ISBNs and Identifiers: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, featuring Phil Madans, Executive Director of Digital Publishing Technology at Hachette Book Group
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ISBNs and Identifiers: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, featuring Phil Madans, Executive Director of Digital Publishing Technology at Hachette Book Group

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What are identifiers? What purpose do they serve in the book industry? ...

What are identifiers? What purpose do they serve in the book industry?

According to BISG's Best Practices for Identifying Digital Products, an identifier is generally a sequence of alpha-numeric characters that unambiguosly differentiates one thing from another in a particular context.

But while that answer may seem straightforward enough, the fact is there's a lot more to identifiers than one might think.

The book industry employs numerous identifiers for different reasons in its day-to-day operations. This webcast will cover identifiers basics—what they are, how they are developed, and how and why they are used. Special focus will be given to the venerable ISBN and its use in today's digital marketplace, and the difference between the ISBN and proprietary product identifiers.

In this session, Phil Madans, Executive Director Digital Publishing Technology for Hachette Book Group, will discuss how to correctly use identifiers to ensure your books reach the hands of happy readers.

This is the second in a three-part series, co-produced by IBPA and hosted by BISG, aimed at demystifying several of the core book industry standards through "101"-style sessions presented by experts in the field. ​

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  • Good not only for purchases but for citations, too.
  • Here we have the ISNI record for Brian May. As you can see, he’s done a few things – as an author, a creator, and a performer.
  • As you can see, the ISNI links together disparate types of data. Brian May, noted guitarist for the band Queen, is also an astrophysicist who has published his dissertation “A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud”. He has ALSO annotated a seminal collection of stereoscopic photographs. A true Renaissance man – and the ISNI allows for these works to be linked together under his unique, persistent identifier. So that if someone sees his dissertation or his photograph collection, and questions whether or not this is the same Brian May that played “Bohemian Rhapsody”, they can confirm that yes, this is the same (rather unusual) person.

ISBNs and Identifiers: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, featuring Phil Madans, Executive Director of Digital Publishing Technology at Hachette Book Group Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ISBN's and Identifiers: Standards Basics for Independent Publishers TWWoA
  • 2. 2Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Agenda • Identifiers • Publishing Identifiers • ISBN • Identifiers for Digital Products • GTINs and Bar Codes • DOI • ISNI • ISTC • Resources
  • 3. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 3 Username + Password + Identifiers in Everyday Life ―An identifier, generally a sequence of alpha-numeric characters, unambiguously differentiates one thing from another in a particular context.‖ –BISG Best Practices for Identifying Digital Products
  • 4. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 4 Index Standard Book Industry Identifiers • Product Identifiers – ISBN – International Standard Book Number • http://www.isbn.org – GTIN – Global Trade Item Number • http://barcodes.gs1us.org/Default.aspx?tabid=81 • EAN – International Article Number • UPC – Uniform Product Code – EPC – Electronic Product Code • http://www.epcglobalus.org/ – ISMN – International Standard Music Number • http://www.ismn-international.org/ – ISSN – Intl Standard Serial Number • http://www.issn.org/ – OCLC Control Number • http://oclc.org/en-US/ • Contributor Identifiers – ISNI – International Standard Name Identifier • www.isni.org – IPI – Interested Party Identifier (Music) • http://www.cisac.org/ – ORCID – Open Researcher and Contributor ID • https://orcid.org • Assembly Identifiers – ISTC – Intl Standard Text Code • http://www.istc-international.org/ – LC Number – Library of Congress Number • http://www.loc.gov/catdir • Expression Identifiers – ISRC – Intl Standard Recording Code • http://www.ifpi.org/isrc • Hybrid Identifiers – DOI – Digital Object Identifier • http://www.doi.org/ , http://www.crossref.org/ • Distribution Identifiers – GLN -- Global Location Number • http://barcodes.gs1us.org/Default.aspx?tabi d=81 – SAN – Standard Address Number • http://www.isbn.org/standards/home/isbn/us /san/
  • 5. 5Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Identifiers in Publishing Standard Identifier – Provide unambiguous communication among trading partners – Regulated by Standards Organization ISBN Publisher Distributor Bookseller Customer Standard Identifier
  • 6. 6Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Identifiers in Publishing ASIN Order Processing Accounting Warehouse Fulfillment Proprietary Identifier – Increase efficiencies within companies – Unregulated and not for public communication A proprietary identifier is a unique identifier for a product that is maintained by a participant in the supply chain for internal use only. Proprietary Identifier
  • 7. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 7 Disambiguation
  • 8. 8Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Identifiers and Metadata Identifiers have associated Metadata. Identifier Customer Metadata
  • 9. 9Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 ISBN ISBN: 0-001-00001-1 Seems like it’s been around forever…
  • 10. 10Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 ISBN – International Standard Book Number • ISO Standard created in 1970 – Currently a 13-digit number, currently under revision • Provides a unique product identifier for books – Enables discovery, standardized processing and distribution of books throughout the global supply chain – Made machine readable and represented on physical products by an EAN-13 barcode • ISBNs are appropriate for books, chapters, maps, audio books – ISBNs should not be assigned to: Greeting cards, updatable databases, web pages, games or music – Substantial change of content requires a new ISBN—rule of thumb = 20% The ISBN is a unique international identifier for monographic publications… --ISBN User’s Manual, Sixth Edition
  • 11. 11Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 ISBN Elements ISBN 978-0-571-08989-5 Country, ge ographic region or language area: 0/1 = English ISBN is equivalent to GS1 GTIN- 13, formerl y EAN-13 Not ISBN-13 Registration Prefix Registrant Publisher or imprint within a registration group Publication Specific Edition by a specific publisher CheckDigit Calculated using Mod 10 algorithm
  • 12. 12Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 As a standard unique identifier, the ISBN ensures accurate transmission of metadata ISBNTitle Author Price Description Subject The identifier is the anchor for metadata
  • 13. 13Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Identifiers and Digital Products “A publisher should always assign a unique ISBN to serve as the identifier of each unique digital book it releases into the supply chain in order to maintain an official link by which metadata and sales information can be communicated back and forth. As this is the beginning of the supply process and represents the root form of the content, it is important at this stage that the publisher use an official ISBN rather than a proprietary identifier.” -- BISG Best Practices for Identifying Digital Products What constitutes a book(product)?
  • 14. 14Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Differentiating Products Content • Digital books of differing content should be assigned different identifiers. – Text-based ebook vs. enhanced ebook Format • Digital books of differing file formats should be assigned different identifiers. – An EPUB and a PDF are as different as a Hardcover and Paperback Usage Constraints • Digital books with different usage constraints should be assigned different identifiers. – Different constraints usually mean different prices, different products
  • 15. 15Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Metadata Identifier Title Format XXX-XXXX-XXXX1-1 The Book Hardcover XXX-XXXX-XXXX2-2 The Book Trade Paper XXX-XXXX-XXXX3-3 The Book Mass Market Identifier Title Content Format Usage XXX-XXXX-XXXX4-4 The Book EPUB XXX-XXXX-XXXX5-5 The Book Enhanced EPUB XXX-XXXX-XXXX6-6 The Book PDF Print XXX-XXXX-XXXX7-7 The Book PDF No Print XXX-XXXX-XXXX8-8 The Book .mobi If the metadata is describing different products, the different products need different Identifiers. Physical product is obvious Digital is not as obvious
  • 16. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 16 Does that identifier have to be an ISBN? Supply Chain Publisher Distributor Bookseller Customer Closed System Order Processing Accounting Warehouse Fulfillment Publisher or Third-Party Assigned ISBN Publisher or Third-Party Assigned ISBN or Proprietary ISBN If you are selling the same product on different closed systems, using an ISBN will aggregate sales reporting. Third-party suppliers can assign their own ISBNs to products when the publisher does not supply an ISBN of its own.
  • 17. 17Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Basic Rules 1. ISBNs are assigned, not created. One ISBN registration agency per country, or community, is designated by the International ISBN Agency to assign and distribute ISBNs to the publishers and self- publishers located in that area. At no time should a random or unsanctioned number be created and identified as an ISBN by any member of the supply chain. 2. A digital book must not be assigned the same ISBN as the same book in physical format. Even if the physical book is no longer in print, the physical book ISBN cannot be reused for the digital book. 3. ISBNs for digital books should be labeled ―ISBN,‖ not ―eISBN.‖ There is no such standard as an ―eISBN‖, nor is this the proper way to differentiate the digital book format.
  • 18. 18Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Global Trade Item Number • Family of 8-14 digit identifiers developed by GS1 – ISBN is GTIN-13,using the ―Bookland‖ EAN prefixes 978, 979 – GTIN for non-book product use GS1 assigned country prefix • 060—139 assigned GS1 US • Some prefixes can be used as proprietary identifiers • GTINs are represented on physical products as barcodes – EAN-13--International Article Number (Formerly European Article Number) • Item specific barcode • Appears on back of book and cover 2 for strippable returns – UPC–Universal Product Code • Once used only in US and Canada, now global • 12-digit identifier for non-book product • Price specific UPC once used on mass market paperbacks is no longer recommended.
  • 19. 19Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Proper use of Bar Codes Price-point UPC, formally used mostly for Mass Market Paperbacks and general retail, no longer recommended Bookland EAN-13 with price add-on Other variations with Strippable, Non-Strippable symbols acceptable Standard EAN-13 code for use with non-book products; Posters, Mugs, coffee, and…
  • 20. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 20 Persistence
  • 21. 21Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Digital Object Identifier • The DOI, an ISO Standard, is a unique, persistent digital identifier of an object—digital or physical. – Used extensively in Scientific and Journal Publishing – Can be assigned to a work, article, chapter, image, etc. – Promotes discovery – CrossRef.org • The DOI System provides a persistent link (most commonly a URL) to an object and standard metadata for that object. • A DOI can be any length and is structured: Prefix/Suffix Example: 10.1000/182 – Prefix 10.1000 identifies the DOI Registry and the Registrant (1000), International DOI Foundation – Suffix: 82 is the unique ID identifying the object, in this case the DOI Handbook – Should be displayed as URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1000/182 • DOI’s should not be used in place of ISBNs for book product. – Using ISBNs in the Suffix is no longer recommended
  • 22. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 22 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12109-011-9248-x Resolves to URL http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12109-011-9248-x
  • 23. 23Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 International Standard Name Identifier • ISNI – ISO Standard • Unambiguously identifies contributors to creative works and people or entities involved in their creation or distribution – Writers, artists, musicians, performers, producers, publishers, agents, etc. – Currently 7.5 million ISNIs assigned – Included in Wikipedia entries – Registration Agency: RR Bowker • Bridge Identifier – Links identities across domains – Linked to proprietary ID’s in databases – Search and discovery • Works are linked to ID’s
  • 24. 24Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Example Brian May: lead guitarist of Queen and Astrophysicist
  • 25. 25Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Cross Domain Linking
  • 26. 26Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 International Standard Text Code • ISTC – ISO Standard • Identifies uniquely a textual work and it’s relationship to other works – Enables linkages to various products of the work • No implementation traction in the U.S. – Currently no U.S. Registration Agency Same text, same ISTC Hardcover Paperback Original Work Spanish Edition Abridged Audio Different texts, different, but linked, ISTCs Derived Work
  • 27. 27Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 Resources • BISG Guide to Identifiers. • BISG Roadmap of Identifiers – https://www.bisg.org/roadmap-identifiers • BISG Policy Statement: Best Practices for Identifying Digital Product. – https://www.bisg.org/best-practices-identifying-digital-content-0 • ISBN User’s Manual – https://www.bisg.org/isbn-users-manual • BISG: Barcoding Guidelines for the US Book Industry – https://www.bisg.org/barcoding-guidelines-us-book-industry • BISG Roadmap of Organizational Relationships – https://www.bisg.org/roadmap-organizational-relationships Coming Soon!
  • 28. Madans – ISBNs and Identifiers – April 16, 2014 28 Thank You! Phil Madans Executive Director of Digital Publishing Technology Hachette Book Group Chair, BISG Identification Committee phil.madans@hbgusa.com