Trade Blocs Trade blocs are intergovernmental associations that manage and promote trade activities for specific regions of the world. Trade bloc activities have political as well as economic implications for e.g the European Union, the world’s largest trading block, has “harbored political ambitions extending far beyond the free trading arrangements sought by other multistage regional economic organizations“ (Gibb and Michalak 1994: 75). Regionalism differs from globalization in the size and area of markets. From the perspective of developing countries skeptical of free trade, regional trade blocs offer some form of protection against an aggressive global market.
OPEC MEMBER COUNTRIES Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America Founder Member: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela Full member: Qatar, Libya, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria and Nigeria Associate member: Gabon OPEC’s mission is to coordinate & unify the petroleum policies of Member Countries & ensure the stabilization of oil prices in order to secure an efficient, economic & regular supply of petroleum to consumers, a steady income to producers & a fair return on capital to those investing in the petroleum industry.
COMMONWEALTH MEMBER COUNTRIES Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji Islands, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Zambia
NATO MEMBER COUNTRIES Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, uxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America http:// www.nato.int / SAARC MEMBER COUNTRIES Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka http://www.saarc-sec.org /
WHAT IS NATO? NATO is an alliance of 26 countries from North America & Europe committed to Fulfilling the goals of NATO Treaty signed on April 1949. ROLE OF NATO :- 1. FREEDOM – this is a fundamental role, it is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means 2. SECURITY --- NATO safeguards the Allies common values of democracy individual liberty, and the peaceful resolution of disputes and promotes these values throughout the Euro-Atlantic area. 3. TRANSATLANTIC LINK --- The Alliance embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of north America & Europe are permanently tied toghter. It is the practical expression of effective collective effort among its members in support of their common interests.
WHAT DOES NATO DO ?
CONSULTATION :- security issues of common concerns & take jt action in addressing them.
DEFENCE :- defending member states or threat of aggression, attack against one is attack against all
CRISES MANAGEMENT end bloody conflicts – Bosnia,Kosova and former Yugoslavic republic.
PARTNERSHIP– to overcome divisions of cold war and external security & stability beyond NATO borders.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established when its Charter was formally adopted on December 8, 1985 by the Heads of State or Government of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC provides a platform for the peoples of South Asia to work together in a spirit of friendship, trust and understanding. It aims to accelerate the process of economic and social development in Member States. SAPTA means Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement signed in Dhaka on the 11th of April 1993;
The Objectives of this Agreement are to promote and enhance mutual trade and economic cooperation among Contracting States by, inter-alia: a) eliminating barriers to trade in , and facilitating the cross-border movement of goods between the territories of the Contracting States; b) promoting conditions of fair competition in the free trade area , and ensuring equitable benefits to all Contracting States, taking into account their respective levels and pattern of economic development; c) creating effective mechanism for the implementation and application ofthis Agreement , for its joint administration and for the resolution of disputes; and d) establishing a framework for further regional cooperation to expand and enhance the mutual benefits of this Agreement . EFTA MEMBER COUNTRIES Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom
Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland are members of EFTA. The EFTA Convention established a free trade area among its Member States in 1960. In addition, the EFTA States have jointly concluded free trade agreements with a number of countries worldwide. Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway entered into the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA) in 1992, which entered into force in 1994. The current contracting parties are, in addition to the three EFTA states, the European Community and the 25 EC Member States. APEC MEMBER COUNTRIES Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore (Sectrt is here) , Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States of America, Vietnam
In 1989, the founding members of APEC developed three objectives – • To develop and strengthen the multilateral trading system; • To increase the interdependence and prosperity of member economies; and • To promote sustainable economic growth.
ANDEAN COMMUNITY Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela We are a group of four countries that decided to join together voluntarily for the purpose of achieving more rapid , more balanced and Autonomous development through ANDEAN, South America and Latin America Integration.
CARRIBEAN COMMUNITY( CARICOM ) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago SADC MEMBER COUNTRIES Angola, Botswana, DR Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
he Southern African Development Community (SADC) has been in existence since 1980, when it was formed as a loose alliance of nine majority-ruled States in Southern Africa known as the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), with the main aim of coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on the then apartheid South Africa. The founding Member States are: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The transformation of the organization from a Coordinating Conference into a Development Community (SADC) took place on August 17, 1992 in Windhoek, Namibia when the Declaration and Treaty was signed at the Summit of Heads of State and Government thereby giving the organization a legal character. SADC headquarters are in Gaborone, Botswana.
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Statcommittee of the CIS was established in accordance with the decision of the Heads of Governments of the CIS States in December 1991 for coordinating activities of statistical organizations of the CIS countries, developing and implementing an unified statistical methodology on the basis of mutual consultations, securing comparability and continuity of statistical elaborations, facilitating wide-scale information exchange in the framework of the CIS, organizing seminars and employing other forms of rendering assistance to national statistical services. The Committee is entrusted with creating and maintaining common statistical databases. Commonwealth of Independent States was created in December 1991.
BALTIC STATES, FORMERLY PART OF THE SOVIET UNION : Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania PACIFIC COMMUNITY / COMMUNAUTÉ DU PACIFIQUE American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn islands Samoa, Solomon islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, USA, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL MEMBER CONTRIES Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E. ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WESTERN AFRICAN STATES - ECOWAS Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
COMESA MEMBER CONTRIES Angola, Burundi, Comoros, D.R.Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe The history of COMESA began in December 1994 when it was formed to replace the former Preferential Trade Area (PTA) which had existed from the earlier days of 1981. COMESA (as defined by its Treaty) was established 'as an organisation of free independent sovereign states which have agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people' and as such it has a wide-ranging series of objectives which necessarily include in its priorities the promotion of peace and security in the region. OMESA's current strategy can thus be summed up in the phrase 'economic prosperity through regional integration '. With its 20 member states , population of over 374 million and annual import bill of around US$32 billion COMESA forms a major market place for both internal and external trading. Its area is impressive on the map of the African Continent and its achievements to date have been significant.