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    Wk5 one word substitutions Wk5 one word substitutions Document Transcript

    • SEMESTER 1 ARTICLESArticles are the demonstrative adjectives, which are used to denote any definite or indefiniteobjects. Articles are one of the parts of alphabets, which are divided into Article, Consonants &Vowels (a,e,i,o,u – letters used for making words, and to pronounce). A) Definite Article : Definite article is that, which is used to speak about a particular person or a thing. “The” is used for definite article. It can be used before a Vowel and a consonant. This is the man, whom I saw yesterday. This is the beggar who pretended to be dumb. That was the orange I wanted to have. B) In- Definite Article : The second is the indefinite article, which comprises of A, & An which is used before a single countable noun, to mention or represent for the first time, a particular person or a thing. i) A – The article A is used before a word beginning with a Vowel or a consonant, but with a consonant sound. Vowels having consonant sound such as a) ‘yu’, for the letter ‘U’ as in use, unit, unity, university, European, uniform, utensil, union. b) ‘wa’ for the letter ‘O’ as in one. ii) AN – The article AN is used before a word beginning with a Vowel or with the letter ‘h’, which is silent. Such as, an - eye, ox, idiot, umbrella, army, an hour, honest, honourable.Exercises: 1) __________ apple is _________ fruit. 2) I shall be back in ___________hour. 3) __________ American is not _____________ European. 4) India is __________ very large country. 5) I want to ask you _______________ question. 6) What is ___________name of this child. 7) What is ____________ capital of India? 8) Bobby is __________________ honest boy. 9) Please Switch of __________ light. 10) I am cleaning ____________ car. 11) Ashoka was _____________ king. 12) My friend is ________________ police man. 13) ____________ umbrella is ___________ useful thing. 14) Sri-lanka is _______________ island. 15) He married _______________ ugly woman. 16) __________ elephant is ___________ strong animal. 17) _____________ Himalayas & ___________ Alps are ranges. 18) _____________ Deccan Queen is an express train. 19) India is _________ peninsula, surrounded by _____________ Indian Ocean. 20) ________ Spanish , but only Spaniards. 1
    • SINGULAR & PLURALSNoun that denotes a single person or a thing is Singular and, that which denoted more than aperson or a thing is Plural. The topic does seem very simple to solve, but we usually land-upmaking mistakes, which may turn major.The singular words are generally transformed to plural by only adding ‘s’ to the original word, butbeside this primary idea lies various other procedures.Rules for converting singular to plural are as follows: 1) Nouns ending with Ch (soft), S, Sh, X or Z  Plural by adding - es Bench – Benches Watch – Watches Gas – Gases Loss – Losses Brush – Brushes Dish – Dishes Tax – taxes Quiz – Quizzes 2) Nouns ending with O preceded by a Consonant  Plural by adding – es But if the word ends with OO, IO,EO.YO, the plural is formed by adding -s Buffalo - Buffaloes Mango - Mangoes Echo - Echoes Dynamo - Dynamos Ratio - ratios Stereo – Stereos Bamboo – Bamboos Ratio – Ratios Stereo – Stereos Embryo - Embryos 3) Nouns ending with Y  Plural by adding – ies (which replaced Y in plural) But if the final Y is preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed by adding -s Baby – Babies Lady – Ladies Army – Armies Pony - Ponies City – Cities Chimney – Chimneys Day – Days Journey – Journeys Play – Plays Valley – Valleys plural) Baby – Babies Lady – Ladies Army – Armies Pony - Ponies City – Cities 2
    • 4) Noun ending with F or Fe  Plural by replacing F or Fe by –ves. Calf – Calves Life - Lives Half – Halves Elf – Elves Shelf – Shelves Wife – Wives Wolf – Wolves5) Noun ending with FF, EEF, OOF, IEF, RF  Plural by adding –s. Cliff - Cliffs Puff – Puffs Staff – Staffs Reef - Reefs Roof – Roofs Proof – Proofs Belief – Beliefs Chief – Chiefs Scarf – Scarfs/Scarves Some Compound Noun formed plural. Foot-Man = Foot-men Looker – on = Lookers –on Washer –man = Washer-men Man- Servant = Men-servant Spend –thrift = spend-thrifts Maid-servant = Maid –servants Major – general = Major-generals Court – martial = Courts-martial Daughter –in – law = Daughter s–in-law 3
    • PARTS OF SPEECHWords are divided into different kinds of classes, known as Parts of Speech, according to their use& work. They are as follows : 1. Noun 2. Pronoun 2. Verb 3. Adverb 3. Adjective 4. Proposition 4. Conjunction 5.Intrejection.Attention:1. NOUN : It is a naming word. It is used before a name, place or a thing. Noun is further divided in the following categories: i. Proper Noun : It is the name of a particular person or a thing. It is always written with a capital letter at the beginning. ii. Common Noun : It is denoted for a thing which is common for every person. – Like : King, Boy, city, country e.t.c iii. Collective noun : It is for collection of People or things - Like : Crowd ,Fleet, Army, Jury. Herd. iv. Abstract noun : It is the name for Quality : Goodness, Honesty, bravery, darkness. e.t.c (Quality can also be compared to ADJECTIVE)/ Action : laughter, Theft, movement, love, Hate e.t.c / State : Childhood, youth, slavery, death, poverty, sleep. v. Countable noun : are the names of the objects, or persons we count, normally in plural forms. Anything in physical form. Like – Boys, books, girls, doctors e.t.c (They are a part of COMMOM Noun) vi. Un-Countable noun : are the names of the objects, character, we cannot see or count. They are normally abstract things , like :- Milk, oil, good, honesty, air, e.t.c. Point out the PROPER, COLLECTIVE,COMMON & ABSTRACT NOUN 1. The crowd was very large. 2. Always speak the truth. 3. Our class consists of 20 pupils. 4. Solomon was famous for his wisdoms. 5. Cleanliness is next to godliness. 6. Jawaharlal was the first Prime Minister of India. 7. I recognized your voice at once. 8. Without health, there is no happiness. 9. Our team is better than theirs. 10.Wisdom is better than strength. 11.I believe in his innocence. 12.the room is thirty feet in length. 13.I often think of the happy days of childhood. 14.What is your verdict, gentleman of Jury? 15.There are the boys. 4
    • 1. PRONOUN : It is a the word used instead of noun. They can be 2nd or 3rd persons, like : He, She, It, They, Them.2. VERB : It is the word, used to express action or state, like : Play, sing, sleep e.t.c / Delhi is a big city, We are the team., Iron & copper are useful metals.3. ADVERB : It is the word, where “LY” is used after a verb, like : Quickly, Correctly (Very is also a part of adverb).4. PREPOSITION : A Preposition is word, placed before a pronoun, to show the relation between a person to a thing or a subject or a subject to an object. Like : on, in, inside, e.t.c.5. CONJUNCTION : It is used to join words, or sentences, like : and, because, but , e.t.c6. INTERJECTION : It is a word which expresses a sudden feeling, as : Hurrah! , Alas!, Gosh!. Point out the Part of Speech for the Italicized word. 1. Still waters run deep. 2. He lives in that house. 3. After the storm comes the calm. 4. It weighs about a pound. 5. He was only a yard off me. 6. Suddenly! One wheel came off. 7. Muslims fast in the month of Ramzan. 8. I will watch while u sleep. 9. Sit down and rest a while. 10. He is on the committee. 5
    • THE PREPOSITIONSA Preposition is word, placed before a pronoun, to show the relation between a person to a thingor a subject or a subject to an object.Preposition can be divided in two forms : The RELATIVE Pronoun & INTERROGATIVE Pronoun.The RELATIVE Pronoun- shows the relation about an subject to an object. In this case thepronoun is kept in middle of the sentence, but in INTERROGATIVE Pronoun, it is place at the endof the sentence, or where “WH” family consists.E.g.: Whom are you talking about? What are they looking at? Here is the man whom you spoke of. This is the boy whom she was speaking about.Preposition : 1) At : Exact time Small place 2) On :Before a Day or Date Top of a Surface 3) In : Before a Month or Year / Bigger place Inside something, /State of rest (He is in the class) 4) For : Estimating the Duration of time ( For 3 days, 5months) Searching someone. Destination /wanting something. (We’re leaving for Mexico, I’m going for a cup of tea) 5) To : Destination (They are going to School) 6) Since : Exact Duration of time ( since Monday, since last year). While using SINCE, it’s advised not to use the word LAST. 7) Into :Denotes Motion towards inside of anything. (He fell into the river / he jumped into the pond.) 8) Upon : Things in motion, and resting on something. (The cat jumped upon the chair) 9) Over : Act of jumping and passing over something. ( The horse jumped over the fence) 10) Above : When the subject is place little higher than the object. (The fan is placed above our head / The painting is above the study table) 11) Under : When subject is below a surface with a gap. ( The Cup is under the chair) 12) Beneath : When the subject is placed immediately below an object with no gap. (The pen is beneath the book) 6
    • 13) Below : Down on the floor or in lower height. 14) From : It can be used in form of tense / coming from a place. (He began learning Sanskrit from the age of five. (Past) (She begins her school from today. (Present) (They will become a regular student from tomorrow. (Future) ( We are coming from Haryana). 15) Between : Used in speaking of two things of things. ( He stood between 2 chairs) (A quarrel rose between 2 sisters) 16) Among : With in a group of people. (Distribute the papers among yourselves) 17) Beside : Next to. (My sister was walking beside me) 18) Besides :In addition to. (I am learning French besides Spanish) 19) By : Used for the doer of the action. 20) With : Used for the instrument with which the action is done. (The tree was cut by the man with an axe) (The farmer was killed by a robber with a knife)Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition: 1) He was struck _________________ his enemies _____________________ a heavy stick. 2) He killed her ___________________ a sword. 3) He lives _______________ Ramnager, but I often see him _________________ Calcutta. 4) The king is passing his summer _____________ Nainital ______________ Uttar Pradesh. 5) She fell ____________________ the river. 6) She rushed ______________________ the room 7) Come _________________ the garden. 8) Two brothers quarreled ________________________ themselves. 9) Wireless telegraphy is the best _________________ the modern inventions. 10) It has been raining ____________________ last week. 11) __________________ last month the weather has improved. 12) He has lived in Bombay __________________ many years. 13) She came and sat ______________________ me. 14) ___________________ this horse he has two others. 15) I don’t want to go for cinema, __________________ it’s too late. 7
    • THE CONJUNCTIONSConjunctions are words which merely join sentences or words, and make the sentences compact.Conjunctions must be distinguished between the following: a) Relative Pronoun : This is the house that jack built. b) Relative Adverb : This is the place where he was murdered. c) Simple conjunction : take this and give thatSome examples of conjunctions: a) She came and sat beside her husband b) Take it or leave it c) It was the case of a miser and his money. d) Did you know that she was my sister? e) Make hay while sun shines f) I cannot see how she can win!Note : In the sentences a,b,c the conjunction, (and, or) joins the clauses which are independent toeach other. Such Conjunctions are Co-ordinating Conjunctions. In the sentences d,e,f the conjunction, (that, while, how) joins the clauses of unequal rank,rather one clause is independent , while the other is depending upon or limiting the main clause.Such Conjunctions are Sub – ordination Conjunctions Conjunction are divided into two classes Co-ordinating Sub - ordinationIt joins 2 sentences / clauses of equal rank It joins clauses to another on which it fully depends 1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of 4 kinds.: a) Cumulative / Copulative : It simply adds one to another. Trust in God and do the right He is both fined and imprisoned. He as well as his brother is intelligent. He is not only a poet but also a philosopher b) Alternative/ Disjunctive: It simply offers a choice. Either he is a rogue or a fool. Neither he is mistaken nor he is clear She must weep or she will die. Work hard else (otherwise) you will not pass. 8
    • c) Adversative: It expresses opposition or contrast between two statements He is slow but he is steady. He is very rich, still (yet) he is not contended. He had no chance of success , never-the-less he tried. Wise men love virtue, whereas(while) fools shun it. d) Illative: By these conjunctions one statement or fact is inferred or proved from another. He is was stealing, therefore he was fined. He is did not work so he failed. He will pass for he works very hard.2. Sub-ordinating Conjunctions are of 8 kinds.: a) Time : (Note: Time is also a part of preposition) He died before he reached thirty. Wait till I return. I will leave as soon as you will come. He will wake while the sunrises. It happened when I was in Bombay. b) Cause or Reason : I love her because she loves me. We should visit them since they deserve it. c) Result or Consequence : She wept so much that she fell ill. He is so intelligent that he won the prize. d) Purpose : She wept so much that she fell ill. He is so intelligent that he won the prize. e) Condition : I will dismiss you, if u are late again. He ran as if he had been shot. 9
    • You cannot be pardoned unless you confess your fault. f) Contrast : He is an honest man, although he is poor. He is not contended though he is very rich. He will never pass, however he may try. g) Comparison : He is as clever as I am. I like her as much as you like. He is more clever than you are. h) Manner : He chose the candidates, according to their merits. As you sow so shall you reap.Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition: 1) Love not sleep______________ you could come to poverty. 2) Wisdom is better ________________ rubies. 3) I would rather suffer ____________ apologize. 4) She is beautiful ____________ not blunt. 5) He is ___________ an idler ____________ a gambler. 6) She had no other hobby ______________ that of playing pranks upon others. 7) _______________you tell me the truth, I shall fine you. 8) He is not so clever __________you think him to be. 9) No ___________ had the rain stopped, he stepped out. 10) He was fined , he was sent to prison (not only………but also) 11) I tried hard to pass the examination. I failed (never-the-less) 12) The children danced. The piper played (While) 13) My father reached the airport. The plane left after that. (before) 14) We must take a taxi. We may reach the first train. (So that) 15) he ran away. He was afraid (because). 10
    • VERBS & THEIR FORMS. Positive Comparative Superlative (PRESENT FORM – V1) (PAST FORM – V2) (PAST PARTICIPLE)1. Abide Abode Abode2. Arise Arose Arisen3. Bear (bring forth) Bore BornBear (to carry) Bore Born4. Beat Beat Beaten5. Become Became Become6. Beget Begot Begotten7. Bid Bade Bidden8. Bite Bit Bitten9. Blow Blew Blown10. Choose Chose Chosen11. Cling Clung Clung12. Draw Drew Drawn13. Eat Ate Eaten14. Fall Fell Fallen15. Fly Flew Flown16. Forbear Forbore Forborne17. Forbid Forbad Forbidden18. Forsake Forsook Forsaken19. Freeze Froze Frozen20. Give Gave Given21. Grind Ground Ground22. Grow Grew grown23. Hide Hid Hidden24. Ride Rode Ridden25. Rise Rose Risen26. Shake Shook Shaken27. Shear Sheared Shorn28. Show Showed Shown29. Shrink Shrunk Shrunk / Shrunken30. Spine Span/Spun Spun31. Stick Stuck Stuck32. Sting Stung Stung33. Strike Struck Struck/Stricken34. Strive Strove Striven35. Thrive Throve Thriven36. Weave Wove Woven37. Write Wrote Written38. Wake Woke Waked 11
    • TENSE ,THEIR USAGE WITH LEVELS TENSE -> TIME (STATE OF ACTIONS)PAST TENSE PRESENT TENSE FUTURE TENSE[Actions finished] [Actions on process] [Actions yet to take place]Every Tense is divided in 4 categories:  SIMPLE – Present / Past / Future  CONTINUOUS - Present / Past / Future  PERFECT - Present / Past / Future  PERFECT CONTINUOUS - Present / Past / FutureAgain, the categories have their respective divisions:  Affirmatives: The usual rule  Negative : The negative [+not] attitude of the usual rule (H.V + NOT)  Interrogatives : The question making for a statement (H.V + SUB)  Interrogative Negative: Question making with a negative attitude. (H.V + NOT +SUB)To compose a correct sentence in English, knowledge of Tense with helping verb is very essential. VERB -> Any doing words / Actions MAIN VERB HELPING VERB [Doing words / Actions] [Verb, that helps the main verb construct a Meaningful sentence]The helping verbs are again divided in 4 categories:  PAST TENSE –was/were/did/had  PRESENT TENSE – is/am/are/do/does/have/has  FUTURE TENSE – Will or Shall (can use either of them)  MODAL AUXILARY OR GENERAL (EXPRESSIONS) – Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Ought to, Need to, DareNext, should also know the usage of SUBJECTS with HELPING VERBS Singular Plural 1st person I We 2nd person You You 3rd person He/She They I – am/have/do/did/had/was/willWe – are / have/were/did/had/willYou – are /have/were/did/had/willHe/She – is/does/has/was/did/had/willThey – are / do/have/were/did/had/willThe rules of the Tenses are as follows: 12
    • 7. PAST TENSE: a] Simple Past : Sub + V2 + Object Sub + did + not + V1 + Object Did + Sub + V1 + Object? Did + not + Sub + V1 + Object? Exercises: i. The river flows under the bridge. ii. I shall answer the letter to-night. iii. I know he is here. iv. He takes little pride in his work v. I wish my brother is here. vi. We have heard a strange story. vii. He is waiting for you in the compound. viii. She would rather stay till tomorrow. ix. I am going to get a holiday soon. x. My watch keeps good time. b] Past Continuous: Sub + was/were + V1 + ing + Object Sub + was/were + not + V1 + ing + Object Was/were + Sub + V1 + ing + Object? Was/were + not + Sub + V1 + ing + Object? Exercises: i. He kneels before the king. ii. The steamer will sail tomorrow. iii. She will leave the school tomorrow. iv. I have been sleeping for 5 hours. v. Gopi is eating the biscuits. vi. I learnt Hindi in Nagpur. vii. We watch T.V all evening. viii. It will get darker. ix. The light goes while I read. x. He always grumbles. c] Past Perfect: Sub + had + V3 + Object Sub + had + not + V3 + Object Had + Sub + V3 + Object? Had + not + Sub + V3 + Object? OR Had + Sub + not Exercises: i. The Head-Master wants to speak to you. ii. I’m buying a new bicycle tomorrow. iii. There are your shoes, I cleaned them. iv. I have been sleeping for 5 hours. v. I saw Rahim at Zoo. vi. He falls asleep while he drives. vii. I did my Homework. viii. He studies many hours every day. ix. She always carries an umbrella. 13
    • x. He always grumbles. d] Past Perfect Continuous: Sub + had + being + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since + time Sub + had + not + being + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since + time Had + Sub + being + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since + time? Had + not + Sub + being + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since+ time? Exercises: ii. She looks worried about something. iii. This paper appears twice weekly. iv. Abdul wants to be a doctor. v. I have heard a strange noise. vi. He thanked me for what I had done. vii. The soup tastes good. viii. I played flute since child-hood. ix. The baby caries all morning. x. Tagore has written Gitanjali. xi. He is ill for two days.2. PRESENT TENSE: a] Simple Present: Sub + V1 + S/ES + Object Sub + do/does + not + V1 + S/ES + Object Do/does + Sub + V1 + Object? Do/does + not + Sub + V1 + Object? Exercises: i. Look Sheila has packed her bag. ii. I took tough decisions. iii. The college opened on 23rd June. iv. When did the last train leave for Chennai? v. I went out in rain. vi. We are eating out to-night. vii. Mr. Abdul is arriving this evening. viii. The post man will be coming soon. ix. India will win the match. x. I am passing your house every afternoon. b] Present Continuous: Sub + is/am/are + V1 + ing + Object Sub + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + Object Is/am/are + Sub + V1 + ing + Object? Is/am/are + not + Sub + V1 + ing + Object? OR Have/has + Sub + not [depends on helping verb] Exercises: i. The sun shines brightly. ii. We leave school at 4o’clock. iii. Ashoke swims very well indeed. iv. He always spoke the truth. v. Birds built nests in trees. vi. He spends his time in idleness. vii. The dust rose in the clouds. viii. The poor widow sold all her ornaments. ix. Someone stole my things. x. She lent me Rs. 10. 14
    • c] Present Perfect: Sub + have/has + V3 + Object Sub + have/has + not + V3 + Object Have/has + Sub + V3 + Object? Have/has + not + Sub + V3 + Object? Exercises: i. The sun shines brightly. ii. The train just arrived. iii. We finished our dinner. iv. I lived in Bombay for 10 years. v. We knew each other for past 10 years. vi. I will attend the class, as soon as I finish the class. vii. She sweeps the floor every day. viii. I drive trucks. ix. Sita is dancing. x. I am waiting for you. c] Present Perfect Continuous: Sub + have/has + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since + time Sub + have/has + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since + time Have/has + Sub + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + for/since + time? Have/has + not + Sub + been + V1 + ing + Obj.+ for/since+ time? OR Have/has + Sub + not + been [depends on helping verb] Exercises: ii. The Ship sinks. iii. There goes the bus. iv. Large quantities of Jute are imported from Bangladesh. v. The news travels fast. vi. I know all about the film, since I saw it twice . vii. We studied English for 5 years. viii. We were waiting for his call since 4.20 pm. ix. She is unconscious since four o’ clock x. She jumped off the bus while it was moving. xi. He goes to cinema once a week.3. FUTURE TENSE: a] Simple Future : Sub + will/shall + V1 + Object Sub + will/shall + not + V1 + Object Will/shall + Sub + V1 + Object? Will/shall + not + Sub + V1 + Object? Exercises: i. Oh dear! I sneezed The Ship sinks. ii. When I get home, my dog sits at the gate waiting for me. iii. Unless we start now, we can’t be on time. iv. The news travels fast. v. He went out an hour ago. vi. He threw cold water in our plan. vii. He felt sorry for his faults. viii. I cross your house; it’s on my way home from work 15
    • ix. The soldiers fought bravely. x. She had bought some clothes and made herself a skirt.b] Future Continuous: Sub + Will/shall + be + V1 + ing + Object Sub + Will/shall + not + be + V1 + ing + Object Will/shall + Sub + be + V1 + ing + Object? Will/shall + not + Sub + be + V1 + ing + Object?Exercises: i. We finished our breakfast half-an-hour ago. ii. He lived in Hyderabad. iii. By 2005, computers took over many of the jobs that people do. iv. I meant to repair the radio, but hadn’t time to do it. v. This book is not long, I read it by lunch time. vi. He threw cold water in our plan. vii. The plane arrived at 3.30. viii. They chose Mr. Adwani to be their leader . ix. The farmer drove the cattle to the fields. x. She had bought some clothes and made herself a skirt.c] Future Perfect: Sub + Will/shall + have + V3 + Object Sub + Will/shall + not + have + V3 + Object Will/shall + Sub + have + V3 + Object? Will/shall + not + have + Sub + V3 + Object?Exercises: i. The hungry lion roars. ii. I will go there. iii. The report proved false. iv. The donkey continued braying. v. He tried again & again.d] Future Perfect Continuous : Sub + Will/shall + have + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + at + time Sub + Will/shall + not + have + been + V1 + ing + Obj.+ at + time Will/shall + Sub + have + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + at + time? Will/shall + not + Sub + have + been + V1 + ing + Obj.+ at + time?Exercises: i. The poor woman went mad. ii. Boys hid their faults. iii. The rumour seems true. iv. Owls hide in the day time. v. The crow flew down and stole the cheese. vi. We waited patiently at the station. vii. New brooms sweep clean, but old brooms knows the corners. viii. The sky looks threatening. ix. He will finish the work in a fortnight. x. I found her weeping. 16
    • ACTIONS DONE IN EVERYDAY LIFE NOTE: [1] VERBS ARE OF 2 TYPES: ROUTINE ACTION & ALL TIME ACTION. ROUTINE ACTION: Actions done by us everyday / periodically For e.g.: I go to school everyday. I go to temple once a week We swim every Thursday. ALL TIME ACTION: Actions that occur naturally. For e.g.: The sun rises in the east. The river flows down. The earth has gravitational power. [2] THE USE OF “USED TO” IS FOR PAST ROUTINE ACTION. SUB+ USED TO + V1+ OBJECT For e.g.: I used to go to school everyday. I used to go to temple once a week I used to go visit the doctor for routine checkup. ACTIONS DONE IN EVERYDAY LIFE:To speak correct English, knowledge about the actions we use in everyday life is very essential.The actions include Start of work, till the work finishes. Yet it is divided on 2 groups, they are asfollows: GROUP 1 : PLAN / START / CONTINUE / FINISH (Recent Past & Distant Past) a) PALN / Intention to do an action : (going + to + verb 1) Present : Subject + is/am/are + planning to / going to + V1+ object He is planning to / going to make the rules I am planning to / going to sing for the concert They are planning to / going to participate in the sport. Past : Subject + was/ were + planning to / going to + V1+ object He was planning to / going to listen the music. I was planning to / going to clean my room. They were planning to / going to ring him. Future : Subject + will / shall + V1+ object (Simple Future Act) He will learn French. I shall write a letter. They will clean his room. 17
    • b) START / Continuation without time : (Continuous Tense) Present : Subject + is/am/are + V1+ ing + object He is making the rules. I am singing on stage. They are participating in the sport. Past : Subject + was/ were + V1+ ing + object He was listening to the music. I was cleaning my room. They were ringing him. Future : Subject + will / shall + be + V1+ ing + object He will be learning French. I shall be writing a letter. They will be cleaning his room.c) CONTINUE / Continuation with time : (Perfect Continuous Tense) Present : Subject + has/have + been + V1+ ing + object + for/since + time. He has been making the rules since 2005. I have been singing on stage for 3 hours. They have been participating in the sport since last year. Past : Subject + had + been + V1+ ing + object + for/since + time. He had been listening to the music since morning. I had been cleaning my room for 2 hours. Future : Subject + will have + been + V1+ ing + object He will have been learning French for 3 years. I shall have been writing a letter. They will have been cleaning his room.d) FINISH / Actions just completed (Recent Past & Distant Past) Present : Subject + has/have + V3 + object He has made the rules. I have sung on stage. They have participated in the sport. Past : Subject + had + V3 + object. He had listened to the music. I had cleaned my room. Future : Subject + will have + V3 + object He will have learnt French. 18
    • I shall have written a letter. They will have cleaned his room.GROUP 2 : SIMPLE ACTION / ROUTINE ACTION/ ALL TIME ACTION / FORCED ACTIONa) SIMPLE ACTION Present : Subject + do/does + V1 + object (S + V1 + O) Do/does + not He does / doesn’t make rules. I do / don’t sing on stage. They do / don’t participate in the sport. Past : Subject + did + V1 + object. (S + V2 + O) Did + not He did / didn’t listen to the music. I did / didn’t clean my room. Future : Subject + will/shall + V1 + object will/shall + not He will / won’t learn French. I shall / shan’t write a letter. They will / won’t clean the room.b) ROUTINE ACTION/ ALL TIME ACTION Present : Subject + do/does + V1 + object + daily (routine) / always (all time action) He does make rules daily / always I do sing on stage daily / always They do participate in the sport daily / always. Past : Subject + used to + V1 + object + daily (routine) / always (all time action) He used to listen to the music daily / always. I used to clean my room daily / always. Future : Subject + will/shall + be + V1ing + object + daily (routine)/always (all time action) He will/shall be learning French daily / always. I will/shall be writing a letter daily / always. . They will/shall be cleaning the room daily / always.c) FORCED ACTON Present : Subject + has/have + to + V1 + object He has to make rules I have to sing on stage They have to participate in the sport Past : Subject + had + to + V1 + object He had to listen to the music I had to clean my room Future : Subject + will/shall + have to + V1 + object He will/shall have to learn French. I will/shall have to write a letter. 19
    • They will/shall have to clean the room. MODALS MODAL AUXILARY OR GENERAL (EXPRESSIONS) – The verbs like [Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Ought to] are used before the ordinary verbs to express meanings such as Question, Request, Permission, Possibilities, Suggestions, and Social Obligations.A] CAN & COULD: CAN is used to express ability or capacity ; corresponding interrogative& negative sentence. It can also be used to express permission. For e.g.: I can swim across the river. He can work this sum. Can you lift this box? He can’t outdo all competitor.(impossible) He is ten years old but can’t read yet. COULD is used as the past equivalent of CAN. But in present-time context it is used as less positive version of CAN. For e.g.: I could swim across the river, when I was young.(Ability) She wondered whether it could be true. (Possibility) Could you pass me the salt? (A polite request) The box is so heavy, I couldn’t lift it. (In ability) I could’ve written the letter in English if I wanted to. (Ability from circumstance) Could I have that dictionary please? (Permission)B] MAY & MIGHT: MAY is used to express permission, possibility in affirmative sentence. It can also be used to denote a purpose. If Cannot denotes impossibility, where as MAYNOT denotes improbability. It can also be used to express Wish. For e.g.: May I go out? (Permission) May I borrow your tooth brush? It may rain to-night. (Possibility) She may pass if she works hard. May I trouble you to pass the salt? May you have a happy and long life.(Wish) May God bless you. We eat that we may live.[purpose] He flatters that he may win favours. MIGHT is used as the past equivalent of MAY. MIGHT is used to express question, express only ability to do an act, but not the performance of an act. It can also be used to denote a purpose. It can also be used to express Reproach. For e.g.: He might not go tomorrow unless you wished.(Ability from circumstance) She might enter the college next year. (Possibility) You might make a little less noise. (A polite request) 20
    • Might I borrow your pen for a minute. (Question) They died that we might live. [A purpose] You might tell me the truth. (Reproach) You might have told me the truth. (Reproach)C] WILL & WOULD: WILL is used to express pure future, Volition [willing to, determination, Promise, Threat], Characteristic habit, Assumption or probability, Invitation or a request. It can also be used to express Interrogative sentence. For e.g.: I will be 25 next birthday. (Simple Future] We will need the money tomorrow. (Simple Future] I will do as I like. (Determination) We will not submit. [Determination] I will help you. [Promise] I will behave better next time. [Promise] I will punish you, if you don’t behave well. [Threat] I will dismiss you if you come late again. [Threat] He will talk about nothing but films. [Characteristic habit] She will talk for hours over mobile.[ Characteristic habit] Will you have tea with me? [Invitation or a request] Will you be back by 10 o’ clock? [Interrogative sentence] Will he come today? [Interrogative sentence] WOULD is used as the past equivalent of WILL. Is used to express Determination, Wish, Past habit, Condition, Polite request. For e.g.: I would like to know my duties [Wish] A man cannot always do what he would.[Wish] He would have his own way. (Determination) I would go this way.[Determination] She would sit here for hours after lunch [Past habit] He would talk upon the subject for hours. [Past habit] Would you please lend me the book. [Request] Would you mind waiting for me here. [Request] I would go there, if I were allowed. [Condition] Had she met me , I would have told her every thing. [Condition] Would you be back by 10 pm? [Question]D] MUST & OUGHT TO: MUST is used to express necessity / obligation.(it is equivalent to has, have or had to), Fixed determination For e.g.: You must improve your spelling.[necessity] We must wake up early in the morning. [necessity] I must be on diet. [necessity] You must obey the laws of our country. [moral obligation] We must not tell lies. [moral obligation] I must have my money back. [Fixed determination] I must raise my voice against this matter. [fixed determination] OUGHT TO is used as the obligation. For e.g.: We ought to have helped her The soldiers ought to obey their seniors. I ought to have visited my sister yesterday. You ought not to have laughed at her mistakes 21
    • He ought not to treat her wife in this way.WILL & SHALL have same usage. SHOULD can be replaced by MUST and vice - versa.Choose the correct alternative:2. I don’t think I (Shall, Should, can) be able to go there.3. He (shall, can, dare) not pay unless he is compelled.4. You (must, would, ought to) be punctual.5. I wish you (could, must, shall) tell me earlier.6. (Shall, May, Must) I assist you?7. You (ought to, would, might) pay your debts.8. He said I (can, might, should) use his telephone at any time.9. I (need, did, must) not see him, so I sent him a letter.10.(Shall, Might, Could) you show me the way to the station?11.To save my life, I ran fast, and (can, could, would) reach safely.12.I (would, used to, ought to) be an architect, but now I believe in God.13.The Prime Minister (will, would, is to) make a statement tomorrow.14.You (couldn’t, didn’t, needn’t) wait for me, I can find the way.15.(Should, Shall, Would) you like another cup of coffee?16.I wish he (could, would, should) not play his radio loud.Fill in the blanks :1. He _____________not ask for a rise, for fear of loosing his job.2. I ______________ to be an atheist, but now I believe in god.3. I was afraid, that if I had asked him again, he _______________ refuse.4. (Shall, May, Must) I assist you?5. You (ought to, would, might) pay your debts.6. He said I (can, might, should) use his telephone at any time.7. I (need, did, must) not see him, so I sent him a letter.8. (Shall, Might, Could) you show me the way to the station?9. To save my life, I ran fast, and (can, could, would) reach safely.10.I (would, used to, ought to) be an architect, but now I believe in God.11.The Prime Minister (will, would, is to) make a statement tomorrow.12.You (couldn’t, didn’t, needn’t) wait for me, I can find the way.13.(Should, Shall, Would) you like another cup of coffee?14.I wish he (could, would, should) not play his radio loud. 22
    • ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICES : To speak correct English, learning the actions and the intentions are most necessary, with the utility of verbs. The Table below shows the Tense of the Verb; with 12 Active & 8 Passive Voice. VOICES : (Verb, which shows “what is done by the subject” & “what is done on the object”.) Thus VOICES are of two types: a) ACTIVE VOICE: The direct Action, done by the subject b) PASSIVE VOICE: The Impact of the work on the object. TENSE SIMPLE CONTINIOUS PREFECTPRESENT: Active Take/Takes Is/am/are + Taking Has/Have Taken Passive Is/am/are + Taken Is/am/are + being + Taken Has/Have + been + TakenPAST: Active Took Was/Were + Taking Had Taken Passive Was/Were + Taken Was/Were + being + Taken Had + been + TakenFUTURE: Active Will/Shall Take Will + have + Taken Passive Will/Shall + be + Will + have + been + Taken Taken. Before proceeding, one must know the Rules and regulations of the VOICES: a) No Change in Tense b) H.V is must in Passive Voice. c) Main Verb is always in Past Participle form. d) “By” is added before a Subject. e) The verb should always be Transitive / transitory , where the verb passes over from a subject to an object. f) “Who” becomes “By whom” g) “Why did” becomes “Why was” h) In the case of Modals, like Can-Could/Should/May-Might/ changes to M+be+V3PRESENT TENSE: a) SIMPLE PRESENT: Active: SUB + V1 + S/ES + OBJECT I teach grammar. She picks balls They take me. Passive: OBJECT + is/am/are + V3 + by + SUB Grammar is taught by me. Balls are picked by her. I am taken by them. b) PRESENT CONTINIOUS : Active: SUB + is/am/are + V1 + ING + OBJECT I am teaching grammar. She is picking balls They are taking me. Passive: OBJECT + is/am/are + being + V3 + by + SUB Grammar is being taught by me. 23
    • Balls are being picked by her. I am being taken by them. c) PRESENT PERFECT : Active: SUB + has/have + V3 + OBJECT I have taught grammar. She has picked balls They have taken me. Passive: OBJECT + has/have + been + V3 + by + SUB Grammar has been taught by me. Balls have been picked by her. I have been taken by them.EXERCISES: CONVERT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TO PASSIVE VOICES : 1) Sita loves Rohit 2) The mason is building the wall. 3) Raman does something. 4) Hunter shoots wild animals. 5) We expect good news. 6) The farmer gathers harvest. 7) They sell radios here. 8) I have sold my cycle. 9) Someone has put out the light. 10) Our enemy have defeated the enemy.PAST TENSE: d) SIMPLE PAST : Active: SUB + V2 + OBJECT I taught grammar. She picked balls They took me. Passive: OBJECT + was /were + V3 + by + SUB Grammar was taught by me. Balls were picked by her. I was taken by them. e) PAST CONTINIOUS : Active: SUB + was/were + V1 + ING + OBJECT I was teaching grammar. She was picking balls They were taking me. Passive: OBJECT + was /were + being + V3 + by + SUB Grammar was being taught by me. Balls were being picked by her. I was being taken by them. f) PAST PERFECT : Active: SUB + had + V3 + OBJECT I had taught grammar. She had picked balls They had taken me. Passive: OBJECT + has + been + V3 + by + SUB Grammar had been taught by me. 24
    • Balls had been picked by her. I had been taken by them.EXERCISES: CONVERT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TO PASSIVE VOICES : 1) The cat killed the mouse 2) Columbus discovered America 3) The boy was catching the ball. 4) Rama was making a kite. 5) He kept me waiting. 6) He made a very remarkable discovery. 7) They had found him guilty of murder. 8) Somebody had picked my pocket. 9) Wind blew down the trees. 10) They were refused admission.FUTURE TENSE: g) SIMPLE FUTURE : Active: SUB + will/shall + V1 + OBJECT I shall teach grammar. She will pick Passive: OBJECT + will/shall + be + V3 + by + SUB Grammar shall be taught by me. Balls will be picked by her. h) FUTURE PERFECT : Active: SUB + will/shall + have + V3 + OBJECT I shall have taught grammar. She will have picked balls Passive: OBJECT + has + been + V3 + by + SUB Grammar shall have been taught by me. Balls will have been picked by her.EXERCISES: CONVERT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TO PASSIVE VOICES : 1) The teacher will forgive him. 2) You will surprise me. 3) I shall have entered the house. 4) I will struck her with good lucks. 5) The king will have rewarded the commander.CONVERT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TO PASSIVE VOICES : 1) Who did this? 2) Why did your brother write such a letter? 3) Who will command the army? 4) Who taught you French? 5) Who will buy the doll? 25
    • DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECHThe actual words of the speakers when quoted in inverted comas is the Direct Speech, and whenthe substance of what the speaker said without quoting the exact word is reported is know as theIndirect Speech.While changing a Direct Speech to an Indirect speech, certain grammatical changes are to bemade. They are as follows: 1. The Inverted comas get removed. 2. I is changed to He or She.; You to I 3. In Indirect Speech, THAT replaces inverted comas. 4. Word expressing nearness, is changed to distant expressions in indirect speech, like : I. Now – Then II. This – That III. These – Those IV. Here – There V. Come – go VI. Today – That day VII. Tomorrow – Next day VIII. Yesterday – Previous day IX. Last Night – Previous Night X. Ago – before XI. Hither – Thither XII. Hence - ThenceBesides the above restrictions, there are others to be followed too:1. The SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE in the direct speech is changed into SIMPLE PAST TENSE . a) Rama said “ I am ill” Rama said that he was ill. b) He said “ My pen is lost” He said that his pen was lost. c) Ali said to the beggar “ I know you” Ali told to the beggar that he knew him. d) Ali said to me “ You are stupid” Ali told me that I was stupid. Some of the words which can be changed in SIMPLE PAST TENSE are as follows: a) Shall – Should b) Will – Would c) May – Might d) Has come – Had come 26
    • e) Has been coming – Had been coming. a) He said “ Rama shall come” He said that Rama should come. b) He said “ Rama will come” He said that Rama would come. c) He said “ Rama may come” He said that Rama might come. d) He said “ Rama has come” He said that Rama had come. e) He said “ Rama Has been coming” He said that Rama Had been coming. But, if the speech, related to some universal truth, The Simple Present Tense in the direct speech remains un-changed.; also, if the speech, is in the Present or Future tense the reported speech remains un-changed. Universal or Habitual fact: f) He said “ Rama shall come” He said that Rama should come. g) Galileo proved, “The Earth revolves around the sun” Galileo proved that The Earth revolves around the sun. h) She said “ Old habits die hard” She said that Old habits die hard. Speech in the Present or Future tense the reported speech remains Un-Changed. i) The servant says “ The tea is ready” He says that the tea is ready. j) Ali says “ I drink water after meal” Ali says that he drinks water after meal. k) The teacher will say “ The boy is dull” The teacher will say that the boy is dull.2. The PRESENT CONTINIOUS TENSE in the direct speech is changed into PAST CONTINIOUS a) Rama said “ I am coming” Rama said that he was coming. b) He said “ The boy is stealing!” He said that the boy was stealing. c) Ali asked “ Are you all coming with me?” 27
    • Ali asked if we were going with him.3. The PRESENT PERFECT TENSE in the direct speech is changed into PAST PERFECT. a) Rama said “ I have come” Rama said that he had come. f) He said “ The boy has stolen” He said that the boy had stolen. c) Ali asked “ where have you kept it?” Ali asked where had I kept it.4. The PRESENT PERF. CONTINIOUS in the direct speech is changed into PAST PERF. CONT. a) Rama said “ I have been going” Rama said that he had been going g) He said “ She has been dancing” He said that she had been dancing.1. The PAST TENSE in the direct speech is changed into PAST PERFECT. a) Rama said “ I went there” Rama said that he had gone there. b) He said “ The boy stole” He said that the boy had stolen.2. The PAST CONTINIOUS in the direct speech is changed into PAST PERF. CONT. a) He said, “Sita was dancing” He said that, Sita had been dancing. Note of interrogation in Direct & Indirect Speech 1. He said to me , “ Do you know the way?” He inquired of me if I knew the way. 2. The teacher said me,” What are you doing?” The teacher asked me what I was doing. 3. He said to me, “ Why did not you submit me the work?” He demanded of me why I hadn’t submitted the work.EXERCISE : CONVERT THE FOLLWING IN INDIRECT SPEECH: 1) The teacher said, “ I am busy now” 2) He said, “It may rain tomorrow.” 3) He said. “ Last night I met a fool.” 4) She said, “ I met this man two days ago.” 28
    • 5) The preacher said, “ you must love your neighbors, as you love God.’” 6) I said them, “Who will buy the doll?” 7) Ali said, “ I have acted foolishly in what I did.” 8) The teacher said, “ Sweet are the uses of Adversity” PREPOSITION PHRASES1. According to2. Along with3. Due to4. Because of5. By means of6. By reason of7. By virtue of8. By way of9. In addition to10.On behalf of11.In comparison with12. In consequence with13.In course of14.In favour of15.In lieu of16.Instead of17.In place of18.In regard to19.In spite of20.In view of21.On account of22.Well off23.Owing to24.With a view to 29
    • 25.With regard to 26.With an Eye to STYLE OF WRITING COMPOSITION & LETTERS Essay writing. An essay is a written composition, an expression of ones personal opinion on a subject. The process of selection & arrangement of materials must always be completed before beginning to write on the topic. Essays are classified into the following 4 categories. : a) Narrative Essay : It consists of some narration of some events or incidents, which are practical, and true to ones knowledge. Nothing imaginative is added to it. b) Descriptive Essay : These essays only describes a person or a thing. – on a particular object. c) Reflective Essay : It consists of reflection of thoughts on some topics, which is generally of an abstract nature, like Cast System, Present Politics, Qualities, Co-education, unemployment… e.t.c d) Expository Essay : It is an explanatory one, which generally consists of an exposition of some subject….like : 1. Industries, Occupations (Explaining & setting them as an example) 2. Scientific topics & literary topics ( Explanation) Hints for writing an attractive essay.: 1. DO NOT START writing at once 2. SELECT your ideas carefully, and ACCUMULATE the materials. 3. ARRANGE the ideas. 4. DIVIDE THE ESSAY in Introduction; Body; & Conclusion. 5. Introduction should explain the topic not describe the topic./ Body consist of illustration and Explanations of the facts / Conclusion should reflect your opinion, and also should leave room for the readers to place his or hers. 6. Be brief, use simple words & short sentences. 7. Always remember, your overall task SHOULD BE INTERESTING, to ones eyes & ears.Topics for practice : 1. A street quarrel 2. A Visit to an exhibition 3. A picnic or an Excursion 4. Co- education. 5. An evening in the cinema house. 30
    • Letter writing.Every now & then we all are required to write a letter, be it a personal one or an officialone.Private letters are those, which are written to friends & relatives. Their style is chieflyconversational.A personal letter must contain the following things: a) Address : On the right hand top corner. b) Greetings / Salutations. c) Body of the letter d) Leave takingIn writing a letter to intimate people, one may start it as a) My dear—Father, Mother, Brother/Sister (If own),grandparents b) Dear – Uncle, aunt, & FriendsOpening sentences for official letters : a) It is to state that b) It is to bring to your notice that c) In response to the advertisement…….. d) I beg to state that Note : One should always remember to write the subject to the letter, when writing an official letter (Sud: ________________) 31
    • SEMESTER 3 + 4 KNOWING PHRASESA phrase is a group of words, acting as a Noun, Adjective or Adverb in a sentence. It does notcontain a finite verb, that is, in itself it cannot make a complete sentence, but does contain ameaning to some part of the sentence, in which it stands.For Example : 1. A write is a man of great wealth./ Knowledge counts more than money. 2. He was a young man of great promise./ Very sincere in his deeds. 3. It was a scene of great beauty./ Very beautiful landscape 4. I shot an arrow in the air./  I guessedNOUN PHRASE: A noun phrase is a group of word, that does a work of a noun rather, it denotesthe wish of “want”.For Example : 1. We enjoy playing cards. 2. To win a prize is my ambition. 3. He hopes to win the first prize. 4. I love to issue hard orders. 5. I tried to get the sum right. 6. Did you enjoy reading this book? (wants to know the opinion or feeling) 7. To know one self is a difficult task. wish to know one-self.Pick out the noun phrase: 1. To err is human 2. To forgive ones enemies is noble. 3. I enjoy walking in the fields. 4. To dance in the street is disgraceful. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ADJECTIVE PHRASE: An Adjective phrase is a group of word, doing the work of an adjective.For Example : 1. A golden crow./ A crow made of gold 2. A popular hero /  A hero liked by all. 3. A populous city /  A city having large no. of inhabitants. 4. A deserted village /  A village without any inhabitants. 5. A blank page. /  A page with no writing on it.Pick out the Adj. phrase: 1. He is a man of honour 2. A bird in hand is worth two in bush. 3. He is a man of means. 4. Suddenly a furious storm began to blow. 5. He is a professional cricketer. 6. He is a homeless orphan. 32
    • 7. She wears a woolen hat. 8. He was a lad with promising career. 9. A stitch in time saves nine.ADVERB PHRASE: An Adverb phrase is one which not only does the work of an adverb, butanswers a silent question.For Example : 1. Rama ran quickly. (How) /  Rama ran with great speed. 2. He answered rudely. (How) /  He answers in a very rude manner. 3. He is coming now. (When) /  He is coming at the moment. 4. No such disease were known then. (When) /  No such diseases were known in those days. 5. You can buy it everywhere.(Where) /  Can buy it in all places 6. The arrow fell here.(Where) /  The arrow fell in this spot. 7. Go away. (Where) /  Go anywhereFill the blanks with Adverb phrase: 1. The Knight fought ___________. 2. Don’t answer _____________. 3. Old mother Mary went ______________. 4. The mountaineer climbed _______________. 5. He takes life _________________. 6. He is a homeless orphan. 7. She wears a woolen hat. 8. He was a lad with promising career. 9. A stitch in time saves nine. 33
    • DICTIONARY WORK & VOCABULARY Behaviour of a person2. Enthusiastic / Unenthusiastic.2. Outspoken / Reserved3. Frank / Secretive4. Predictable / Unpredictable5. Docile / Rebellious6. Bold / Coward7. Sensational / Ineffective8. Modest / Immodest9. Sympathetic / Unsympathetic or Apathetic10. Cordial / Indifferent11. Composed / Disturbed or Tensed12. Dutiful / Negligent13. Accepting / Refusing14. Sober / Rowdy.15. Sincere / Insincere16. Flexible / Rigid or Adamant17. Courteous / Discourteous18. Reliable / Unreliable19. Puritanical / Unpuritanic20. Acceleration / Retardation Personality Traits. 1. Generous / Unenthusiastic. 34
    • 2. Dashing / Unimpressive 3. Extrovert / Introvert 4. Masculine / Effeminate 5. Articulate / Inarticulate 6. Decisive / Indecisive or Fickle minded 7. Determined / Wavering or oscillating 8. Agile / Sloth 9. Elegant / Inelegant or Uncultivated 10. Benign / Spiteful 11. Shrewd / Stupid 12. Enterprising / Unresourceful 13. Optimistic / Pessimistic 14. Evincible / Invincible 15. Versatile / Unresourceful 16. Amicable / In amicable 17. Dynamic / static 18. Extravagant / Parsimonious 19. Professional / Amateur 20. Prudent / Imprudent or Sycophant or Churlish Persons Mood & Attitude1. Pleasant / Unpleasant2. Proud / Humble3. Arrogant / Modest4. Alert / Indolent5. Sociable / Aloof6. Cognizant / Unaware 35
    • 7. Yielding / Unyielding 8. Religious / Agnostic 9. Ecstatic / Depressed 10.Rigid / Flexible 11.Restive / Pensive 12.Elated / Mitigated 13.Sane / Insane 14.Theist / Atheist 15.Conciliating / Provocation 16. Chivalrous / Cowardly 17.Bigoted / Liberty 18.Aggressive / Retrogressive 19.Benevolent / Malevolent 20.Authoritive / Submissive Single word Vocabs.1. A place where fish are kept – Aquarium2. Place where pigs are kept – Sty3. A place where milk is converted into butter & cheese – dairy4. A place where cakes & bread are made – Bakery5. A place where biscuit & cookies are made –Confectionary6. Factory for manufacturing Beer – Brewery 36
    • 7. A place where liquor or alcohol is produced – Distillery 8. A place for housing airplanes – Hanger 9. Where Govt. records are kept - Achieves 10. Places where leather is tanned – Tannery 11. Placed where money is coined – Mint 12. Place where astronomical observations take place – Observatory 13. Place for infants & young children – Crèche 14. A place where bees are kept – apiary 15. A note or thing help memory – Memorandum 16. A poem of lamentation – Elegy 17. Declaration of plans put forward by a candidate for election - Manifesto 18. Language which is confusing – Jargon 19. A statement which is generally accepted true – Axiom 20. List of books in library alphabetically – Catalogue 21. List of writers, whose matter are collected to compile a book – Bibliography. Words showing collections1. A Team of – Horses / Players2. A Swarm of – files / bees3. A Stack of hay4. A Stock of good5. A Shower of – rain / arrow6. A Sheaf of – arrow / corn 37
    • 7. A Gang of convicts8. A Flock of – bird / sheep9. A Fight of stairs10. A Fleet of ship11. A Course of lectures12. A Constellation of stars13. A Pack of – Wolf / cards14. A Library of books15. A League of – nations / states16. A Heap of stones17. A Herd of cattle18. A Congregation of worshippers19. A Bunch of – grapes / flowers / keys20. A Bundle of – sticks21. A Bale of – cotton / wool22. An Army / A Company of soldiers. Some common place comparisons1. As black as Coal2. As blind as a bat3. As bold as brass4. as brave as a lion5. As busy as bee 38
    • 6. As dry as dust7. As dumb as a statue8. As fair as rose9. As cold as ice10. As firm as a rock11.As gentle as a lamb12. As merry as cricket13.As pale as death14. As regular as a clock15. As sweet as honey16. As swift as lightening17.As white as snow18. As wise as Solomon19. As rich as a Jew20. As sharp as a needle. Single word sentence 1. A person who shows extreme favoritism towards his relatives, regardless of their virtues – Nepotism. 2. A person who believes in merry making – Epicureanism 3. A person who asserts his opinion arrogantly – Dogmatism 4. A person who believes & supports self religious matters – Fanaticism 5. A person who is indifferent to pleasure & pain – Stoicism 39
    • 6. A person who opposes every form of Govt. – Anarchist 7. A person who believes in all God – Polytheist 8. Person who believes in one God – Monotheist 9. Person who doesn’t know if God is present or not – Agnosticism 10. Person who believes in God – Theist 11. Person who doesn’t believe in God – Atheist 12. A person who believes in selfish interest – Egoism 13. A person who doubts everything – Scepticism 14. A person who believes in over throw of rules as per his own whims – Fascism. 15. Custom of having more than one wife at the same time – Polygamy 16. Custom of having more than one husband at the same time – Polyandry 17. One which cannot be done with out – Indispensable 18. That cannot be believed – Incredible 19. Person who sells illegally or smuggles alcoholic liquor – Bootlegger 20.A person who spends extravagantly – Spend Thrift 21. Dead-Body of an animal – carcass 22. Dead-Body of human being - corpse 23. One who abstains from Alcoholic drink – Teetotaler 24. Place where bees are kept – Apiary 25. Place where birds are kept – Aviary 26.One who collects postage stamps – Philatelist 27. A woman who remains unmarried – Spinster 28. Person with no belief in religion – Infidel 29.Soldiers who fight on horse back – Infantry 30. Person indifferent to both pleasure & pain – Stoic 31. One who is unable to pay ones debt - InsolventIrony is the mode where the real meaning is exactly the opposite of which is literally conveyed.Example : No doubt you are the people and wisdom shall die with you. He is the only person who deserves the prize, and not our effort. 40
    • PUN is the usage of words , which has the capability of more than one application, the objectbeing to produce a ludicrous effect.Is life worth living ? – it depends upon the liver.Know safety, no accidentsAn Ambassador is s person who lies abroad for the good of his country. 41