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Total quality management 2

Total quality management 2






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    Total quality management 2 Total quality management 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Era Two - The Gurus - Armand V. Feigenbaum
      • Armand Feigenbaum probably stands as the least appreciated quality guru. He does not get the great attention that the others (Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, etc.) get. But, he is special. He contributed the concept of Total Quality Control in his book of the same name. Feigenbaum also believed that quality was a way of operating or a way of life, thus the term "Total Quality”
      • But, he contributed more than terminology...he added his beliefs of how quality proceeds. His believes that there are three elements to quality:
    • Feigenbaum’s Definition of Quality
      • Product and service quality can be defined as: The total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer - A. V. Feigenbaum
    • Feigenbaum’s Definition of Quality
      • The word 'control' in quality control represents a management tool with 4 steps:
      • Setting quality standards
      • Appraising conformance to these standards
      • Acting when standards are exceeded
      • Planning for improvements in the standards.
    • Feigenbaum’s Definition of Quality
      • These controls or jobs of quality control can be classified as:
      • New-design control
      • Incoming material control
      • Product control
      • Special process studies.
    • Feigenbaum’s Definition of Quality
      • Quality Leadership
        • ...the management in a company must always be striving for quality. They must put items in place that allow them to measure quality, control quality and improve quality. There must be constant feedback and oversight of the organization to assure that quality continues.
    • Feigenbaum today
        • The new 40th Anniversary edition of Dr A V Feigenbaum's book, TotalQuality Control, now further defines TQC for the 1990s in the form of ten crucial benchmarks for total quality success. These are that:
        • Quality is a company-wide process.
        • Quality is what the customer says it is.
        • Quality and cost are a sum, not a difference.
        • Quality requires both individual and team zealotry.
        • Quality is a way of managing.
        • Quality and innovation are mutually dependent.
        • Quality is an ethic.
        • Quality requires continuous improvement.
        • Quality is the most cost-effective, least capital-intensive route to productivity.
        • Quality is implemented with a total system connected with customers and suppliers.
    • Feigenbaum Medal
      • As a “National Award”, the Feigenbaum Medal was created and is administered by the American Society for Quality Awards Board and Board of Directors.
      • The awards recognize individuals for superior achievements in the development, promotion, and communication of quality information and technology.
      • Awards and medals are named after people who have made outstanding achievements in the field of quality. The Feigenbaum Medal was named after Dr. A.V. Feigenbaum, a distinguished pioneer in the development and application of a systems approach to Quality, and promoter of the Quality Ethic.
      • These awards are presented at ASQ's Annual Quality Congress in the spring of each year.
    • Conclusion
      • Feigenbaum.
      • Recipients – Anyone under 35 years who has demonstrated a positive record of leadership and accomplishment in Quality Assurance, and promotes a Quality Ethic.
      • Process – Applicants can enter submissions until November 1, 2003. After that date, applicants will be qualified, short-listed, and evaluated until a nominee is determined by the Feigenbaum Medal Committee. The nominee will be forwarded to the ASQ Awards Board for approval.
      • Benefits – Individuals, Sections, Regions, and Divisions will benefit from this activity as awareness, interest, and involvement is promoted.
    • Kaizen Kai Zen To modify or to change Think about making good or better Kaizen Make things easier by studying them and improve through the elimination of waste or Continuous Improvements
    • Kaizen Contents
      • Meaning of Kaizen
      • Implementation & Strategy
      • Continuous Improvements
      • Tools of Kaizen
      PDCA - Storyboards Analysis & Mapping 5S Standards 7 Wastes Visual Management 5 Whys 7 old and new tools
    • Improving Forever
      • Flow Kaizen
      • Value Stream Improvement
      • Instigating & Improving Flow
      • Responsibility for senior management
      • Process Kaizen
      • Elimination of waste
      • Reducing Process Times
      • Responsibility for operational staff
    • Implementing
      • Everyone has a role to play, and roles are implemented bottom up
      • A good Kaizen Champion is nominated.
      Top Management Allocate resources, establish strategy & organisational structures. Middle Management Implement Kaizen, monitor performance and ensure sufficient education for staff. Supervisors Apply Kaizen, maintain the rate of suggestions & ensure communications at the workplace Work Force Make suggestions, use the tools, learn new techniques & generally participate.
    • Why Kaizen
      • Continual Performance Improvement
      • Data Driven Methodology to Magnify Impact of Process Improvement
      • Apply Control Techniques to Eliminate Erosion of Improvements
      CPI Projects Improves long term
      • Kaizen
      • Small teams use Incremental Improvements with their own ideas
      • Use those most closely related to the process
      Savings Time Savings Time Savings Time Kaizen
    • (Some) Tools of Kaizen PDCA or Story Boards Sequence of activities that show/discover what is going on. 5S Set the scene for Continuous Improvements, de- clutter the work place & raise morale 7 Wastes Distinct classifications of waste found on the shop floor or office. 7 Old & New Quality tools Numerical and text based descriptions of quality control issues 5 Whys Root cause problem solving Value Stream Mapping Determine value adding activities from non-value adding ones Workstation improvement Educate staff to allow them to improve their own areas Success Stories Celebrate the success of your teams
    • Different Between KAZIAN And INNOVATION
    • Deming Cycle
      • Plan, Do Check, Act – Original Deming cycle, a reciprocal loop of action
      • Design, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control – 6 sigma analysis technique
      • Define, Measure, Analyse, Design, Verify – alternative 6 sigma analysis technique if the above was insufficient or for a new process.
      • 6 sigma is an enforced breakthrough kaizen (kaikayu?) to specifically target the waste of defects.
    • 7 Wastes
    • Muda Map
      • Importance – Performance Opinion Survey
      • Ask a group the importance of each waste within a cell or line (35 points between the 7 wastes), sum the results and plot them
      Defects Unnecessary Motions Unnecessary Inventory Inappropriate Processing Transport Waiting Over Production
    • 5S 5S See the accompanying handout Every tool, bin, pallet should have a place. Shadow boards, tape and paint S ustain S tandar-dise S hine S et in Order S ort Ensuring that the gains are held and continue to be made. Removal of friction and waste The methods used to maintain the gains, not only standard ops, best current practice and actively using ISO are applicable Ensuring everything in the factory stays clean Both prevention & cleaning routines apply Removal of all items that are not needed within the scope of current production. E-bay is your friend
    • 7 “New” Quality Control Tools Affinity Diagram Interrelationship Diagraph Tree Diagram Prioritisation Grid Matrix Diagram Process Decision Program Chart Activity Network Diagram
    • 5 Whys
      • Ask why five times so that the underlying cause can be identified
      • Don’t accept excuses for why things can’t be done.
      • Importantly blame is not assigned, problems are found and solutions implemented.
      5 Whys
      • Ask why five times so that the underlying cause can be identified
      • Don’t accept excuses for why things can’t be done.
      • Importantly blame is not assigned, problems are found and solutions implemented.
    • Value Stream Mapping Identify and eliminate as much non-value adding activity as possible Value Adding Activities that from the viewpoint of the final customer make the product or service more valuable. Non-Value Adding Activities that from the viewpoint of the final customer add no value even under present circumstances. Necessary Non-Value Adding Activities that from the viewpoint of the final customer add no value but are necessary under present circumstances.
    • Workstation
      • improvements
      • Utilises the Kaizen waste checklist
      • It can be difficult for different shifts to agree on same workstations
      • Standards are important as is a shift handover
    • Success Stories
      • through Success Stories
      • Record conditions, before and after the improvement
      • Show who (or which team) made the suggestion and implemented the improvement
      • What gains occurred
      • Have them prominently located
      • Staff should write their own successes as well as the new standards. They can be formatted, typed etc later on, but not changed.
      Process Improvement Before After
    • Kaizen & Innovation   KAIZEN Innovation 1. Effect Long-term and long-lasting but undramatic Short-term but dramatic 2. Pace Small steps Big steps 3.Timeframe Continuous and incremental Intermittent and non-incremental 4. Change Gradual and constant Abrupt and volatile 5.Involvement Everybody Select few “champions” 6. Approach Collectivism, group efforts, systems approach Rugged individualism, individual ideas and efforts 7. Mode Maintenance and improvement Scrap and rebuild 8. Spark Conventional know-how and state of the art Technological break-throughs, new inventions, new theories 9. Practical requirements Requires little investment but great effort to maintain it Requires large investment but little effort to maintain it 10. Effort orientation People Technology 11. Evaluation criteria Process and efforts for better results Results for profits 12. Advantage Works well in slow-growth economy Better suited to fast-growth economy
    • Kaizen & Innovation INNOVATION KAIZEN Creativity Individualism Specialist-oriented Attention to great leaps Technology-oriented Information: closed, proprietary Functional (specialist) orientation Seek new technology Line + staff Limited feedback Adaptability Teamwork (systems approach) Generalist-oriented Attention to details people-oriented I nformation: open, shared Cross-functional orientation Build on existing technology Cross-functional organization Comprehensive feedback
    • Shigeo Shingo Shingo was born in Saga City, Japan in 1909, and graduated in Mechanical Engineering from Yamanashi Technical College in 1930, whereupon he was employed by the Taipei Railway Factory in Taiwan.
    • Dr. Shingo Shigeo's teachings
      • The greatest impact of Dr. Shingo Shigeo's teachings can be classified into the three concepts listed as follows:
      • Zero Quality Control.
      • Just In Time (JIT).
      • Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED).
    • Poka-yoke
      • In terms of quality, Shingo's paramount contribution was his development in the 1960s of poka-yoke and source inspection systems
      • The basic idea is to stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the cause and prevent the recurring source of the defect.
      • Shingo distinguishes between 'mistakes' (which are inevitable) and 'defects' (which result when a mistake reaches a customer.). The aim of pokayoke is to design devices which prevent mistakes becoming defects
    • Poka-yoke
          • Control Warning
          • 1)Contact Parking height bars Staff mirrors
          • Armrests on seats Shop entrance bell
          • 2)Fixed French fry scoop Trays with
          • Value Pre-closed medication indentations
          • 3)Motion Air1ine lavatory Spellcheckers
          • Step Step Beepers on ATMs
      According to Shingo there are three types of failsafe devices: 'Contact', 'fixed value', and 'motion step'. This means that there are six categories, as shown in the figure with service examples.
    • Zero Quality Control
      • Poka-Yoke Techniques to Correct Defects + Source Inspection to Prevent Defects
      • = Zero Quality Control
      • This famous equation is the essence of Zero Quality Control Concepts formulated by Dr. Shigeo Shingo.
    • Zero Quality Control (ZQC)
      • Dr. Shigeo Shingo's Zero Quality Control (ZQC) techniques make use of the following engineering principles:
      • 100 percent inspections done at the source instead of sampling inspections
      • Immediate feedback from successive quality checks and self checks
      • Poka-yoke designed manufacturing devices
      • The Zero Quality Control concepts are based on a theoretically ideal scenario.
    • JIT
      • in part due to the contribution of Dr. Shingo Shigeo and Mr. Taichii Ohno of Toyota Motor Co. from 1949 to 1975.
      • JIT can be defined as:
      • " A philosophy of manufacturing based on planned elimination of all waste and continuous improvement of productivity. It encompasses the successful execution of all manufacturing activities required to produce a final product, from design engineering to delivery and including all stages of conversion from raw material onward. The primary elements include having only the required inventory when needed; to improve quality to zero defects; to reduce lead time by reducing setup times, queue lengths and lot sizes; to incrementally revise the operations themselves; and to accomplish these things at minimum cost."
    • objective in implementing JIT to a production facility
      • Waste from over production
      • Excess Transportation
      • Excess Inventory
      • Waiting Time
      • Processing Waste
      • Wasted Motion
      • Waste from Production Defects
    • Just-In-Time (JIT) Example Scrap Work in process inventory level (hides problems) Unreliable Vendors Capacity Imbalances
    • Just-In-Time (JIT) Example Scrap Reducing inventory reveals problems so they can be solved. Unreliable Vendors Capacity Imbalances
    • SMED
      • Shingo's two observations formed the foundation of a procedure for reducing setup times that he called single-minute exchange of dies (SMED )
      • SMED uses the following four-step procedure:
      • 1. Observe and Analyze How the Setup Is Currently performed
      • 2. Separate Internal from External Setup Activities.
      • 3. Convert Internal to External Setup Activities
      • 4. Simplify and Streamline Activities
    • Shingo On SPC:
      • “ statistics is no more than qualified guess work.”
      • “ ...control charts only help maintain the accepted defect rate -- they cannot reduce defects to zero.
      • “ It took 26 years for me to free myself completely from the spell of inductive statistics.”
      • a look at SQC methods as they are actually applied shows that feedback and corrective action ... are too slow to be fully effective.”
    • Dr Kauru Ishikawa Professor Ishikawa was born in 1915 and graduated in 1939 from the Engineering Department of Tokyo University having majored in applied chemistry. In 1947 he was made an Assistant Professor at the University. He obtained his Doctorate of Engineering and was promoted to Professor in 1960. He has been awarded the Deming Prize and the Nihon Keizai Press Prize, the Industrial Standardization Prize for his writings on Quality Control, and the Grant Award in 1971 from the American Society for Quality Control for his education program on Quality Control. Widely regarded as the father and pioneer of the "Quality circles" in Japan in the 60's, was the leading Japanese contributor to quality management. Ishikawa was member of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers . His notion of company-wide quality control called for continued customer service.
    • Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams
      • Named after Kaoru Ishikawa
        • Japanese Quality pioneer
      • Resembles skeleton of a fish
      • Focus on causes rather than symptoms of a problem
      • Emphasizes group communication and brainstorming
      • Stimulates discussion
    • Fishbone (Cause and Effect or Ishikawa) Diagrams (2 of 4)
      • Leads to increased understanding of complex problems
      • Visual and presentational tool
      • One of Seven basic tools of Japanese Quality
    • Use in Organizations
      • Can be used to improve any product, process, or service
        • Any area of the company that is experiencing a problem
        • Isolates all relevant causes
      • Helps bring a problem into light
        • Group discussion and brainstorming
        • Finds reasons for quality variations, and the relationships between them
    • Creating Fishbone Diagrams (1 of 4)
        • As a group:
        • 1. Establish problem (effect)
        • -state in clear terms
        • -agreed upon by entire group
        • 2. Problem becomes the “head” of the fish
        • -draw line to head (“backbone”)
        • Decide major causes of the problem
        • - by brainstorming
        • - if the effect or problem is part of a process the major steps in the process can be used
        • 4. Connect major causes to backbone of the fish with slanting arrows
    • Creating a Fishbone Diagram 5.Brainstorm secondary causes for each of the major causes 6. Connect these secondary causes to their respective major causes 7. Repeat steps 5 & 6 for sub- causes dividing with increased specificity - usually four or five levels
    • Creating a Fishbone Diagram 8. Analyze and evaluate causes and sub-causes -may require the use of statistical, analytical, and graphical tools 9. Decide and take action
    • Dr.Kano
      • Investigating the characteristics of customer requirements.
        • “ voice-of- the-customer” visits.
        • ask customers to rank-order the requirement.
      Dr. Kano has suggested a method known as “Kano Model” Invisible ideas about quality can be made visible. For some customer requirements, customer satisfaction is proportional to how fully functional the product is Some customer requirements are not one-dimensional Customer requirements can be classified by questionnaire. How do you feel if that feature is present in the product? How do you feel if that feature is not present in the product?
    • Dr.Kano
      • answer in one of five different ways.
      • the product feature (how good gas mileage is, in this example) can be classified into one of six categories:
      • Customer requirement is:
      •   A: Attractive 0: One-dimensional
              • M: Must-be Q: Questionable result
              • R: Reverse I: Indifferent
      • The result of the tallying of all customers questionnaires is a matrix
      • Improving performance is must to give customer satisfaction. Having insight into which customer requirements fall into which quality dimensions can improve focusing “on the vital few.”
    •   Dysfunctional form of the question Functional form of Question     If the gas mileage is good, how do you feel?       1. I like it that way. 2. It must be that way. 3. I am neutral. 4. I can live with it that way. 5. I dislike it that way.   If the gas mileage is poor, how do you feel?     1. I like it that way. 2. It must be that way. 3. I am neutral. 4. I can live with it that way. 5. I dislike it that way.
    • Dr.Kano Customer requirements for an automobile retractable radio antenna rear window wiper electronic door locker gas mileage warranty period turning radius brakes windshield engine cooling system
    • Dr.Kano Customer Dissatisfaction TREE STRU CTURE Product dysfunctional Product fully functional
    • Dr.Kano   Functional form of the question Dysfunctional form of the question Example of different answers given by customers     If the gas mileage is good, how do you feel?       1. I like it that way. 2. It must be that way. 3. I am neutral. 4. I can live with it that way. 5. I dislike it that way.   If the gas mileage is poor, how do you feel?     1. I like it that way. 2. It must be that way. 3. I am neutral. 4. I can live with it that way. 5. I dislike it that way. Customer   Dysfunctional   Requirements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. like Must-be Neutral live with Dislike   1. Like 0 A A A 0   2. Must-be R I I I M Func 3. Neutral R I I I M tional 4. Live with R I I I M   5. Dislike R R R R 0
    • Dr.Kano C.R. A M 0 R Q I Total Grade 1. 1 1 21       23 0 2.   22     1   23 M 3. 13   5     5 23 A ... 6 1 4 1   11 23 I ... 1 9 6 1   6 23 M ... 7   2 3 1 10 23 I
    • Dr . Taguchi Genichi Taguchi, a Japanese engineer, realized the importance of cost associated with poor quality and its impact on corporate profitability + losses (due to poor quality) to the society. His principle states that for each deviation there is an incremental economic loss of geometric proportion. The cumulative effect of the functional variations of various products can be very great, although these products may just deviate only a little from the target value of a measurable quality characteristic. Taguchi developed a mathematical model in which loss is a quadratic function of the deviation of the quality of interest from its target value-QUALITY LOSS FUNCTn
    • Dr . Taguchi m Loss L(y) y L(y) = k (y - m) 2 , where y = actual measurement m = target value L = Loss, a function of y k = constant QUALITY LOSS FUNCTION
    • Quality Loss Function
    • Target Specification Example
        • A study found U.S. consumers preferred Sony TV’s made in Japan to those made in the U.S. Both factories used the same designs & specifications. The difference in quality goals made the difference in consumer preferences.
      Japanese factory (Target-oriented) U.S. factory (Conformance-oriented)
    • Dr . Taguchi XXXX Less Accurate Less variable More Accurate More variable Taguchi philosophy, the definition of quality is changed from “achieving conformance to specifications” to “minimizing the variability while achieving the target.” X X X X
    • Dr . Taguchi If these variations are to be minimized then one has to resort to the Design of Experiments (DOE) in order to identify the factors which are responsible for the variation, to find the relative impact of the factors on the variability and hence to suitably select a combination of input parameters to achieve the result. DOE is a structured method and is not a hit-or-miss experimentation where input parameters are adjusted randomly hoping to achieve process improvement. Taguchi method uses the orthogonal array in order to express the relationship among the factors under investigation.
    • Dr . Taguchi Now, some of the factors may be uncontrollable e.g. Weather but we need that the product performs consistently . This is called “product robustness.” or Robust Design.
    • Dr . Taguchi
      • Ability to produce products uniformly regardless of manufacturing conditions
      • Put robustness in House of Quality matrices besides functionality
      Quality Robustness © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. © 1995 Corel Corp .