Statement of research objectives

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  • 1. Statement of research objectives:
    • To discover answer to questions through the application of scientific procedures
    • To find the truth which is yet to discover
    • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (exploratory)
    • To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (descriptive research).
  • 2.
    • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (diagnostic research)
    • To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (hypothesis testing)
  • 3. Research Process
    • Formulating the research problem
    • Extensive literature survey
    • -review concepts and theories
    • -review pervious research findings
    • Formulation of the hypotheses
    • Preparing the research design
    • Determining sample design
    • Collecting the data
  • 4.
    • Execution of the project
    • Analysis of the data
    • Testing of hypothesis (if any)
    • Generalizations and interpretation
    • Preparation of the report or presentation of the results
  • 5. Research Designs
    • -It’s a blueprint or framework for conducting the research project
    • -”it is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure” – Claire et al. (1962)
    • -it is the conceptual structure of research
    • -it is the outline of what the researcher will do from writing of hypothesis to the final analysis of data.
  • 6. Design decision happen to be in respect of :
    • What is the study about
    • Why is the study being made
    • Where will the study be carried out
    • What type of data is required
    • Where can the required data be found
    • What periods of time will the study include
    • What will be the sample design
    • What technique of data collection be used
    • How data will be analyzed
    • In what style the report will be prepared
  • 7. The design decisions may split into the following parts:
    • Sampling design (method of selecting items to be observed of the study)
    • Observational design (specifies conditions of observation)
    • Statistical design (how many items are to observed and how data can be analysed)
    • Operational design (deals with techniques by which specified procedures can be carried out)
  • 8. Features of a good design:
    • Flexible
    • Appropriate
    • Efficient
    • Economical
    • Minimizes bias
    • Maximizes reliability
  • 9. Some important concepts in Research Designs
    • Dependent & Independent variables
    • Extraneous variable
    • Confounded relationships
    • Research hypothesis (prediction)
    • Experimental & Control groups
    • Treatments
    • Experiment (process of examining truth)
  • 10. Different Research Designs
    • Exploratory or Formulative research studies
    • - survey of concerning literature (most simple & fruitful method of formulating the research problem or hypothesis.)
    • - experience survey (survey of people who have practical experience with the problem studied.)
    • - analysis of insight stimulating examples (suitable in areas where a little experience serves as a guide.)
  • 11.
    • Descriptive or Diagnostic research studies
    • - descriptive research studies describes the characteristics of a particular individual/group
    • - diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs.
  • 12.
    • Exploratory Descriptive
    • flexible design rigid design
    • Non probability sampling prob. sampling
    • (purposive, judgemental) (random sampling)
    • No pre-planned design pre-planned design
    • (for data analysis) (for data analysis)
  • 13.
    • Hypothesis testing or Experimental research studies
    • - such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability but will permit drawing inferences about casuality.
  • 14. Some informal experimental design:
    • Before and after without control design
    • After only with control design
    • Before and after with control design
  • 15. Methods of primary data collection:
    • Observation method (commonly used method especially in studies relating to behavioural sciences)
    • Survey method ( technique of investigation by direct observation of a phenomena or systematic collection from a population)