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Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell
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Biology for Computer Engineers, Part 2: The Cell

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The first presentation in the ubio exclusive series ‘Biology for Computer Engineers’, gave an introduction to biochemistry basics and covered protein biochemistry. The second presentation in the …

The first presentation in the ubio exclusive series ‘Biology for Computer Engineers’, gave an introduction to biochemistry basics and covered protein biochemistry. The second presentation in the series focuses on cells, which are the basic life forms. It provides short introduction to biochemistry of nucleic acids and lipids and explains the concept of ‘life’ and its evolution. It then goes on to discuss biology of the cell, especially cell structure and cell functions.

As in the previous presentation, the focus of this cell biology ppt is on highlighting the thread of common logic that runs beneath the enormous diversity of life forms, while giving an overview of biochemistry and cell biology. Future editions of our molecular biology articles will feature genetic biotechnology, bioinformatics and computational biology.

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  • 1. <ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>For Computer Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2: The Cell </li></ul>
  • 2. <ul><li>Cover image, courtesy of Wellcome Images , Creative Commons license </li></ul><ul><li>All other images, courtesy of Wikipedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base Ring structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate (PO4 3- ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic character </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides </li></ul>(CH 2 ) Ribose PO 4 3-
  • 4. <ul><li>Nucleic Acids are polymers of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different nucleotides link together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate at 5` of one nucleotide links to 3` Carbon of another nucleotide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called Phosphodiester bridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Common nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar is ribose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar is deoxyribose </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Common bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Uracil (U) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA has only A, T, G and C as bases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bases can form hydrogen bonds with other bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A<->T, A<->U, G<->C bonds are stabler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called base-pairing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to secondary and tertiary structures in nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA double helix, RNA folding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One strand can construct its complementary strand from a soup of nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement of the complement will be a replica of the same strand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>A sequence of 3 bases attracts a specific amino acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AGC->Serine, AGA->Arginine etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such a sequence is called a codon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of codons can assemble multiple amino acids into proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is how protein structure is coded in nucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These proteins are manufactured during biosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>DNA has a double helix structure and is more stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually forms very long chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as long-term storage of genetic information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RNA is shorter, single/double stranded, less stable, more reactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA with genetic code created from DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>through base-pairing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RNA synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes part in actual protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as protein structure code carrier and catalyzing agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Hydrophobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repels water molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not electrically polarized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not form hydrogen bonds with water molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H bonds between water molecules not disturbed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hence does not dissolve in water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically a large hydrocarbon group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CH3(CH2)n, n>4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water and Biomolecules </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Water and Biomolecules </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attracts water molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electrically polarized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>so forms H bonds with water molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>charged groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polar, uncharged groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Amphiphiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compounds with hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called amphipathic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has hydrophobic and hydrophilic structural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>might partially dissolve in water and non-polar solvents </li></ul></ul>Carboxylate RCOO- Sulfate RSO 4- Sulfonate RSO 3 - Phosphate PO 4 3- Amine RNH 3 + Alkyl HR Hydroxyl ROH Carboxyl RCOOH
  • 10. <ul><li>Amphiphilic </li></ul><ul><li>Polar heads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>non-polar fatty acid tails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophobic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms special structures in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lipids arrange in water such that polar heads face water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-polar tails face each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilayer sheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polar exterior, oily core </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>permeable to small hydrophobic molecules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-permeable to ionic and polar molecules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liposome, Micelle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Any system that has certain characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State machine with multiple stable states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action processes to handle external and internal events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback and control systems for process control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-producing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new instance created by one or more existing instances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State machine modifies itself to adjust to new environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustments passed on to newer instances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and reproduction of the system requires energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy required by the system is acquired from the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Life? </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Prehistoric earth was a chemical potpourri </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No chemical equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large supply of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic organic molecules were produced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be reproduced in lab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These chain together to form polymers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins, polynucleotides (DNA/RNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens spontaneously if there is enough energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolution of Life </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Polynucleotides can act as templates to create complementary polynucleotides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 complements produce the original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called Autocatalysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special RNA molecules can catalyze replication of other nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolution of Life </li></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>RNA molecules can synthesize proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are very versatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can act as catalysts, chemically diverse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can participate in a variety of chemical reactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates metabolism, regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipids can form bi-layer membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can form compartments enclosed by membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid membrane enclosures containing nucleic acids and proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolution of Life </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single entity that exhibits all characteristics of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells live co-operatively in colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>co-operating cells with same source code form symbiotic relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cells with the same ‘source code’ (DNA) behave in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depending on how they are created </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>become tissue cells, liver cells, brain cells etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell specialization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an entire system of co-operative cells together exhibit characteristics of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an animal/plant is like a colony of bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Life </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Cell is the basic unit of life </li></ul><ul><li>Types of cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria, archea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with a cell nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All cells that are part of a multi-cellular organism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants, Animals, Fungii </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>A cell exhibits all characteristics of life </li></ul><ul><li>Cells organize themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple stable states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback loops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells produce cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells divide to form new cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells adjust to new environments over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior changes over generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cells with behavior favorable to their environment tend to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>natural selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mutations in source code (DNA) enable adaptive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell Functions </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>cells generate energy and use it to grow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy generated from nutrients obtained from cell's environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>catabolism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generated energy used for various purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anabolism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to build proteins and nucleic acids, called biosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for active transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pump substances in/out of cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for signal amplification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to amplify small external events for better handling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell Functions </li></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>A fluid medium enclosed by a wall/membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Internal parts perform various life functions </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell Structure </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>poly-saccharide or poly-peptide wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mucous-like </li></ul></ul><ul><li>not easily washed off </li></ul><ul><li>protects against external agents </li></ul><ul><li>helps to stick to surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>secreted during cell growth </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell: Cell Capsule </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides rigidity and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polysaccharide complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>holds cell from bursting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell's inside pressure is higher than outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell Wall/Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partially permeable membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like a layer of oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has transport mechanisms for various signals and nutrients </li></ul></ul>Cell Membrane
  • 22. <ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>space inside the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the fluid part is called cytosol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-transparent, gelatinous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also includes elements suspended in it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains water, dissolved ions, small molecules, large water-soluble molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>catabolism happens here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of energy from nutrients that come into the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients pass across cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell: Cytoplasm </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small granules that float around in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA-multi-protein complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>multiple subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>runs programs from DNA to create proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>called protein synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uses energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mainly DNA loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>storage of programs (source code) for the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Ribosomes/Nucleoid </li></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Plant Cell </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Animal Cell </li></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>Plasma Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lipid bilayer membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selectively permeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not rigid, can take variety of shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows animal cells to change shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delimits cell boundary in animal cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to prokaryotic cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only a part of cell energy is produced in eukaryotic cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rest in mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Membrane/Cytoplasm </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Mitochondrion </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>multiple per cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divide and grow depending on cell's energy needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>enclosed by two membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cellular power plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generates most of ATP produced in cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some ATP is produced in cytoplasm too </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>has its own DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesizes its own proteins and RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>might be remnant of a symbiotic bacteria which became part of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Mitochondrion </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has ATP synthase on its inner surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>folded for increased surface area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for higher ATP production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>folds called cristae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP is produced here </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>several copies of mitochondrial DNA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>special ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Mitochondrion </li></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>stacked membrane disks </li></ul><ul><li>processes and packages macromolecules produced in cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins, lipids etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for secretion or for internal use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immediate secretion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>store-till-signal and secrete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adds carbohydrates, phosphates etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modifications help the molecules attach to (reach) destinations where they are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>molecules come to and leave golgi through vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different vesicles for secretion and internal transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicles are small membrane-bound sacs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>post-office of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Golgi Apparatus </li></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>rough endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>done by attached ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>similar to prokaryotic ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>folding and transport of cell membrane proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>smooth endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lipid and carbohydrate production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calcium ion storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul>
  • 32. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Nucleus </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>enclosed in a double membrane </li></ul><ul><li>contains cells's DNA stored in chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>small molecules and ions can freely move in and out of nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through nuclear pores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>movement of larger molecules is controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot move through pores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to be passed across the membrane through active transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>most cells have one nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some have none </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some have many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some fungii </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Nucleus </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>organized structures that contain DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA molecules held in a specific arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by protein molecules called histones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA packed into a small space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows large DNA molecules to fit into nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>called chromatin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>multiple chromosomes might be present in a nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes come in pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Chromosomes </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>Chromosome Packing </li></ul>
  • 36. <ul><li>only seen in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>organelles that are very acidic inside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PH 4.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>contains digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>breaks down excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>fuses with vesicles containing target material </li></ul><ul><li>used in cell suicide when lysosomes break </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzymes destroy cell contents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Lysosomes </li></ul>
  • 37. <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made of cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-permeable, semi-rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>function same as bacterial cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Vacuole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps manage pressure difference between inside and outside of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acts like a water balloon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps in cell elongation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surrounded by a membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains cell sap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Plant cell parts </li></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organelle that contains chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis happens here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 O + Light => Sugars + O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The oxygen is released into atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of sugars produced in chloroplast used for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sugar is decomposed in mitochondria to produce ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP => ADP transition provides energy for biosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 absorbed from atmosphere, CO 2 released </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More O2 released during photosynthesis than what is used for aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell: Plant cell parts </li></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>called Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accumulated during some regular cellular process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>triggers when a critical level is reached </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oscillating chemical reactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protein production and degradation reactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slow build-up (during growth) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fast return (after division) reactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell Division </li></ul>
  • 40. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell Division </li></ul><ul><li>DNA strands in chromosomes replicate </li></ul><ul><li>Two poles form, connected by microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes align to poles </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules attach to chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules pull chromosomes replicas apart </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane and cytoplasm divides into two separate cells </li></ul>
  • 41. <ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell Division </li></ul><ul><li>no detailed cell cycle </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a double stranded loop in prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA replication starts from one point and proceeds till end </li></ul>
  • 42. <ul><li>Cell Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>all metabolism uses ATP-ADP cycle for energy storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)  ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) + Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme catalyzed cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>variety of catabolic mechanisms to generate energy from environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol fermentation (in Yeast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lactic acid fermentation (in muscle cells under strenuous activity) </li></ul></ul>
  • 43. <ul><li>We see how cells co-operate and evolve into… </li></ul><ul><li>An Organism </li></ul><ul><li>In Part 3… </li></ul>
  • 44. <ul><li>ubiquitous . biology </li></ul>www.ubio.in

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