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Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
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Liquid Journals. Overview. How social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters

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Slides describing what are Liquid Journals - a novel tool for sharing and disseminating scientific content

Slides describing what are Liquid Journals - a novel tool for sharing and disseminating scientific content

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  • interesting and relevant scientific knowledge.
  • The way scientific knowledge is created, disseminated, searched, consumed, and evaluated has been essentially the same for centuries, largely oblivious to the Web revolution. Despite technology, today it is very hard to find knowledge of interest - probably hardest than it is to find interesting web pages - despite a huge effort done by the community in filtering it (e.g., via peer review) and in evaluating it (via metrics of dubious effectiveness, such as citation count). The growing community of researchers and exploding number of publication venues makes it even more difficult to navigate the sea of information.Also: inefficientAlthough we have a sea of information at our fingertips, it is not easy to find for interesting contributions.   An additional and somewhat puzzling problem of  information overload is that with so much information available we would at least hope to be able to broaden our horizons. For example, we would hope to be able to search for contributions on "the effectiveness on peer review" in many different fields (as this problem is indeed studied in different areas). However, having this much information results in narrowing down what we read as opposed to broadening it. Today we have very few tools at our disposal to leverage the richness of information while handling the overload. When we search for contributions, we still tend to look for papers, and one option is to do so by looking at collection of papers indexed by services such as DBLP (essentially for titles) or Citeseer. This is useful but it does not come near to solving the problem: we are limited to what is indexed, we are limited to papers (and to published papers), we are narrow in the selection (e.g., these services are in computer science for the most part), and despite this narrowness we are still likely to be overloaded with the result. An alternative approach is to use a google search, but that is not tailored to finding scientific contributions and, as we experience, the result is not often as helpful as when we search the Web for other purposes.
  • The first is that scientific knowledge is not communicated (only) via isolated scientific papers, linked to each other via citations. Rather, it is exists in different kinds (data, experiments, ideas,...), it is communicated in different forms (papers, talks, blogs), it evolves almost continuously over time, and it is connected in a knowledge network (papers describe experiments that are built over datasets, all based on ideas inspired from other talks or blogs). The second intuition is that the network which would be so useful to navigate in the sea of scientific knowledge is not objective, but is rather subjective. Whether a paper is inspired from another, or whether a person contributed to a paper may be proven facts or may be opinions, which may also take different forms.The third intuition is that we can use the power of the community as editors to help us select knowledge among a sea of information, rather than leaving this role to a selected few.The fourth intuition is that editors and the community of readers can create knowledge. This is a huge potential that is currently untapped for various social and technical reasons, but that can be used to service the scientific community.Also: DiverisityThis talk will present the main ideas behind liquid journals and then focus on the services and social computing side, describing the IT infrastructure that enables each of us to provide, create, consume, and share scientific knowledge. We will see that the "social" aspect lies both in creating IT services that facilitate the social content creation and editing effort as well as in having the community actually contribute to building the very same IT services that support this.
  • The second intuition is that the network which would be so useful to navigate in the sea of scientific knowledge is not objective, but is rather subjective. Whether a paper is inspired from another, or whether a person contributed to a paper may be proven facts or may be opinions, which may also take different forms.Wikipedia approach, but for relationships
  • The third intuition is that we can use the power of the community as editors to help us select knowledge among a sea of information, rather than leaving this role to a selected few.This talk will present the main ideas behind liquid journals and then focus on the services and social computing side, describing the IT infrastructure that enables each of us to provide, create, consume, and share scientific knowledge. We will see that the "social" aspect lies both in creating IT services that facilitate the social content creation and editing effort as well as in having the community actually contribute to building the very same IT services that support this.
  • The fourth intuition is that editors and the community of readers can create knowledge. This is a huge potential that is currently untapped for various social and technical reasons, but that can be used to service the scientific community.Also: DiverisityThis talk will present the main ideas behind liquid journals and then focus on the services and social computing side, describing the IT infrastructure that enables each of us to provide, create, consume, and share scientific knowledge. We will see that the "social" aspect lies both in creating IT services that facilitate the social content creation and editing effort as well as in having the community actually contribute to building the very same IT services that support this.
  • The first is that scientific knowledge is not communicated (only) via isolated scientific papers, linked to each other via citations. Rather, it is exists in different kinds (data, experiments, ideas,...), it is communicated in different forms (papers, talks, blogs), it evolves almost continuously over time, and it is connected in a knowledge network (papers describe experiments that are built over datasets, all based on ideas inspired from other talks or blogs). The second intuition is that the network which would be so useful to navigate in the sea of scientific knowledge is not objective, but is rather subjective. Whether a paper is inspired from another, or whether a person contributed to a paper may be proven facts or may be opinions, which may also take different forms.The third intuition is that we can use the power of the community as editors to help us select knowledge among a sea of information, rather than leaving this role to a selected few.The fourth intuition is that editors and the community of readers can create knowledge. This is a huge potential that is currently untapped for various social and technical reasons, but that can be used to service the scientific community.Also: DiverisityThis talk will present the main ideas behind liquid journals and then focus on the services and social computing side, describing the IT infrastructure that enables each of us to provide, create, consume, and share scientific knowledge. We will see that the "social" aspect lies both in creating IT services that facilitate the social content creation and editing effort as well as in having the community actually contribute to building the very same IT services that support this.
  • Formally, we define the space of scientific resources  where SR=<ID, URI, CT, CF, xxx> are the individual scientific resources (which can be everything from papers to datasets, to experiments, to presentations, to feedback and comments, and to journals).ID denotes adoes universal identifier for the resource. URI points to the resource as available on the Webthe URI for a resource can be null, with the meaning that there is no web address from which we can retrieve this resource. This is the case where we do not want to state a default or primary representation for a resource: rather, this "conceptual" node is used as entry point to define representation relations, as defined later . CT is the content type of the resource and can take values such as paper, video, slideset, dataset, experiment, and others.CF is the content format which can for example be pdf, pptx, and so on.  We consider journals as a way to create or as a minimum to dissseminate knowledge, and as such journals are also resources. E are the entities that create, access, relate, annotate, or certify resources. These can be people or institutions (including certification agencies).PR are the lifecycle processes associated to a resourceR=<ES, ET, RT, EN, A> denotes directed relations among resources or between resources and entities or processes (from ES to ET). Besides the objects they relate, they are essentially characterized by a type (e.g., "next version of", RT), by the users that created it, and by the set of EN users or agencies that endorse it, if any. A denotes the set of annotations that can be attached to resources, entities, and processes   to formalize and expand a bit, but this gives the idea -Fabio Casati 3/18/10 11:14 PM 
  • The liquid journals model builds on a model for scientific contributions, which is  designed to facilitate the search for - and navigation of - scientific information of interest. We see scientific contributions as a structured, evolving, and multi-facet objects. Specifically, we see the space of scientific content we want to search and help to assess and disseminate as consisting of scientific resources, organized as set of nodes in a graph, that can be connected and annotated by authors or even readers. The reasons for connections, and hence for modeling resources as a graph, is to capture several kinds of dependencies or relationships among them (or between resources and people or other entities, as discussed next), which go beyond what is currently captured today (which is essentially limited to authorship and citation). the URI for a resource can be null, with the meaning that there is no web address from which we can retrieve this resource. This is the case where we do not want to state a default or primary representation for a resource: rather, this "conceptual" node is used as entry point to define representation relations
  • Temporal relations model the evolution of a contribution, be it a paper or dataset or anything else.  This is a natural behavior of research dissemination where for example we write a preliminary version of a paper and then we extend or refine it. Or, we clean or add more data to a dataset.  Figure 1B also shows that evolution can follow a line (as in multiple versions of our project deliverable 3.1) or branch (from one deliverable we then derive a paper or a technical report). In particular, LJ assumes resources to be organized in trees, where each tree essentially denotes a line of research and tracks the evolution in time of related documents. REFER to the fig in the example. The tree is described by relationships of type <child next version of parent>, and LJ assumes that each child has only one parent. This model for SR reduces overload because it clusters contributions into research lines (which are themselves SRs) and then allow users to navigate through contributions in the line and evolutions, presentations, and other related resources. Although outside the scope of this paper, it allows to more fairly attribute credit to contributions or authors by making explicit the incremental nature of a contribution. Representation relations model the multi-faceted nature of scientific resources. For example, a paper can have associated slides and datasets, and so be deemed as a complex multi-faceted artifact, including artifacts that encode (part of) the same knowledge but have different representation. In particular, LJ assume the relation type <B  alternative_representation_of A> denoting that resource B is a way to render/present the concepts/content of resource A (e.g., B can be a short version of a long paper A). To simplify the model and make visualization manageable, we assume that there can be no resource C who is representation of B. In other words, representations are arranged in a star where there is a resource at the center, and many alternative possible representations can be connected to it.Structural relations represent arbitrary relationships between contributions, where the relationship is described by annotations. For example, a paper can be related to a dataset in that it describes results of experiments on that dataset. LJs exploit these structural relationships: <Re performed_on dataset Rd> denotes that Re is an experiment, Rd is a dataset, and Re is conducted on top of dataset Rd.   <R1 reporting_on R2> denotes that R1 describes a dataset R2 or reports on the result of an experiment R2.   Authorship relations denote who contributed to the creation of the resource. <P contributed_to R> indicates that person P contributed to the creation of the scientific resource R the typical example being the authoring of a paper. A typical annotation for this relation would denote the kind of contribution. For example, it may state that P contributed the state of the art section, or that P simply contributed by hiring the people who did the actual work. <P edited R> indicates that person P has been the editor of a journal issue R. 
  • Formally, a liquid journal LJ is a specific type of scientific resource. Unlike a paper that proposes a new idea or a new interesting content, it is a resource whose scientific value is that of collecting, aggregating, and organizing content and of implicitly assisting readers in contributing knowledge. As such it helps in disseminating scientific knowledge and as such it contributes to science.
  • The essence of the journal is manifested via specific relationships with and constraints on other resources it is related to. A liquid journal LJ is characterized by (related to) a set of editors, one or more publishers, a default editorial process, and a set of journal issues. Issues are themselves resources, and can have editors and can be related to processes in case the selection  and publishing process for a specific issue differs from the default one. Both the journal and the issues are linked to resources that represent the content of the issue. In essence, the journal has content that evolves (possibly even continuously), while issues typically represent snapshots of a journal that the editor decides to "solidify". All these properties are expressed via distinguished relationships (such as "contains" or "is edited by") that are known to the LJ software.
  • Because of the assumption on resources defined in the previous section, this means that a journal is now a "view" over resources available in the resource space, that can correspond to different kinds of contributions (not just papers, and can also include feedback as a first class scientific resource), that can be navigated to find different versions or representations, and that can be more easily consumed and understood thanks to annotations and relations to comments, datasets, experiments, or blogs. The essence to make things work is that the relationships are maintained by the community and, as we will see, the community does so based on their own selfish interest. We will also see that the liquid journal approach facilitates credit attribution, supports diversity and broadness in search, and encourage positive behaviors in science, and makes the scientific dissemination process more efficient. We begin by discussing how the LJ engine supports the creation of liquid journals and showing how, while searching for interesting content to fill our journals, we provide an alternative and we believe more efficient and effective way to assign reputation to science and scientists.
  • Manual selection mimics the way we collect and share interesting content today.There are various ways in which we identify scientific artifacts we'd like to read, use or share. For example, colleagues send us links or attachments via mail, recommending us to read them, and possibly even adding why (e.g., "take a look at this paper, it has a nice idea although it is not really developed or validated").Or, we can stumble upon interesting material while searching or browsing the web.another example, we may be listening to a talk at a conference and be browsing the conference proceedings and decide that the paper being presented is interesting, and we should take the time to read it at the earliest opportunity. The LJ infrastructure (and ecosystem, as we will see) supports this by facilitating editors inGathering scientific resources of interest into a cooking area, which is where resources are "parked" and then explored before being possibly published.Exploring the relationships of the resources in the cooking area with other resources (e.g., newer versions of a paper, updated releases of a scientific experiment, different representations of a concept)Selecting the actual resources we want to place in the journalCreating a new issue and publishing it
  • The cooking area
  • Free in terms of format, rules, kind of contribution etc….
  • Transcript

    • 1. Liquid Journals
      how social computing and liquid knowledge will shape and navigate information waters
    • 2. What’s a LJ?
    • 3. The opportunity we miss today
      It’s not easy to find scientific knowledge
      Even more difficult than we think
      Growing number of contribs, search does not scale in quality
      Inefficient dissemination process
      Dubious filtering and quality assessment
      Narrowness
    • 4. Key intuition 1 – evolving network of multifacet objects
      Data
    • 5. Key intuition 2 – It’s subjective!
    • 6. Key intuition 3 – editing power of the community
    • 7. Key intuition 4 – readers create knowledge
    • 8. Key intuition 5 - Diversity
    • 9. Scientific Resources for Liquid Journals
    • 10. Scientific Resource Space
      Set of connected and annotated scientific resources 
      S=<SR, E, PR, R, A>
      SR=<ID, URI, CT, CF, A>
      R=<Esrc, ETarget, RType, END, A>
      A=<SR or R, E, text>
    • 11.
    • 12. Relationship types (examples)
      Temporal (e.g., next_version)
      Structural (e.g., performed_on, reporting_on)
      Representation (e.g., alternative_repr_of)
      Authorship (contributed, edited,…)
    • 13. Journal Model
    • 14. Definition
      Collection of links to resources
      Selected by editors (Possibly based on defined procedures)
      Offered by a publisher
      May change continuously and may have issues (snapshots)
    • 15. Creating knowledge selfishly…
    • 16. Approach: agile and socially-driven IT
      Entity
      Relationship
      Resource
      next_version
      Annotation
      Person
      Alternative representation
      Journal
      Agency


    • 17. Creating and Filling a Journal
    • 18. Manual selection
    • 19. Readings
      Filters
      »
      Authors
      Universal Resource Space Management System
      Marcos, Fabio, Maurizio
      This paper presents a tool and a model that allows…
      Settings
      Fabio
      Juan
      Alejandro
      15
      Liquid journal
      on mashups
      Peer review, scientific publications,
      Subscriptions
      Adaptive Lifecycle Management
      Journal on Lifecycle Management
      Communities
      Computer Science
      Physics
      Biology
      Liquid journal on peer review
      Rethinking peer review
      Joe
      Exploring new ideas
      13
      Liquid journal
      on peer review
      Liquid journal on mashups
      Peer review, scientific publications,
      Tags
      Adaptive Lifecycle Management
      Peer-review
      Scientific publ
      Sources
      Labels
      Springer
      Arxiv
      mashups
      [1]
      Time
      [1]
      data integration
      You can drop things on the dock for putting stuff in the
      Cooking area or sharing them with your contacts
      You define the quick links by dropping journals and users here
      No intrusive and without distracting effects
      Journal on Data Integration
      Journal on Lifecycle Management
      Alejandro
    • 20. Readings
      Filters
      »
      »
      Authors
      Settings
      Fabio
      Juan
      Alejandro
      Peer review, and overview
      Peter, Pablo, Pedro
      Subscriptions
      New frontiers in Science
      Communities
      Ernesto, Juan, …
      Computer Science
      Physics
      Biology
      Liquid journal on peer review
      Liquidpub research on evaluation metrics
      Liquid journal on mashups
      Joe, Matteo, Fabio,…
      Tags
      Peer-review
      Scientific publ
      Evaluation of reviewers‘ behavior
      Juan, Alejandro, Carlos
      Sources
      Labels
      Springer
      Arxiv
      mashups
      [1]
      Time
      [1]
      data integration
      Journal on Data Integration
      Journal on Lifecycle Management
      Alejandro
    • 21. Automated selection
      Keyword based (basic and adv, eg source,…)
      Relation-based and annotation-based
      Reputation (see next)
      Diversity
      (partner with ERC search computing)
      Why better than what we have today?
    • 22. Consuming, creating, and “measuring” knowledge
      Empowering readers
    • 23. Not just reading…
      Navigating
      Sharing
      Linking and annotating (selfishly)
      => measuring reputation based on sharing and inclusion in journal
      => specific reputation measures based on annotations
      Implications: better metrics, community filtering, better search and navigation
    • 24. What all this means….
      Search and management of info overload
      Knowledge extraction from readers/editors
      Fair assessment
      Efficient dissemination
      Publish what I want, when I want, how I want, then deliver it through the information pipes
      Make evolution explicit
      Reuse implicit review that people do anyways when selecting content for their own purposes

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