Unit – I Human Resource DevelopmentAs the organizations work in a highly technological society, companies have to learn to adaptto rapid changes, to produce high quality goods and also to develop new products to remaincompetitive in the global market place. Strategic planning, forecasting of economic anddemographic trends, job planning, training and care of their staff lie at the heart of it, Mostorganizations view human resource management as an investment in that it presents a way tointegrate business plans and human skills so as to achieve its goals in terms of economicgrowth, products or services. In turn, the staff also gains in terms of remuneration,opportunities for learning and career development.Also human resources can be viewed as the sum of knowledge, skills, attitudes,commitment, values and the like of the people of an organization. Development isacquisition of capabilities that are needed to do the present job, or the future expectedjob.HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT means developing or tapping hiddenqualities in people in order to make them accomplish new functions leading toorganization at and individual goals.According to Nadler –“HRD IS AN ORGANISED LEARNING EXPERIENCEWITHIN A GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME WITH THE OBJECTIVES OFPRODUCTING THE POSSIBILITY OF PERFORMANCE CHANGE.”ACCORDING TO Prof T.V Rao – HRD is a process by which the employees of anorganization are helped in a continuous and planned way to:- (1) Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles. (2) Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own potential for their own and / or organizational development purposes. (3) Develop and organizational culture in which superior – subordinate relationships team work and collaboration among sub-unit are strong and contribute to the professional well being motivation and pride of employees.In short, HRD aims at helping people to acquire competencies required to perform alltheir functions effectively and make their organizations do well.Features of HRD 1) HRD is a system: - It is a system having several interdependent parts or sub- systems such as procurement appraisal, development etc. change in any one subsystem leads to changes in other parts. For ex: - If there is a change in the promotion policy where seniority is replaced with merit, the chain reactions on affected individuals, unions shall have to be assessed.
2) HRD is a planned process: - It is a planned and systematic way of developing people. Further, it is undertaken and continuous basis. Learning, as well all know, is a life – long process and goes on and on. 3) HRD involves development of competencies: - Basically, it tries to develop competencies at four levels. At the individual level, - employees are made to realize the importance of playing their roles in tune with overall goals and expectations of other roles. By enriching and redesigning jobs, the roles of employees are made more meaningful and interesting. At the interpersonal level – more stress is laid on developing relationships based on trust, confidence & help. At the group level – task forces, cross-functional team are created to cement inter group relations. At the organizational level- the organization is made to nurture a ‘development climate, where every effort is made to harness human potential while meeting organizational goals. 4) HRD is an inter – disciplinary concept: - HRD is an amalgamation of various ideas, concepts, principles and practices drawn from a number of soft sciences such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics etc. Goals of HRDOrganizations should continuously ensure that the dynamism competency, motivationand effectiveness of the employees remain at high levels.HRD has multiple goals.These include employee competency development; employee motivation developmentand organizational climate development. - It aims at preparing people for performing roles / jobs which they may be required to perform in the future as they go up on the organizational hierarchy. - To identify competency gaps of employees to perform the present roles / jobs / tasks functions effectively and create conditions to help employees bridge gaps through development. - Motivation development is also an aim of HRD it means the desire to work or put in work effort it is a commitment to the job, work and the organization - It also aims at climate development - Building free expression of ideas - Promotion of collaborations Human Resource DevelopmentWithin organizations there are broad areas concerned with human resources that includethe following - Organization development linked to staff development - Job descriptions - Staff planning and recruitment - Staff benefits. - Industrial relations; eg. Working with trade unions. - Training and development. -
Aspects of human resource development/ functions of HRD. Organizational development Job descriptions Staff planning and recruitment Staff benefits and rewards Interest groups, eg. Trade union Training and development Performance appraisal Potential appraisal A career planning Employee welfare and quality of work life Human resource information system.Organizational DevelopmentOrganizations never remain static. They keep on changing Accordingly employee’s skillsand abilities, therefore requires continual upgrading.OD is a tool for this purpose.OD may be defined as a change effort that is planne4d focused on an entire organizationor a large sub system managed from the top, aimed at enhancing organizational healthand effectiveness based on planned interventions.Job DescriptionsAll employing organizations plan their workload in terms of undertakings or projects thatare needed to be completed to achieve their goals.So, for each project to be completed, a number of jobs have to be done by people whohave the skills to complete the many tasks involved. The personnel dept has to preparecomplete job descriptions to find out the skills to be possessed by the candidates whichneed to be hired to do the jobs.Staff Planning And RecruitmentPersonnel planning is linked to business strategies, a forecast of economic events,national demographic trends and the seniority and the age of the existing workforce. Itinvolves matching people to jobs.So, all the decisions regarding staffing has to be taken in advance and also the skillanalysis has to be carried out to evaluate the employees continuously.The main purpose of appraisal is to help improve the performance of individuals, teams,divisions, departments or organizations as a whole.
Staff Benefits, Industrial Relations And Interest GroupsStaff benefits are usually arranged by the personnel department and can include basicremuneration and reimbursement of costs incurred during the course of work eg. Travelcosts.There are various interest groups concerned with staff benefits at work, including tradeunions.Training and Development of staffIn a dynamic organization, staff development is a regular and on going process that isinitiated by the employer or a professional body.Staff developers play a vital role in assisting in the creation and development of theircompany as a learning organization. They may organize, or take part in , any educationalor training initiative designed to enable individual employees to achieve their fullpotentialPotential AppraisalThe term potential refers to the abilities possessed by an employee but not put to usecurrently or the abilities to assume challenging responsibilities in future.The term performance appraisal relates to the performance evaluation as given by theemployees. - it is to promote an employee to higher levels of jobs involving higher order or responsibility, which the employee can effectively discharge without being over burden and stretched. - To Assist the organization to allocate jobs among employees as per their capabilities so that organizational responsibilities are discharged effectively.Career PlanningIt is the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals.It can be Individual & Organizational career planning. - It is to attract competent parsons. - To provide suitable promotional opportunities. - To increase the utilization of managerial reserves. - To correct employee placement. HRD INSTRUMENTS, PROCESSES AND OUTCOMESThe objectives of an HRD effort is to build human competencies, to build a climate andto improve employee satisfactions with work ie “ competency development” “climatebuilding” and “innovation development”. In competency development there are againseveral objectivesLike:
- Development of competencies of individuals (both in relation to work and as individuals too for future growth) - Development the competencies of dyads, (boss – subordinate dyads from top to bottom) of teams, and for inter – team collaboration for organizational health. In every organization, a group of people are needed to think constantly in terms of the above objectives, assess the extent to which the above objectives are being achieved, generate mechanisms to achieve the above objectives and keep reviewing the processes and rejuvenating the instruments - This is basically the HRD staff. Linkages between HRD instruments, Processes, outcomes and organizational effectiveness. HRD Mechanisms or HRD Processes or HRD outcomes Organizational Instruments Variables Effectiveness- HRD department - Role clarity - More competent people -Higher Productivity- Performance appraisal - Planning of - Better developed roles - Growth & development diversification- reviews discussions - Awareness of - Higher work - Cost reduction feedback counseling competencies required commitment & job sessions for job performance involvement- Role analysis - Proactive orientation - More problem solving - More profits- Potential development - More trust - Better utilization of - Better image exercises human resources- Training - Collaboration & team - Better generation of work (human) coeternal resources- Communication - Authenticity - More team work better policies organizational health- Job rotations - Openness- OD exercises - Risk taking- Rewards - Value generation- Job enrichment - - Increased programs communication- Other mechanisms OTHER FACTORS OTHER FACTORS Personnel policies, top management Environment, Technology, styles, Investments on HRD Mgmts Resouce Avaibility, History, commitment, History, Prvious culture Nature of Business etc.
HRD INSTRUMENTS, PROCESSES AND OUTCOMES:HR Development is a continuous process in the organizations. The nature of efforts andinvestments put into develop human resources may vary from organization toorganization depending on its need, nature, size etc. this may also vary from time to timein the same organization depending on the nature of change the organization is goingthrough or the nature of capabilities the organization wants to build within it .There are many methods or instruments available for organizations to develop employeecompetencies.There are several HRD instruments that should lead to the generation of HRD processeslike; - Role clarity - Performance planning - Development climate - Risk taking - Dynamism etc in employees.Such HRD processes should result in more competent satisfied and committed peoplethat should make the organization grow by contributing their best to it.And such HRD outcomes influence the organizational effectiveness.Organizational effectiveness depends on a number of variables like environment,technology, competitors etc.However, other things being the same an organization that has competent, satisfied,committed and dynamicPeople is likely to be better than an organization that scores low on these HRD outcomeverables.Similarly, an organization that has better HRD cli8mate and processes is likely to bemore effective than an organization that does not have them.HRD PROCCESSES AND OUTCOMES: - HRD outcomes are few where as processes are many. - HRD processes operating simultaneously affect the outcomes. - HRD outcome variables are a step closer to organizational effectiveness than process variables for ex: better communication, role clarity, performance planning, trust, collaboration, openness can be considered as m0ore remolely related to organization effectiveness than variables like having competent, dynamic, satisfied and committed employees, - It HRD outcomes are not present in an organization at a satisfactory level, than one needs to question the adequacy of the HRD processes in that organization the linkages between HRD but comes and organsation effectiveness are not easily demonstrable due to the influence of several other variables in determining productivity.
HRD DEPARTMENTS AND TASKSThe main objective of the HRD department is to create a learning environment anddevelopment climate in the organization.Learning environment is meant a culture where employees continuously learn from theirDWN experience and the various learning opportunities the organization provides.The HRD department should create an “enabling” culture where the employees are ableto make things happen and in the process discover and utilize their potential.The HRD department should: - Develop a HR philosophy for the entire organization and get the top management committed to it openly and consistently. - Keep inspiring the line mangers to have a constant desire to learn and develop. - Constantly plan and design new methods and systems of developing and strengthening the HRD climate. - Be aware of the business / social /other goals of the organization and direct all their HRD effort to achieve these goals. - Monitor effectively the implementation of various HRD sub-systems / mechanisms. - Work with unions and associations and inspire them. - Conduct human process research, organizational health surveys and renewal exercises periodically. - Influence personnel policies by providing necessary inputs to the personnel department / top management.