, an academic blog citing information about P Higgs from Wikpedia (supposedly from 1929 – page 5))
  • Demo 3 – (Web of Science) Searching for author citations
  • Suggestion:
  • NOTE: G Love in California Riverside, was also research fellow at Newcastle University within the past 10 years.

    NB: could also use Tom Ward’s profile (uses ORCID, Google Scholar and ORCID) https://www.dur.ac.uk/mathematical.sciences/people/profile/?mode=staff&id=10645
  • ORCID: most recent enterprise (launched 2012), but developed for academics by academics. Non profit making and community led, but had attracted support from over 300 research organisations and publishers before launch. - offers unique, free registry for individual academics - API’s to link information into existing research management systems, academic databases and publisher services. - By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations (including Elsevier, Springer, Nature and Wiley, and universities such as Caltech and Cornell, and research funders such as the Wellcome Trust) and over 460,000 registrants.

    Researcher ID: launched in 2008, same premise as ORCID, but proprietary system developed and owned by ThomsonReuters.

    Thomson Reuters have enabled data exchange between its ResearcherID system and ORCID, and vice versa.

    Google Scholar: Allows authors to create free online profile, and list publications. This will then collect citation data from Google Scholar, and allow you to generate some author level metrics.


    (Durham Law example)
    https://www.dur.ac.uk/law/staff/?id=11690 - Dr Vincenzo Bavoso
    http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4985-9804
    http://www.researcherid.com/rid/H-9394-2013
  • Demo 6
  • Suggestion:
  • Version 4.6.4 in June 2014
    Version 4.6.1 in March 2014.
    Version 3.8.1 in October 2012.

    Metrics include “M-quotient”, which divides h-index by number of years and academic has been active.
    Also individual (compensates for co-authors) and contemporary (compensates for inability of h-index to decline, even despite retirement).
  • Benefits – small time frame so stops bias towards older journals
    Bias to those which publish a lot of review articles as they are more likely to widely cited
    Bias towards Eur and North American – remember only journals in this database and there are few LOTE (languages other than English) in here
  • Explain that denominator and numerator are not based on the same criteria.
    Citations in 2011 to all articles published by Journal X in 2009 & 2010 (Numerator) is everything cited in a journal
    Number of articles that were published in Journal X in 2009 & 2010 (Denominator) is all “research” articles (excluding letters, opinion papers, etc)
  • CHANCE FOR INTERACTION – ASK SOMEONE TO WORK OUT WHAT THE H-INDEX OF THIS AUTHOR IS.Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • CHANCE FOR INTERACTION – ASK SOMEONE TO WORK OUT WHAT THE H-INDEX OF THIS AUTHOR IS.Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • CHANCE FOR INTERACTION – ASK SOMEONE TO WORK OUT WHAT THE H-INDEX OF THIS AUTHOR IS.Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • Actually, the g-index for Professor Higgs doesn’t have a huge impact, simply because he has not published as widely or frenetically as other colleagues in the same field. Highest cited article attracted at least 1369 citations.Does this lack of citations and low citation metrics mean that he has not had a significant impact in his and other fields or study, or that he is not seen as a valuable asset to his institution or research community?(Link to Google Scholar results – point out that once past page 2, results are actually duplicates, or odd inclusions such as talks at discussions, an academic blog citing information about P Higgs from Wikpedia (supposedly from 1929 – page 5))
  • Demo 3 – (Web of Science)Searching for author citations
  • Suggestion:
  • Benefits – small time frame so stops bias towards older journalsBias to those which publish a lot of review articles as they are more likely to widely citedBias towards Eur and North American – remember only journals in this database and there are few LOTE (languages other than English) in here
  • Demo 4 – Google Scholar citations and metricsStart at Google Scholar homepage, and point out links at top (My Citations, Metrics) - Click on metrics. Show list of top citing journals, listed by h-index, by language and field of study. Show differences in average citations plus h-index. - Click on Google Scholar to return - Click on My Citations to show log in. - Show around screen - From drop-down menu, select add to - Search for Loughlin in ‘search articles’ - Add article (The calf in Bronze Age Cretan art and society), then go to profile to show… then delete and permanently delete from trash. - Click on Add again and show how you can add references manuallyThen return to slides to show fleshed out version maintained by author.
  • Author identification – if just by name, how do you account for full name/initial citations etc., changes in affiliation etc.ResearcherID: show can register from Web of ScienceORCID: show ORCID registration screen
  • Demo 5 – Very quick overview of where and how to access both author identification servicesResearcherID: show can register from Web of ScienceORCID: show ORCID registration screen
  • Version 3.8.1 in October 2012.Metrics include “M-quotient”, which divides h-index by number of years and academic has been active.Also individual (compensates for co-authors) and contemporary (compensates for inability of h-index to decline, even despite retirement).
  • Benefits – small time frame so stops bias towards older journalsBias to those which publish a lot of review articles as they are more likely to widely citedBias towards Eur and North American – remember only journals in this database and there are few LOTE (languages other than English) in here
  • Warning– 2011 JCRS published in 2012, and included data from 2011 - 2013 JCRS published in 2013, and included data from 2012So, if someone refers to the “2012 Journal Citation Reports”, they could be referring to the 2013 edition with 2012 data, OR the 2011 editon, which was published in 2012… with 2011 data.
  • Warning– 2011 JCRS published in 2012, and included data from 2011 - 2013 JCRS published in 2013, and included data from 2012So, if someone refers to the “2012 Journal Citation Reports”, they could be referring to the 2013 edition with 2012 data, OR the 2011 editon, which was published in 2012… with 2011 data.DEMO 1 – JIFsJCR – Sci or SocScied 2011 data latest issueSubject categories and journal rankingIndividual titles
  • Warning– 2011 JCRS published in 2012, and included data from 2011 - 2013 JCRS published in 2013, and included data from 2012So, if someone refers to the “2012 Journal Citation Reports”, they could be referring to the 2013 edition with 2012 data, OR the 2011 editon, which was published in 2012… with 2011 data.DEMO 1 – JIFsJCR – Sci or SocScied 2011 data latest issueSubject categories and journal rankingIndividual titles
  • JCR 2012 just published this monthExplain that denominator and numerator are not based on the same criteria. Citations in 2011 to all articles published by Journal X in 2009 & 2010 (Numerator) is everything cited in a journalNumber of articles that were published in Journal X in 2009 & 2010(Denominator) is all “research” articles (excluding letters, opinion papers, etc)
  • So, it takes the journal articles published in that journal for the previous two years, and the number of citations to those articles from that year.JCR 2012 just published this monthExplain that denominator and numerator are not based on the same criteria. Citations in 2011 to all articles published by Journal X in 2009 & 2010 (Numerator) is everything cited in a journalNumber of articles that were published in Journal X in 2009 & 2010(Denominator) is all “research” articles (excluding letters, opinion papers, etc)
  • JCR 2012 should be available c. June/July 2013Explain that denominator and numerator are not based on the same criteria. Citations in 2011 to all articles published by Journal X in 2009 & 2010 (Numerator) is everything cited in a journalNumber of articles that were published in Journal X in 2009 & 2010(Denominator) is all “research” articles (excluding letters, opinion papers, etc)
  • Illustration on difference between disciplines.
  • This graph shows how it can even vary quite a bit in a single subject area – therefore no generalisations can be made or comparisons between subject areas. An impact factor of 1.5 could be excellent for one discipline but sub-standard for another.
  • Demo 6 – Refer back to earlier article (Amin, 2004) for citations. Now look at journal it was published in…Show how to look up JIF, and the how to provide that with some context and relevance in its subject category.
  • Suggestion: Explore some journals in your subject field (baring in mind limited coverage in some fields)
  • Eigenfactor: “The Eigenfactor Score calculation is based on the number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year, but it also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the network more than lesser cited journals.  References from one article in a journal to another article from the same journal are removed, so that Eigenfactor Scores are not influenced by journal self-citation.”Article influence factor: The Article Influence determines the average influence of a journal's articles over the first five years after publication.  It is calculated by dividing a journal’s Eigenfactor Score by the number of articles in the journal, normalized as a fraction of all articles in all publications.  This measure is roughly analogous to the 5-Year Journal Impact Factor in that it is a ratio of a journal’s citation influence to the size of the journal’s article contribution over a period of five years.The mean Article Influence Score is 1.00. A score greater than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has above-average influence. A score less than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has below-average influence.
  • Refer back to comparison
  • H-index is naturally biased against early career researchers with few articles to their name.
  • Self-citations, mis-appropriated citations, P W Higgs.
  • Altmetrics / Social Media / Open Access / Open Datahttp://altmetrics.org/manifesto/ Altmetrics:“Unlike the JIF, altmetrics reflect the impact of the article itself, not its venue. Unlike citation metrics, altmetrics will track impact outside the academy, impact of influential but uncited work, and impact from sources that aren’t peer-reviewed.“http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/
  • Last point is a hypothesis, not a research finding
  • Last point is a hypothesis, not a research finding
  • Last point is a hypothesis, not a research finding
  • Demo 6 – Refer back to earlier article (Amin, 2004) for citations. Now look at journal it was published in…Show how to look up JIF, and the how to provide that with some context and relevance in its subject category.
  • Title – what does this mean?
  • Title – what does this mean?
  • But keywords aid discoverability, and not if a user reads and then cites the article…
  • Looked at 16,0958 Biology/Biochemistry articles, 16,378 Chemistry articles and 15,392 Social Sciences articles all covered by Web of Science.Remember - limited data set.Hypothesis:- abstract need to be clear to the intended reader, so they scan them and identify if of relevance. Language should be appropriate, but complexity is less of an issue as expert readers may expect this, or expect to cope with this.
  • Keywords – this is not about using terminology carefully in abstracts, but about the list of keywords identified by an author (or by a database/publisher) to identify what topics the article covers. Author may sometimes have less control over this than they might wish.Title – need to strive for a balance between clarity and descriptiveness, vs conciseness.
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • Reflect back to earlier quetsion about what constitutes ‘academic’ impact.
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • Demo 6 – Refer back to earlier article (Amin, 2004) for citations. Now look at journal it was published in…Show how to look up JIF, and the how to provide that with some context and relevance in its subject category.
  • Reminder – do not bulk out reference lists.But… reference lists make sense in how authors discover and evaluate research (citation searching, related links in web of science based upon correlation of reference lists and citing articles).
  • In summary, mention context in which the use of social media by researchers sits.Talk about collaboration, re-use and discussion. Mention in the context of move to open access publishing being mandated by funders and institutions (mention Wellcome, RCUK and also Harvard and Durham).Mention researchers self-imposed addiction to Journal impact factors and other metrics being used to identify prestigious and appropriate places to publish… but a growing discussion around altmetrics which also take into account measures of usage (repository downloads, storage in reference management software such as endnote web, refworks, menderlay, zotero), informal discussion, repurposing and referencing in non-published, non-peer reviewed material (newspapers, professional journals and trade press, official publications).Example here the PLoS Impact Explorer, and point out the examples feeding in to the score for that particular article.
  • Overview of Twitter.. Don’t show how to create account – on handout.Headlined / aboutProfile and home page@ Connections page (mentions and interactions)Search function (tweets, users, lists)
  • Transcript of "Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and Maximising the Cite-ability of Journal Articles (web version)"

    1. 1. Publishing your research Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factors and maximising the cite-ability of journal articles James Bisset james.bisset@durham.ac.uk Academic Liaison Librarian (Research Support)
    2. 2. Session outline - Intro: what can you measure? - Citations - Monitoring and assessing - Author metrics - Networking opportunities & performance measurement ? - Journal metrics - Impact factors and where to publish - Maximising cite-ability - How can you maximise the cite-ability of your research? - Altmetrics overview - Beyond academic impact
    3. 3. Quick Survey (1)… • How many have already published any research papers in journals or conference proceedings? • How many of you are expected to during course of your studies? • How many of you have already been advised where to publish, or where not to publish, based on what is the “ best ” journal?
    4. 4. Intro What can you measure?
    5. 5. What can you measure with bibliometrics? • Article/Book Impact: One measure of the impact of individual journal articles, conference proceedings or books, can be measured by the number of times they are cited by other works. • Journal impact: The perceived impact of a specific academic journal can be assessed by the number of times their articles are cited and where they are cited. • Researcher impact: The number of outputs and citations a researcher generates can be an indicator for the impact of an individual researcher. • Institutional impact: The prestige of a department or area of research within an institution compared to those at other institutions can be measured by the sum of individual researchers ‘impact’.
    6. 6. Are bibliometrics effective & reliable measures of academic impact?
    7. 7. Quick Survey (2) • Web of Science • JCR • SciVerse Scopus • PoP software • Sherpa ROMEO • Sherpa JULIET • Sherpa FACT • JIF • Eigenfactor • SCImagoJR • SNIP • h – index / g-index • altmetrics
    8. 8. Part 1 Introduction: Citations & Citation Indices
    9. 9. Citations • Links between papers that have something in common • Building on or challenging research • Help make a judgement about impact an article has made • Sum of citations can be an indication of the impact of an author’s work / a journal as a collection of articles
    10. 10. Citation indices 1955 Eugene Garfield - the idea of creating a citation index for science to…
    11. 11. Citation indices “eliminate the uncritical citation of fraudulent, incomplete or obsolete data by making it possible for the conscientious scholar to be aware of criticisms of earlier papers.” Garfield, E (1955) ‘Citation Indexes for Science’ Science, New Series, Vol. 122, No. 3159, pp. 108-111
    12. 12. Citation indices 1955 Eugene Garfield - the idea of measuring the “impact” of journal articles using citations 1960s Science Citation Index developed to highlight “formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common” 1975 Journal Citation Reports – uses Web of Science data to rank journals within disciplines
    13. 13. Citation indices (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 5 Science subjects Social-science subjects
    14. 14. Citation indices “reference lists are held under copyright by academic publishers which makes tracking citations impossible” The death of the reference and the re-use factor (2013) http://figshare.com/blog/The_Death_Of_The_Reference_and_the _reuse_factor/103
    15. 15. Web of Science • Provided by Thomson Reuters. • Includes the Sciences, Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities & Books Citation Indexes. • Indexes about 11,800 journals, plus conference proceedings. • Approximately 5,000 journals covering arts, humanities and social sciences.
    16. 16. SciVerse Scopus • Launched in 2004 by Elsevier • Main commercial competition to Web of Science • Main emphasis on science initially, but now broader in scope. • Currently indexes c.19,000 ‘active’ journals plus conference proceedings • Many titles covered in both WoS and Scopus
    17. 17. Google Scholar • Beta version launched late 2004 . • Pulls data from a much broader range of documents (eg books, reports, academic blogs, wider range of journal publishers). • Useful for subjects not covered by Web of Science. • Some concern over quality and accuracy of citation data, and how regularly it is updated.
    18. 18. Things you can do • Count citations to an article • Link to other related articles • Citation mapping • Set up citation alerts • Search for cited references • See citation reports for authors and journals
    19. 19. Demo Web of Science / Google Scholar
    20. 20. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
    21. 21. Part 2 Author metrics
    22. 22. Citation metrics • h-index (Hirsch, 2005) – An author’s number of articles (h ) that have received at least h citations – a researcher with an h-index of 10 has published 10 articles that have each been cited at least 10 times • g-index (Egghe, 2006) – The highest number (g) of papers that together received g2 or more citations – a researcher with a g-index of 10 has published 10 papers that together have been cited at least 100 times
    23. 23. H-index
    24. 24. Author: Smith, J Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which have been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3 “no. of articles (n) that have received at least n citations”
    25. 25. h-index – what’s in a number? • Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W Higgs - H-index (Google Scholar) = - H-index (Web of Science) =
    26. 26. G-index
    27. 27. Author: Smith, J Has written and published 9 articles (a-i), which have been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3 “The highest number (g) of papers that together received g2 or more citations”
    28. 28. g-index – what’s in a number? • Nobel Prize Winner 2013, Peter W Higgs - g-index (Web of Science) = - g-index (Google Scholar) =
    29. 29. Demo Web of Science
    30. 30. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
    31. 31. Google Scholar • Track citations to your publications – Check who is citing your publications. Graph your citations over time. Compute citation metrics. • View publications by colleagues – Keep up with their work. See their citation metrics. • Appear in Google Scholar search results – Create a public profile that can appear in Google Scholar when someone searches for your name.
    32. 32. Demo Google Scholar - My citations
    33. 33. Issues • Author identification • eg Professor Gordon Love A name is not unique... - Prof. Gordon Love, University of California Riverside (Earth Science) - Dr Gordon L Love, Sacramento (Medicine and Health) - Prof. Gordon Love, Durham University (Physics)
    34. 34. Issues • Author identification • eg Professor Gordon Love ...so you need an alternative identifier (or 3) - ORCID profile (0000-0001-5137-9434) - Researcher ID profile (A-3071-2011) - Google Scholar profile (3xJXtlwAAAAJ)
    35. 35. Demo Researcher ID ORCID
    36. 36. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
    37. 37. Publish or Perish Software • Anne-Wil Harzing (2006), current version 4.6.4 (6th June 2014) • Aimed at individual researchers • Analyse own performance using a range of metrics • FREE TO DOWNLOAD (Windows, Apple OS X, GNU/Linux) and FREE TRAINING MATERIAL • http://www.harzing.com/pop_win.htm
    38. 38. Part 3 Journal metrics
    39. 39. Journal Citation Reports • JCRs – annual publication of journals and their impact factors. • Over 10,800 titles, across 232 disciplines have JIFs in 2013 editions • A journal that is cited once, on average, for each article published has an JIF of 1. • 2014 edition… is JCR year 2013, covering Web of Science data from 2012...
    40. 40. Journal Impact Factor Citations in 2013 (in journals indexed in Web of Science) to all articles published by Journal X in 2011 & 2012 Number of articles (deemed to be citable by Web of Science) that were published in Journal X in 2011 & 2012 Journal X’s 2013 impact factor =
    41. 41. Journal Ranking (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 2
    42. 42. Journal Ranking (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 3
    43. 43. Demo JCRs Journal Impact Factors
    44. 44. Other journal impact metrics • Eigenfactor - http://www.eigenfactor.org/ – Web of Science data • SCImagoJR - http://www.scimagojr.com/ – Scopus data – Includes country ranking
    45. 45. Hands-on Via Flickr Creative Commons, by © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/
    46. 46. Issues • Author identification • Register on ResearcherID - eg Dr Dan Smith or ORCID • Citation cultures vary across disciplines • Publication cultures vary too • Research careers have different stages • Citation counts do not always = excellence • Scholarly communication evolving
    47. 47. Part 4 Maximising Cite-ability
    48. 48. Optimising your cite-ability • Title & Abstract (1) Discoverability; (2) Readability; (3) Length • Reference list • Journal/means of publication (1) Impact Factors; (2) Open Access
    49. 49. Title & Abstract (1) Discoverability…
    50. 50. Title & Abstract • Construct a clear, descriptive title - describe what the research is about - think about what potential users might be searching for. • Re-iterate key phrases in the abstract - improve ranking in search engines - aid human decision-making • Easier to find = more likely to be read = may translate to more likely to be cited (but still dependent upon quality / interest of research) Wiley-Blackwell guidelines http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/seo.asp
    51. 51. Australia’s Forgotten Victims “Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the disappearance of the indigenous peoples in the 1830s, they have contrived to excuse themselves by pointing to the effects of disease and displacement. Many colonists called for the extermination of Aborigines when they impeded settlement by offering resistance, yet there was no widespread public acknowledgement of this as a policy until the later 1960s, when a critical school of historians began serious investigations of frontier violence. Their efforts received official endorsement in the 1990s, but profound cultural barriers prevent the development of a general awareness of this. Conservative and right-wing figures continue to play down the gravity of what transpired. These two aspects of Australian public memory are central to the political humanisation of the country.”
    52. 52. Genocide and Holocaust Consciousness in Australia “Ever since the British colonists in Australia became aware of the disappearance of the indigenous peoples in the 1830s, they have contrived to excuse themselves by pointing to the effects of disease and displacement. Yet although genocide was not a term used in the nineteenth century, extermination was, and many colonists called for the extermination of Aborigines when they impeded settlement by offering resistance. Consciousness of genocide was suppressed during the twentieth century until the later 1960s, when a critical school of historians began serious investigations of frontier violence. Their efforts received official endorsement in the 1990s, but profound cultural barriers prevent the development of a general genocide consciousness. One of these is Holocaust consciousness, which is used by conservative and right-wing figures to play down the gravity of what transpired in Australia. These two aspects of Australian public memory are central to the political humanisation of the country. ”
    53. 53. Title & Abstract (2) Readability
    54. 54. Abstract Readability • Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) - Looked at 16,058 Biology/Biochemistry articles, 16,378 Chemistry articles and 15,392 Social Sciences articles all covered by Web of Science. • Readability not a significant determinant of citations in either Chemistry or Social Sciences, and statistically but not practically associated with citation counts in Biology/Biochemistry. Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006
    55. 55. Title & Abstract (3) Length
    56. 56. Abstract Length • Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “abstract length significantly associates with increased citation impact in all fields” “the number of keywords and the title length statistically associate with decreased citations” Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006
    57. 57. Reference list “The impact [factor] and the number of cited references are … significant determinants of increased citation impact” Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006 Consistent with studies in fields including psychology, medicine, chemistry, physics, engineering.
    58. 58. Journal and means of publication (1) JIF
    59. 59. Journal of publication “… the JIF is the main determinant of article citation impact …” Didegah, F. and Thelwall, M. (2013) “Which factors help authors produce the highest impact research? Collaboration, journal and document properties” Journal of Informetrics 7: 861-873. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.08.006 • Still a perception of the quality of a journal based on the JIF, meaning wide readership and cross-citation.
    60. 60. Impact?
    61. 61. Journal and means of publication (2) Open Access
    62. 62. Open Access • Boost’s potential access and visibility of research • Removes the research from behind paywall barriers… • Meaning you can more easily share via social media, email etc.
    63. 63. Open Access • 4633 articles across ecology, applied mathematics, sociology and economics. • 2280 were open access, and had an average citation count of 9.04 • 2353 were subscriptions journals, and had an average citation count of 5.76. Norris, M. (2008) “The citation advantage of open access articles” Thesis. Available at https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/4089
    64. 64. Open Access By October 2012, the OA version had seen nearly 3 times more downloads than the version sitting behind a subscription paywall. Terras, M. (2011) “What happens when you tweet an Open Access Paper” Melissa Terras’ Blog. Available at http://melissaterras.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/what-happens- when-you-tweet-open-access.html
    65. 65. Demo Sherpa Romeo Sherpa FACT
    66. 66. Optimising your cite-ability • Think carefully about your abstract and title. - keyword usage - clear, descriptive and complete • Reference lists - number of, and where are they from? • Where are you publishing, and how.
    67. 67. Other suggested tips… • Dr Michael Taylor, Dept. Earth Sciences (Bristol) - Discusses strengths and weaknesses of his already published article titles. - http://tinyurl.com/k6dhcac - http://tinyurl.com/k7o9msc - avoid vague words / weak puns - NEGATIVE “ it’s 12 characters too long to tweet” - POSITIVE “ the title strongly implies the conclusion” - POSITIVE “ Short, appealing and (hopefully) funny.”
    68. 68. Part 5 Altmetrics (in brief)
    69. 69. Altmetrics (in brief) “Unlike the JIF, altmetrics reflect the impact of the article itself, not its venue. Unlike citation metrics, altmetrics will track impact outside the academy, impact of influential but uncited work, and impact from sources that aren’t peer-reviewed.“ http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/
    70. 70. Altmetrics (in brief)
    71. 71. Altmetrics (in brief)
    72. 72. Altmetrics (in brief) • But you must still approach altmetrics as you do any metric... ... with a critical head. • Any result touching on religion AND medicine/health is likely to be picked up and shared far more than a high quality piece of research on optical binding forces and two dimensional structures...
    73. 73. Altmetrics (in brief)
    74. 74. Altmetrics (in brief)
    75. 75. Further Reading Pendlebury, D.A. (2009) The use and misuse of journal metrics and other citation indicators. Archivumimmunologiae et therapiae experimentalis. 57(1): 1-11 (includes “ten commandments of citation analysis”) Smeyers, P & Burbules, N.C. (2011) How to improve your impact factor: questioning the quantification of academic quality. Journal of Philosophy of Education. 45(1): 1-17 Van Noorden, R. (2010) A profusion of measures. Nature. 465: 864-866 (has a handy “field guide to metrics”) Van Noorden, R., Maher, B and Nuzzo, R (Oct 2014) Nature. “The top 100 papers” http://www.nature.com/news/the-top-100- papers-1.16224 www.journalmetrics.com(2010) The evolution of journal assessment. (compares SCIMagoJR, AI, SNIP and JIF metrics in table at the en (2007) Show me the data. Journal of Cell Biology. 179 (6): 1091 Available at http://jcb.rupress.org/content/179/6/1091.full Why you should ignore altmetrics and other bibliometric nightmares (Jan 16 2014); http://www.dcscience.net/?p=6369
    76. 76. Image Credits [Slide 10] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by Kirsty Andrews. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/47745961@N08/5169765739 [Slides 29, 48 and 62] Via Flickr Creative Commons, © Stuti Sakhalkar. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/theblackcanvas/2945878325/ [Slide 30] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by geishaboy500. Original at http://www.flickr.com/photos/49503154413@N01/2326873674 [Slides 54] Via Flickr Creative Commons, by emdot. Original available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/35237093637@N01/56156364 [Slide 69] Created using http://photofunia.com
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