Decentralised Forest Governance,Institutions and Livelihood Policies in Odisha-A Study Bishnu Prasad Mohapatra PhD Scholar Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad - 500 016
Outline of the Presentation Introduction Background of the Present Study Objectives Methodology and Study Area Forest Policy Process and Livelihoods-The Theoretical Framework The Policy Cycle-An Approach to understand Forest Policy Process Analytical Framework Major Findings Conclusion
INTRODUCTION Decentralisation of Forest Governance aims to; 1.Improve Institutional Mechanism 2. Managing Forest Resources in Sustainable Way 3.Enhance Institutional Capacity to Achieve Effective Result 4.Ensure Efficiency, Equity and Democracy in Forest Governance System. Factors influencing for Decentralisation of Forest Governance 1. Rapid Depletion of Forest Resources 2.Increasing Community Concern over Access to Resources 3. Failure of Conventional Bureaucracy led Forest Governance System 4. Neo Liberal Economic Framework 5. Changing Political Scenario and Institutional Structure
Background of The Present Study The Present study is a part of RULNR-CESS Visiting Fellowship Programme Entitled “Decentralised Forest Governance, Institutions and Livelihoods in Odisha-A Study of Evolution of Policy Process and Politics” 1. Odisha in the recent age of Forest Governance has been implementing a number of Livelihood based programmes for Forest Dwellers(OFSDP,RLTAP,FRA,OTELP). 2. Policy making and implementation in the State’s Forestry Sector has witnessed continuity and change. 3. Evolution of Forest Policies in the State has been witnessed the increasing involvement of Non-State Actors. 4. Forest Policies of the State has witnessed a paradigm shift in the context of implementation PFM and FRA. 5. Implications of Such Policies on Livelihoods of Forest Dwellers are believed to be provided positive impact.
ObjectivesThe Broad Objective of the study was to “understand the evolution of forest policies in Odisha and how and at what context the issues of Livelihoods of the Forest Dwellers were taken into consideration while formulating such policies” To understand the nature and evolution of decentralised forest governance in Odisha. To analyse different forest policies and legal frameworks of such policies in the case of Odisha. To understand the legal-political context in which the Livelihood issues emerged and included in the policy process. To understand the current implementation mechanism of Pro- Livelihood Policies such as PFM and FRA in the case of Odisha
Methodology and Study AreaThe study was carried out by using two principal research methods such as; Secondary Research Methods-Analysis of Secondary Data, Content Analysis and Review of Policy documents, Review of Legislative Proceedings, rules, acts etc Primary Research Method- In-depth Interview, Case study and Focus Group DiscussionStudy Area:The study was carried out in Odisha. However in order to track the field reality, interview and focus group discussion was carried out in two districts such as Koraput and Sundargarh.
Forest Policy Process and Livelihoods-A Theoretical Framework Policy Process in Forestry Sector such as Policy Formulation and Implementation has provided a wide array of theoretical frameworks to understand such process. Different Theories of Policy Process such as Elite Theory, Group Theory, Institutionalism, Rational Choice Theory, Political System Theory and Policy Process Model helps to understand different aspects of policy formulation and implementation. Policy Process Model has attained prominence under which two Broad aspects have been covered such as “improve policy and policy making” and “how policy has been made”. Policy Process Analysis in the case of Forests has also touched two core aspects such as Rational Process and Political Process. Policy process in Forest Governance argued as becoming Political because of Involvement of Non-State Actors.
Continued… Effects of Forest Policies on Livelihoods have been covered by Researchers through the two broad approaches such as; Why, How and for What Reason Livelihood Issues Emerged. Impacts of Forest Policies on Livelihoods of Forest Dwellers. Systematic Change in Policy Process and Livelihood Approaches in State’s Forest Governance encouraged Researchers to explore on such changes by using the two above mentioned approachs. The analytical framework of the present study is based on the research approach of “Why, How and What”.
The Policy Cycle-An Approach to Understand Forest Policy Process Agenda-Setting Policy Change Policy Formulation Policy Evaluation Policy Legitimation Implementation
Analytical Framework •Process • When and • Why • Key HowAgenda Policy •Involveme Legitima Arguments Impleme ImplementedSetting •Streams Formula nt of tion •Political ntation • Role of of Agenda tion Different Different Factors Actors Actors
Forest Policies and Livelihoods in OdishaPolicy Framework Legal Framework Implications on LivelihoodsThe National Forest The Wildlife Protection Act •Forest Policies of the State were based onPolicy, 1952 1972 and Rule of 1974. and National Forest Policy. the Odisha Forest Act, 1972 •Expanding State’s Legitimacy through Organizing Forest Administration was focused. • Livelihood issues received less priority.National Commission on The Odisha Forest •Forest Policies shifted from conservationAgriculture, 1976 Conservation Act,1980, The to participation mode. Odisha Forest(Amendment) •Emphasis was given to involve Villages in Act, 1982 and The Odisha protection of degraded Forests. Village Forest Rule, 1985 •Community involvement in Management of Forests. •Livelihood Issues gradually evolved.National Forest Policy, JFM Resolution, 1993 •The State Government’s Resolution1988 accepted JFM as a Strategy of Forest Management. •Accepted Community Access to Forest Resources for Sustenance of Livelihoods.
Continued…..Policy Framework Legal Framework Implications on LivelihoodsThe Provisions of The Odisha Minor Forest •Management of MFP Vested to thePanchayats Act(PESA Produce Amendment Gram Sabhas and Gram Panchayats inAct), 1996 Rule, 2002 Tribal Areas. •Powers given to the Local Governments on Price Fixation and providing license to Traders.The Forest Rights Act, Implementation of the •The Act implemented in 2008 under2006 Act thorough GoO Order which 539277.45 Acres of Forest land in 2008 provided(Dec.2012). •Land Titles provided to 300312 Households on forest lands.(Dec.2012) •FRA Beneficiaries linked with different schemes and programmes such as MGNREGA, IAY, National Horticulture Mission for Land Development, Plantation, Housing etc.
Major Findings Forest Governance in Ordisha has reached at the Stages of Decentralisation while recognizing the community rights. Forest Policy process in the State are linked with rationalist idea and bureaucratic attitude except few policies such as PFM and FRA. Successful political mobilisation and integration of social capital in the case of Forest Governance has flourished the arena of pro- poor and participatory policy process. State Forest Policies are more or less guided by the national level policy process which restricts the role of State as implementer but not policy maker. Unclear policy framework, ambiguous legal provisions and overlapping in implementation are the Major Challenges in the State’s forest policy environment.
Continue…….. Livelihood issues gradually attained importance because of continuous demand from the people, policy makers and CSOs coupled with continuing issues of poverty in the forest regions. Implementation of different forest region based development programmes also reveals the seriousness of State Government for improving livelihood conditions of the Forest fringe communities. Livelihood Issues of the Forest Dwellers have taken into account in which Political factors also played vital role.
Conclusion Decentralisation has a far larger effect on the Livelihoods of the Forest dependent communities. Forest polices in the context of current Livelihood issues of forest dwellers needs further reforms. Policy process should be based on need of the people and should be inclusive and participatory. Legal ambiguity and overlapping in the process of impletion should be avoided. Local Governments, different forest protection groups, CSOs etc should have voice in forest policy making and implementation.