Metadata standards basics
for independent publishers
Graham Bell
EDItEUR
IBPA / BISG webinar series
30th April 2014
About me
• 20 years experience at the point where
bookpublishing and technology meet
• formerly senior manager in IT depar...
About EDItEUR
• not-for-profit membership organisation
• develops, supports and promotes metadata
and identification stand...
About EDItEUR
• also provides management services to LCC,
International ISBN, ISTC, ISNI Agencies
• EDItEUR has three full...
What is metadata?
What is metadata?
• often defined as ‘data about data’, but this is
inadequate in the publishing context
• ‘all the produc...
And what are identifiers?
Identifiers
• unique labels for ‘things’ (in IT systems)
• to address
• to disambiguate
• to collocate
• ideally, persiste...
Metadata and identifier
standards – critical enablers
for your business
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
• tagging
• edition
• publication date
• series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of
print, reissue, trade paperback…
• ...
ISBN
ITSC
ISNI
SAN
MARC
ONIX
BISAC
Themaidentifiers
metadata
ISBN
ITSC
ISNI
SAN
MARC
ONIX
BISAC
Themaidentifiers
metadatapeople
products
places
works libraries
book trade
subject
subj...
“I am Spartacus!”
ISNI public identity identifier
ISNI
• International Standard Name Identifier
• ISO Standard 27729 for identification of public
identities of parties in c...
Richard Holmes
Richard Holmes
Richard Holmes
0000 0001 1768 55420000 0001 2147 5396
0000 0000 7725 4712
What does it look like?
ISNI 0000 0000 7725 4712
for display
purposes only
identifies
sector of
initial reg
check digit
ma...
Implementing ISNI
• strictly, does not identify a person or a name
• person (or party)
• persona
• personality (or present...
Current status
• 2010 – International ISNI Agency
http://www.isni.org
• 2012 –standard published by ISO
• central registra...
Benefits of ISNI
• proprietary identifiers are not cross-
publisher, and do not provide certainty over
the entity (is it a...
A contributor identifier
is atool to associate
your product withothers
from thesame creator
– authoritatively
– cross-medi...
Identifiers and metadata
• inextricably linked. Each type of identifier
has a minimum set of metadata attributes,
whereby ...
ONIX for Books
What is ONIX?
• ONIX for Books is a standard data format
based on XML, used to convey a rich range
of information about bo...
Typical use cases
• a publisher needs to provide information
about its catalogue of products to a
distributor, wholesaler,...
database database
• ONIX for Books is a standardised message
specification, not a database
• but what you can deliver in y...
Roots of ONIX
• 1997 EPICS and BIC Basic
• 1998 indecs project
• 1998 W3C XML specification
• 1999 ‘Online Information Exc...
Roots of ONIX
• 1997 EPICS and BIC Basic
• 1998 indecs project
• 1998 W3C XML specification
• 1999 ‘Online Information Exc...
Roots of ONIX
• current status
• managed by EDItEUR and international
steering committee
• June 2003 ONIX v2.1 – most wide...
ONIX business benefits
• standard is free of charge to use
• for publishers – enables supply of rich
metadata in a single,...
Contributor
SequenceNumber1/SequenceNumber
ContributorRoleA01/ContributorRole
NameIdentifier
NameIDType16/NameIDType
IDVal...
ONIX 3.0 data elements
• message details
• identity and authority
• record details
• product identifiers
• 1. descriptive ...
ONIX 3.0 data elements
• 2. collateral details
• supporting text
• cited material
• supporting resources
• prizes
• 3. con...
Implementing ONIX
• apparently complex, but modular  consistent
• not too large for a single developer with
simple softwar...
Thema – the subject category
scheme for a global book trade
Thema
• launched at Frankfurt Book Fair last year,
and version 1.0 released November 2013
• already gaining real traction
...
Subject
MainSubject/
SubjectSchemeIdentifier93/SubjectSchemeIdentifier
SubjectSchemeVersion1.0/SubjectSchemeVersion
Subjec...
A global scheme
• managed by EDItEUR with international
steering committee – same model as ONIX
• designed to reduce natio...
Increased revenues
Showing 13–24 of 841,539 results
‘Titles that meet the BIC
Basic standard see average
sales 98% higher than those
that don’t meet the standard.’
• based on a study of the top-selling 100,000
ISBNs in the UK in 2011
‘[For online sales, products]
with progressively increasing
amounts of enhanced
metadata see progressively
increasing aver...
‘Research has proven that the
more information customers
have about a book, the more
likely they are to buy it.’
‘ONIX provides a way to transmit
this information in a clean and
seamless way across multiple
trading partner relationship...
‘Didn’t we used to have
a sales team.’
Metadata is all you have
…at least in the
growing part of the market
graham@editeur.org
www.editeur.org
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BI...
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Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BISG/IBPA co-production

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The better your metadata, the better your sales: that's the simple truth. Books with complete metadata sell almost three times better than a book with incomplete metadata, so there's a very good reason to learn about how to format and transmit this information to your industry partners. But where to begin?

In this session, Graham Bell, Chief Data Architect at EDItEUR, will offer practical guidance on writing, formatting, and transmitting metadata in accordance with industry standards and best practices, and help to make your metadata work for you.

This is the third in a three-part series, co-produced by IBPA and hosted by BISG, aimed at demystifying several of the core book industry standards through "101"-style sessions presented by experts in the field. ​

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Metadata: Standards Basics for the Independent Publishing Community, with Graham Bell, Executive Director of EDItEUR, a BISG/IBPA co-production

  1. 1. Metadata standards basics for independent publishers Graham Bell EDItEUR IBPA / BISG webinar series 30th April 2014
  2. 2. About me • 20 years experience at the point where bookpublishing and technology meet • formerly senior manager in IT department for HarperCollins UK • led development of bibliographic, editorial and digital asset management systems • involved in e-book, e-audio, print-on-demand and online projects • joined EDItEUR in mid-2010, primarily responsible for ONIX development
  3. 3. About EDItEUR • not-for-profit membership organisation • develops, supports and promotes metadata and identification standards for the book, e-book and serials supply chains • based in London, but a global membership of publishers, distributors, wholesalers, subscription agents, retailers, libraries, system vendors, rights and trade associations • acknowledged centre of expertise on standards and metadata for the industry
  4. 4. About EDItEUR • also provides management services to LCC, International ISBN, ISTC, ISNI Agencies • EDItEUR has three full-time staff, one FTE part-time staff, plus access to consultants from both the book and serials sectors • works closely with other standards bodies, to ensure EDItEUR standards meet the needs of their stakeholders too • EDItEUR member participation is vital, to ensure standards keep pace with evolving business requirements
  5. 5. What is metadata?
  6. 6. What is metadata? • often defined as ‘data about data’, but this is inadequate in the publishing context • ‘all the product management information that’s needed to make your business work’ • to describe the stuff you publish • to support commercial processes • both internal and external requirements • for the full product lifecycle • data modelling and communication aspects
  7. 7. And what are identifiers?
  8. 8. Identifiers • unique labels for ‘things’ (in IT systems) • to address • to disambiguate • to collocate • ideally, persistent, meaningless, managed • to allow unambiguous communication • identification is contextual • identifiers have specific functions or roles • and a scope (types of thing can be identified)
  9. 9. Metadata and identifier standards – critical enablers for your business
  10. 10. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition
  11. 11. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition An SEO expert walks into a bar, pub, tavern, public house, Irish pub, drinks, beer, alcohol…
  12. 12. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition
  13. 13. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition Third edition Paperback edition First edition
  14. 14. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition The date on which a retail consumer may purchase and take possession of a physical product, or the date on which a retail consumer may access and use a digital product
  15. 15. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition The nominal or approximate date on which the product is made available in the market, used largely for planning and business process purposes. Actual availability to the retailer may be no more than a handful of days prior to (or after) this date and – in the absence of a sales embargo – retail fulfillment to consumers may begin immediately stock is available. For titles where a sales embargo is in place, stock must be sequestered by the retailer until the embargo expires (or one day prior, for mail order fulfillment)
  16. 16. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition
  17. 17. • tagging • edition • publication date • series, collection, imprint, backlist, out of print, reissue, trade paperback… • metadata requires care for semantics Words in search of a definition
  18. 18. ISBN ITSC ISNI SAN MARC ONIX BISAC Themaidentifiers metadata
  19. 19. ISBN ITSC ISNI SAN MARC ONIX BISAC Themaidentifiers metadatapeople products places works libraries book trade subject subject
  20. 20. “I am Spartacus!”
  21. 21. ISNI public identity identifier
  22. 22. ISNI • International Standard Name Identifier • ISO Standard 27729 for identification of public identities of parties in creative industries • parties may be people, organisations or even fictional people (for pseudonyms, characters) • typical use case – identify an author, establish difference from another author of the same name, or establish same persona as musician or actor (possibly of different ‘name’) • a cross-domain ‘bridge identifier’, linking data across multiple sources
  23. 23. Richard Holmes
  24. 24. Richard Holmes
  25. 25. Richard Holmes 0000 0001 1768 55420000 0001 2147 5396
  26. 26. 0000 0000 7725 4712
  27. 27. What does it look like? ISNI 0000 0000 7725 4712 for display purposes only identifies sector of initial reg check digit may be X 15 decimal (base 10) digits for persona
  28. 28. Implementing ISNI • strictly, does not identify a person or a name • person (or party) • persona • personality (or presentation) • ISNIs identify personas, or public identities • Фёдор Достоевский = Fyodor Dostoyevski • Richard Bachman = Stephen King (but well- known pseudonyms can be linked) • Sue Welfare = ***** *** (allows for anonymity) / /
  29. 29. Current status • 2010 – International ISNI Agency http://www.isni.org • 2012 –standard published by ISO • central registration system developed and operated by OCLC in the Netherlands • first eight million ISNIs already assigned, based on pre-existing data in VIAF and IPDA
  30. 30. Benefits of ISNI • proprietary identifiers are not cross- publisher, and do not provide certainty over the entity (is it a person or a persona?) • ISNI provides cross-publisher, cross-sector public identity • developing links to ORCID, ResearcherID, PlusID, Ringgold • in future, will likely also identify names of organisations
  31. 31. A contributor identifier is atool to associate your product withothers from thesame creator – authoritatively – cross-media http://www.isni.org
  32. 32. Identifiers and metadata • inextricably linked. Each type of identifier has a minimum set of metadata attributes, whereby any change in the metadata implies a change in the identifier • attributes define what is unique about the identified thing • an identifier can be thought of as ‘shorthand’ for one particular set of attribute values • metadata registries (eg Bowker Books in Print) hold both the identifiers and the metadata
  33. 33. ONIX for Books
  34. 34. What is ONIX? • ONIX for Books is a standard data format based on XML, used to convey a rich range of information about book and book-related products between computer systems in the book and e-book supply chain • publisher to retailer • direct, or via intermediaries such as distributors, data collation services, data registries, wholesalers
  35. 35. Typical use cases • a publisher needs to provide information about its catalogue of products to a distributor, wholesaler, retailer or other supply chain partner • includes both current and forthcoming products • may cover basic product information and a wide range of collateral material • scope extends over the full lifecycle for book, e- book and other products – ie includes post- publication updates to price and availability
  36. 36. database database • ONIX for Books is a standardised message specification, not a database • but what you can deliver in your ONIX is dependent on the design of your in-house database • ONIX data model often used to guide design of internal applications
  37. 37. Roots of ONIX • 1997 EPICS and BIC Basic • 1998 indecs project • 1998 W3C XML specification • 1999 ‘Online Information Exchange’ initiative from AAP Digital Issues working party • ONIX developed by EDItEUR, originally in collaboration with BISG (USA) and BIC (UK) • March 2000 – ONIX International v1.0
  38. 38. Roots of ONIX • 1997 EPICS and BIC Basic • 1998 indecs project • 1998 W3C XML specification • 1999 ‘Online Information Exchange’ initiative from AAP Digital Issues working party • ONIX developed by EDItEUR, originally in collaboration with BISG (USA) and BIC (UK) • March 2000 – ONIX International v1.0
  39. 39. Roots of ONIX • current status • managed by EDItEUR and international steering committee • June 2003 ONIX v2.1 – most widely deployed • April 2009 ONIX v3.0 – growing in importance • widely used in North America, Western Europe, Japan, Russia, parts of Eastern Europe, Korea, growing in China • used by small and large organisations alike support for 2.1 will be reduced at end of 2014
  40. 40. ONIX business benefits • standard is free of charge to use • for publishers – enables supply of rich metadata in a single, standard format, for all downstream needs • for distributors, retailers – efficient, timely delivery and aggregation of data from multiple publishers • a shared ‘language’ enables unambiguous electronic communication
  41. 41. Contributor SequenceNumber1/SequenceNumber ContributorRoleA01/ContributorRole NameIdentifier NameIDType16/NameIDType IDValue0000000121479135/IDValue /NameIdentifier PersonNameInvertedSjöwall, Maj /PersonNameInverted BiographicalNote textformat=05pMaj Sjöwall is a poet. She lives in Sweden./p /BiographicalNote /Contributor 3.0
  42. 42. ONIX 3.0 data elements • message details • identity and authority • record details • product identifiers • 1. descriptive details • product form • special features • packaging • physical size • DRM, usage constraints • trade classification • product parts • collection titles • titles • contributors • conference • edition • language • extent • subject • audience
  43. 43. ONIX 3.0 data elements • 2. collateral details • supporting text • cited material • supporting resources • prizes • 3. content detail • 4. publishing details • imprint and publisher • contact details • lifecycle dates and status • copyright details • territorial sales rights • 5. related material • related works • related products • 6. supply details • market-specific details • suppliers • discounts • prices and tax
  44. 44. Implementing ONIX • apparently complex, but modular consistent • not too large for a single developer with simple software such as Filemaker • implemented in many off-the-shelf solutions • what should you be looking for? http://www.ipg.uk.com/?id=4815 • BISG best practices https://www.bisg.org/product-metadata-best- practices
  45. 45. Thema – the subject category scheme for a global book trade
  46. 46. Thema • launched at Frankfurt Book Fair last year, and version 1.0 released November 2013 • already gaining real traction • endorsed by International Publishers Association, BISG, BookNet Canada and organisations in a dozen other countries • works alongside BISAC (but likely to replace some schemes in other countries) • interactive http://editeur.dyndns.org/thema
  47. 47. Subject MainSubject/ SubjectSchemeIdentifier93/SubjectSchemeIdentifier SubjectSchemeVersion1.0/SubjectSchemeVersion SubjectCodeFFP/SubjectCode /Subject 3.0
  48. 48. A global scheme • managed by EDItEUR with international steering committee – same model as ONIX • designed to reduce national biases • multi-lingual • national extensions for extra detail • mapping from BISAC to Thema for backlist • including large-scale auto-mapping http://www.booknetcanada.ca/blog/2014/4/24/ introducing-bncs-bisac-to-thema-translator.html
  49. 49. Increased revenues
  50. 50. Showing 13–24 of 841,539 results
  51. 51. ‘Titles that meet the BIC Basic standard see average sales 98% higher than those that don’t meet the standard.’
  52. 52. • based on a study of the top-selling 100,000 ISBNs in the UK in 2011
  53. 53. ‘[For online sales, products] with progressively increasing amounts of enhanced metadata see progressively increasing average sales.’ http://www.nielsenbookdata.co.uk/controller.php?page=1129
  54. 54. ‘Research has proven that the more information customers have about a book, the more likely they are to buy it.’
  55. 55. ‘ONIX provides a way to transmit this information in a clean and seamless way across multiple trading partner relationships.’ https://www.bisg.org/onix-books
  56. 56. ‘Didn’t we used to have a sales team.’
  57. 57. Metadata is all you have …at least in the growing part of the market
  58. 58. graham@editeur.org www.editeur.org
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