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Quality management & ethics

Quality management & ethics






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    Quality management & ethics Quality management & ethics Presentation Transcript

    • Quality Management & Ethics ETHICAL MANAGEMENT
    • Major Topics
      • Ethics Defined
      • Trust and Total Quality
      • Values and Total Quality
      • Integrity and Total Quality
      • Responsibility and Total Quality
      • Manager’s Role in Ethics
      • Organization’s Role in Ethics
      • Handling Ethical Dilemmas
      • Ethics Training and Codes of Business Conduct
      • Models for Making Ethical Decisions
      • Beliefs versus Behavior: Why the Disparity ?
    • Ethics Defined - 1
      • Ethics is the study of human behavior within a moral context.
      • Morality refers to the values that are subscribed to and fosters by society in general and by individuals within the society
      • Ethics attempts to - apply reason in determining rules of human behavior that translate morality into everyday behavior.
      • Ethical Behavior – It is that which falls within the limits prescribed by widely accepted moral values.
    • Ethics Defined - 2
      • Guidelines for Determining Ethical Behavior
      • Distinguish the concepts of legal and ethical:
          • A person’s behavior can be well within the prescribed limits of the law and still be unethical.
        • Blanchard and Peale suggest the following 5 P’s which help managers and employees make ethical choices in the work place.
          • Purpose – Individuals see themselves as ethical people.
          • Pride – Individuals apply internal guidelines & have self-esteem.
          • Patience – Individuals believe right will prevail in the long run.
          • Persistence – Individuals are willing to stay with an ethical course of action.
          • Perspective – Individuals take the time to reflect and are guided by their own internal barometer to take ethical decisions.
    • Ethics Defined - 3
      • Factors That Influence Ethical Behavior
        • Managers in a total quality setting need to understand the factors influencing a person’s behavior.
        • L.K.Trevino suggests 3 personality measures that can influence a person’s ethical behavior:
          • Ego strength – Ability to undertake self-directed tasks.
          • Machiavellianism – Extent to which a person will attempt to confuse others.
          • Locus of Control – The perspective of people concerning who or what controls their behavior.
    • Trust and Total Quality
      • Total Quality approach cannot be achieved without ethical behavior.
        • Ethical Behavior builds trust and trust is an essential ingredient of total quality.
      • In attempting to build trust in the workplace, managers should take the initiative.
      Fig 1. Elements of Total Quality that depend on Trust
    • Values and Total Quality
      • Values are those deeply held beliefs that form the very core of who we are.
        • A persons conscience or internal barometer is based on his or her values.
      • Ethical Behavior begins with Values.
        • Values that lead to ethical behavior are as follows:
          • Fairness
          • Dependability
          • Integrity
          • Honesty
          • Truthfulness
    • Integrity and Total Quality
      • Integrity as a personal and organizational characteristic combines honesty and dependability.
      • When an individual or an organization has integrity, ethical behavior automatically follows.
      • People with integrity can be counted on to
        • Do the right thing
        • Do things correctly
        • Accomplish tasks thoroughly and completely
        • Finish work on time
        • Keep promises.
    • Responsibility and Total Quality
      • Part of ethical behavior is to accept responsibility.
      • People generally want to blame others for their own short comings and failures – In a total Quality setting, people are responsible for their actions and accountable for their performance.
      • Accepting responsibility helps build trust, integrity, and all other elements of ethics.
    • Manager’s Role in Ethics
      • Managers have 3 main responsibilities:
      • - For setting an example of ethical behavior.
      • - For helping employees make ethical choices.
      • - Helping employees follow ethical behavior.
      • Following are 3 approaches for managers to carry out their responsibilities:
        • Best Ratio Approach: People are basically good, hence create appropriate conditions.
        • Black-and-White Approach: Right is right, wrong is wrong, hence make ethical decisions and carry them out.
        • Full Potential Approach: People are responsible for realizing their full potential, hence decisions made should focus achieving this potential.
      Fig 2. Approaches to Ethics
    • Organization’s Role in Ethics
      • Organizations have a critical role to play in promoting ethical behavior among their employees.
      • An Organizations tasks in ethics can be summarized as:
        • Creating an internal environment that promotes, expects and rewards ethical behavior.
          • This can be achieved by establishing policies and practices promoting the atmosphere.
        • Setting an example of ethical behavior in all external dealings.
          • Organizations should set an example for their employees.
          • This motivates them to be ethical.
    • Handling Ethical Dilemmas
      • Managers response to ethical dilemma is very important.
      • Following are the guidelines, managers can use in such situations.
      Fig 3. Guidelines for handling ethical dilemmas
    • Ethics Training & Codes of Business Conduct
      • Ethics Training:
        • Ethical behavior and the rationale for it can be taught.
        • In ethics training:
          • Stimulate discussion
          • Facilitate, don’t preach
          • Integrate ethics training
          • Highlight practical applications
        • Few examples of the topics that are widely addressed in corporate-sponsored ethics training programs are
          • Drug and alcohol abuse, Employee theft, Quality control etc.
      • Code of Business Conduct:
        • Written Codes of Business conduct encourage employees to do the right thing.
    • Models for Making Ethical Decisions
      • Decision making models used for determining ethical behavior can differ just as the values of organizations do.
      • Most widely used models are:
        • Categorical Imperative Model – black-and-white model
        • Full Disclosure Model – functional criterion
        • Doctrine of Mean Model – Average between 2 extremes
        • Golden Rule Model – Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
        • Market-Ethic Model – Any legal action that promotes profitability-ethical
        • Organizational Ethic Model – Loyalty to organization
        • Equal Freedom Model – Organizations have freedom to behave
        • Proportionality Ethic Model – World is so complex, decisions are not clear
        • Professional Ethic Model – Principle of peer review
    • Beliefs vs. Behavior
      • Ethics in workplace manifests itself through the application of values.
      • Most, but not all, people subscribe to these values.
      • Several Reasons explain the disparity like:
        • Self-Interest/Self-Protection
        • Conflicting Values
        • Tangible/Intangible – Immediate Deferred
        • Making Ethics Tangible and Immediate
    • Questions/Queries