Research design1

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  • 1. RESEARCH DESIGN UNIT 1.3
  • 2. What is Research Design?
    • A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.
    • Research Design Constitutes Decisions like:
    • What, Where, When, How, How much
  • 3. Need for Research Design:
    • It facilitates the smooth flow of various research processes.
    • It would result in more accurate results with minimum usage of time, effort and money
  • 4. Concepts:
    • Dependent variable:
    • variable is dependent on the result of other variable.
    • Independent Variable:
    • variable that is not dependent on any other variable.
    • Extraneous Variable:
    • are independent variable that are not directly linked, but affect the dependent variable.
  • 5. Concepts: contd…
    • Control:
    • devised to minimize the effects of Extraneous Variables.
    • Confounded Relationship:
    • relationship between dependent and independent variables when affected by extraneous variable.
    • Research Hypothesis:
    • Predicted statement that relates an independent and dependent variable.
  • 6. Concepts: contd…
    • Experimental Hypothesis testing research:
    • Research in which independent variable is manipulated.
    • Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing research:
    • Research in which independent variable is not manipulated.
    • Experimental Group:
    • when the group is exposed to some novel or special conditions.
  • 7. Concepts: contd…
    • Control Groups:
    • when the research group is exposed to the usual conditions.
    • Treatments:
    • different conditions under which experimental and control groups are put.
    • Experiment:
    • process of examining the truth of a statistical hypothesis , relating to some research problem.
  • 8. Different Research Designs:
    • Exploratory
    • Descriptive
    • Diagnostic
    • Experimental
  • 9. Exploratory Design:
    • Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem.
    • Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information.
  • 10. Exploratory Design: Contd…
    • Exploratory research is used in a number of situations:
      • To gain background information
      • To define terms
      • To clarify problems and hypotheses
      • To establish research priorities
  • 11. Exploratory Design: Contd…
    • A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research:
        • Secondary Data Analysis
        • Experience Surveys
        • Case Analysis
        • Focus Groups
  • 12. Descriptive Design:
    • Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why.
    • Two basic classifications:
        • Cross-sectional studies
        • Longitudinal studies
  • 13. Descriptive Design: Contd…
    • Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time.
    • Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population.
    • On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed.
  • 14. Descriptive Design: Contd
    • Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time.
    • One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame.
    • A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically.
    • On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries.
  • 15. DIAGNOSTIC DESIGN
    • Diagnostic research determines the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.
    • Example: studies concerned with specific prediction, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individuals or group or situation.
  • 16. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
    • Prof. R.A. Fisher – agricultural research
    • Also called Hypothesis testing Research.
    • These are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables.
  • 17. Basic Principles
    • Principle of Replication:
    • Experiment should be repeated.
    • Each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one.
    • Advantage: Increases accuracy and reliability
    • Disadvantage: difficult to compute.
  • 18.
    • 2. Principle of Randomization:
    • Research should be designed so that the variations caused by extraneous factor can all be combined under the general heading of “Chance”
  • 19.
    • 3. Principle of Local Control:
    • The extraneous variable, the source of variability, is made to vary deliberately over a wide range.
    • Reason: the variability it causes can be measured & eliminated from the experimental error.
  • 20. Important Experimental Designs
  • 21. Informal Experimental Design
    • Before-and-after without control design: = level of phenomenon after the treatment-level of phenomenon before the treatment.
    • After-only with control design: value of dependent variable in the test area-value of dependent variable in the controlled area.
    • Before-and-after with control design: change in dependent variable in the test area-change in dependent variable in the controlled area.
  • 22. Formal Experimental Designs
    • Completely randomized design
    • Randomized block design
    • Latin square design
    • Factorial design
  • 23. Assignment Questions
    • Q.1 Explain the meaning & significance of a research design?
    • Q.2 Short notes on the concepts?
    • Q.3 “Research design in exploratory studies, but in descriptive studies, it must minimize bias and maximize reliability. ” Discuss?