Software types[1]
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  • PATIENTLY ALLOW TIME FOR ANIMATIONS TO WORK Work through the chart dividing the applications family of software from system software
  • PATIENTLY ALLOW TIME FOR ANIMATIONS TO WORK The model demonstrates the relationship between end users and the computer hardware by way of its respective software applications.
  • Describe the use of Web browsers – the nature of the competitive market for what is essentially a “free” good. Trace Web navigation’s history – How Netscape grew from Government research at the NCSC and its general failure in an effort to seek to put a market price on the Mosaic product that is still being freely distributed. AOL’s failure to do likewise gave rise to the call for activist judges and politicians to seek antitrust action against Microsoft for its inclusion of IE into the operating system family of programs – all ended in essentially a failure to cut Microsoft’s dominance.

Software types[1] Software types[1] Presentation Transcript

  • SOFTWARE
  • What is software?
    • Computer software may be defined as:
    • computer programs, procedures, rules, associated documentation and data pertaining to the operation of a computer system
  • What is software?
    • A single program or a collection of programs which performs many task and/or system related functions
    • Software is the detailed instructions that control the operation of hardware.
    • Without software, hardware can not extend its capabilities or utilities
  • Functions of software
    • Managing the computer resources of the organization
    • Provide tools for human beings to take advantage of these resources, and
    • Act as an intermediary between organizations and stored information
  • The Nature of Software
    • Software is intangible
      • Hard to understand development effort
    • Software is easy to reproduce
      • Cost is in its development
      • in other engineering products, manufacturing is the costly stage
    • The industry is labor-intensive
      • Hard to automate
  • The Nature of Software (cont'd)
    • Untrained people can hack something together
        • Quality problems are hard to notice
    • Software is easy to modify
        • People make changes without fully understanding it
    • Software does not ‘wear out’
      • Deterioriates through design change that increases its complexity and decreases its maintainability
  • The Nature of Software (cont'd)
    • Conclusions
      • Much software has poor design and is getting worse
      • Demand for software is high and rising
      • We are in a perpetual ‘software crisis’
      • We have to learn to ‘engineer’ software
  • History of the Role of Software
    • In the 1950's software development was de-emphasized, because it only contributed to about 20% of overall system cost
  • History of the Role of Software
    • In the 1950's software development was de-emphasized, because it only contributed to about 20% of overall system cost
    • Programmers moved from machine language, to assembly language, to high-level language
  • History of the Role of Software
    • In the 1950's software development was de-emphasized, because it only contributed to about 20% of overall system cost
    • Programmers moved from machine language, to assembly language, to high-level language
    • In 1968, a NATO report coined the term "software engineering"
  • History of the Role of Software
    • In the 1950's software development was de-emphasized, because it only contributed to about 20% of overall system cost
    • Programmers moved from machine language, to assembly language, to high-level language
    • In 1968, a NATO report coined the term "software engineering"
    • Hardware became faster and cheaper, outpacing the ability of software to keep up
  • History of the Role of Software
    • In the 1950's software development was de-emphasized, because it only contributed to about 20% of overall system cost
    • Programmers moved from machine language, to assembly language, to high-level language
    • In 1968, a NATO report coined the term "software engineering"
    • Hardware became faster and cheaper, outpacing the ability of software to keep up
    • By the 1980's the software cost of a system had risen to 80%, and many experts pronounced the field "in crisis"
  • Types of Software Application- Specific Programs System Management Programs General Purpose Application Programs System Development Programs Application Software System Software Computer Software
  • Computer System Management
    • Software Interface Between End Users and Computers
    End Users Application Software System Software Computer Hardware
  • Computer Software Relationships User Interface
    • Basic Input and Output Services (BIOS)
    • needed for a computer to boot up
    User Interface Operating System User Interface Application Programs Computer Hardware
  • Application Software
    • Application software makes computer popular and easy to use
    • Common application software:
      • Microsoft Word, WordPerfect
      • PowerPoint
      • Netscape, Internet Explorer
      • PhotoShop, Photo-Paint
      • Quick Time
      • Dreamweaver
  • Application software
      • Programs that allow users to accomplish specific tasks
      • Examples
        • Word processing
        • Web browser
        • Tax preparation
  • Application Software
      • Developed to perform specific tasks like payroll, human resources, student records keeping, controlling air traffic systems and MIS functions mentioned above, or other useful work not related directly to the operation of the computer itself.
    • -WORD-PROCESSING
      • create, manipulate, and print documents
        • especially text
      • features
        • word wrap
        • block/move/copy => cut and paste
        • spell check
        • thesaurus
        • mail-merge
      • e.g.
        • MSWord, WordPerfect, WordStar
    Application software
      • SPREADSHEETS
        • present and analyze numerical data
        • columns, rows, and cells
          • each cell can be addressed
        • use formulas
        • will recalculate
        • manipulate with "what if"
        • makes graphs from data
        • labeling with formats and fonts
      • e.g.
        • EXCEL, QUATTRO-PRO, LOTUS 1-2-3, VISI-CALC
    Application software
    • DATABASE MANAGERS
      • for a large collection of data
      • stores using records and fields
      • allows for retrieval, enter, delete, change, display
      • sorting and searching
      • some calculations
      • centered on Query Language
      • e.g.
        • ACCESS, dBase IV, PARADOX
    Application software
    • GRAPHICS
      • Analytical
        • Charts - PIE, LINE, BAR
      • Presentation
        • Communicate your ideas to an audience
        • make VU-GRAPHS
      • Drawing
      • e.g. Harvard Graphics, DrawPerfect, PowerPoint, WP Presentations, Corel
    Application software
    • COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE
      • allows your PC to talk to other computers
      • needs a modem or access line
      • often need a service
        • AMERICA ONLINE, PRODIGY, COMPUSERV, M/S NET
      • gives you access to the INTERNET
      • e.g.
        • PROCOMM, SYMPHONY
    Application software
    • OTHERS
      • Desktop publishing (M/S Publisher, GEM)
      • Financial planning (QUICKEN)
      • Integrated Packages and Suites
      • Project management
      • Computer aided design (CAD)
      • Groupware
      • Multimedia
        • text, graphics, animation, video, music, voice
    Application software
  • Application Software Examples
    • Personal Information Manager
    • Groupware
    • Organizational
    • Inter-organizational
  • Personal Information Manager and Groupware
    • Personal Information Manager (PIM)
      • Software for end user productivity and collaboration
      • Store information about clients, schedules, manage appointments, manage tasks
      • E.g., Lotus Organizer, Microsoft Outlook
    • Groupware
      • Software that helps workgroups collaborate on group assignments
      • E-mail, discussion groups, databases, videoconferencing
      • E.g., Lotus Notes, Novell GroupWise, Microsoft Exchange
  • Organizational & Inter-organizational
    • Organizational
    • They assist typical organazational tasks
      • Payroll, TPS
      • ERP,CRM
      • Web-based management systems
    • Inter-organizational
    • They provide links or cooperation between organizations
      • B2B system
      • EDI, SCM
  • General-Purpose Application Programs
    • Web Browsers
    • Electronic Mail and Instant Messaging (IM)
    • Word Processing and Desktop Publishing
    • Electronic Spreadsheets
    • Database Management
    • Presentation Graphics
    • Personal Information Managers
    • Groupware – Collaboration Software
  • More types of Software
    • Custom
      • For a specific customer
    • Generic
      • Sold on open market
      • Often called “COTS” (commercial off-the-shelf) or “shrink-wrapped”
    • Embedded
      • Built into hardware
      • Hard to change
  • More Types of Software
    • Real time
      • E.g., control and monitoring systems
      • Must react immediately
      • Safety often a concern
    • Data-processing
      • Used to run businesses
      • Accuracy and security of data are key
  • System software
    • Coordinates the various parts of the hardware systems and mediates between application software and the hardware
    • The system software that manages and controls the computer’s activities is called operating system
  • Systems software
      • Programs that manage computer hardware and application software
      • Programs that support the execution and development of other programs
      • Examples
        • Operating systems (e.g. Windows, Linux)
        • Language translators (C++, Visual Basic)
        • Utility programs (Norton Utilities)
    • The interface between Application Programs and the hardware
    • There are four kinds of system programs
      • Bootstrap Loader
      • Diagnostic Routines
      • Basic Input/Output System
      • Operating System
    Systems software
    • BOOTSTRAP Loader
      • permanently stored in hardware
      • calls in the Operating System
    Systems software
    • Diagnostic Routines
      • also stored in hardware
      • run initial tests to see that all is well in RAM and CPU, etc
    Systems software
    • Basic Input/Output System
      • interprets Keyboard Commands
      • transmits data to monitor or disk
    Systems software
    • Operating System
      • 'helps the computer manage its resources'
      • Utility programs = housekeeping
        • e.g. 'formatting', 'copy', 'rename'
      • There are FIVE primary MICROCOMPUTER Operating Systems:
        • DOS, Windows95, OS/2 Warp, Macintosh, and UNIX
      • Two competing systems
        • IBM, and IBM compatibles, or clones
        • APPLE, which uses Macintosh
    Systems software
    • DOS - Disk Operating System
      • Original PC operating system FOR IBM, BY Microsoft -- many upgrades - we now have version 6.2 - backward compatible
    • ADVANTAGES
      • Popularity - 85% of all machines
      • Applications - 35,000, like Wordperfect written to take advantage of DOS commands
      • Inexpensive H/W is used- $1000-3000 range
    • DISADVANTAGES
      • Limited Primary Storage - 640 kb
        • This means a lot of Thrashing, and slow execution
      • Single Tasking Only - one user, one application
      • Character-based or command-line interface
    Operating System
  • Operating Systems (OS)
    • Software platform on which other programs run
    • Provides a connection between application programs and the computer hardware
    • Major tasks
      • Starting the computer (booting or boot strap)
      • Managing files
      • Program and memory management
      • Ensuring security
      • Providing a user interface
    • Controls and manages the computing resources
    • Examples
      • Windows, Unix, MSDOS,
    • Important services that an operating system provides:
      • File system
      • Commands to manipulate the file system
      • Input and output on a variety of devices
      • Window management
    Operating System
  • PC operating systems
    • DOS
    • Mac OS
    • Windows 95, windows 98, windows ME
    • Windows 2000 (windows NT), windows XP
    • OS2, Unix, Linux
    • And many many more …
  • GUI
    • Graphical user interface
    • It contrasts with the interfaces of old operating systems, like unix. The old unix interface as well as DOS’ are text base.
    • When using gamut, one can not use mouse to click on screen because there is no GUI on the screen
  • Other systems software
    • Language translators like C compilers to translate C programs to executable code to be run by computers
    • Utility software like copying, or like software programs stored in the control panel subdirectory / folder of your PC
  • Software trends
    • Take advantage of hardware capabilities
    • Use powerful software to reduce people costs and human errors
    • Renting software through internet
    • Enterprise Resource planning
    • Middle ware to connect legacy systems and internet web browsers.
  • Software selection
    • Appropriateness
    • Trade off between efficiency, ease of use, and flexibility
    • Compatibility
    • Support
  •  
  • Utility Software
    • A set of programs that perform routine tasks, such as listing or compressing data, copying files and so forth.
    • Accomplish common tasks and maintenance jobs
      • Defragmentation
      • Virus protection
    • UTILITIES
      • e.g.
        • Virus Checker
        • Norton Utilities
        • WINDOWS 3.1
        • DISKLOCK (Password protection)