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People in services People in services Presentation Transcript

  • Contact: +9811635648 Pankaj kr mishra Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO PEOPLE IN SERVICES S M
  • Introduction
    • Services are deeds,processes and performance
    • Intangible, but may have a tangible component
    • Generally produced and consumed at the same time
    • Need to distinguish between SERVICE and CUSTOMER SERVICE
  • Percent of U.S. Labor Force by Industry 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1929 1948 1969 1977 1984 1996 Percent of GDP Source: Survey of Current Business, April 1998, Table B.8, July 1988, Table 6.6B, and July 1992, Table 6.4C; Eli Ginzberg and George J. Vojta, “The Service Sector of the U.S. Economy,” Scientific American , 244,3 (1981): 31-39. Year
    • Services
    • Manufacturing
    • Mining & Agriculture
  • 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1948 1959 1967 1977 1987 1996 Percent of U.S. Gross Domestic Product by Industry Percent of GDP Year Source: Survey of Current Business, August 1996, Table 11, April 1998, Table B.3; Eli Ginzberg and George J. Vojta, “The Service Sector of the U.S. Economy,” Scientific American , 244,3 (1981): 31-39.
    • Services
    • Manufacturing
    • Mining & Agriculture
  • The Services Marketing Triangle Internal Marketing Interactive Marketing External Marketing Company (Management) Customers Employees “ enabling the promise” “ delivering the promise” “ setting the promise” Source: Philip Kotler
  • PEOPLE Service personnel Customers
  • BY SKILLS OF SERVICE PROVIDERS BY SKILL OF SERVICE PROVIDER PROFESSIONAL NON-PROFESSIONAL Legal services, Medical services, Accounting services, Management Consulting Taxi, Security, Shoe Shining
  • BY DEGREE OF CUSTOMER CONTACT BY DEGREE OF CUSTOMER CONTACT HIGH CONTACT LOW CONTACT Universities, Air Travel, Hotel Lawn care, Automated Care wash
  • Ways to Use the Services Marketing Triangle
    • Overall Strategic Assessment
      • How is the service organization doing on all three sides of the triangle?
      • Where are the weaknesses?
      • What are the strengths?
    • Specific Service Implementation
      • What is being promoted and by whom?
      • How will it be delivered and by whom?
      • Are the supporting systems in place to deliver the promised service?
  • Expanded Mix for Services -- the 7 Ps
    • Product
    • Price
    • Place
    • Promotion
    • People
    • Process
    • Physical Evidence
  • Table 1-3 (Continued) Expanded Marketing Mix for Services
  • Part 1 FOCUS ON THE CUSTOMER Pankaj kr mishra S M
  • CATEGORY OF CUSTOMERS CATEGORY OF CUSTOMERS HEAVY USERS MODERATE LOW USERS OCCASIONAL USERS Pankaj kr mishra
  • Perceived Service Expected Service CUSTOMER COMPANY Customer Gap GAP 1 GAP 2 Gaps Model of Service Quality GAP 3 External Communications to Customers GAP 4 Service Delivery Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations Pankaj kr mishra
  • Gaps Model of Service Quality
    • Customer Gap:
        • difference between expectations and perceptions
    • Provider Gap 1:
        • not knowing what customers expect
    • Provider Gap 2:
        • not having the right service designs and standards
    • Provider Gap 3:
        • not delivering to service standards
    • Provider Gap 4:
        • not matching performance to promises
    Pankaj kr mishra
  • The Customer Gap Expected Service Perceived Service GAP Pankaj kr mishra
  • Chapter 3 CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS OF SERVICES Pankaj kr mishra S M
  • DEFINITIONS
    • Customers have different expectations re services – or expected service
    • Desired service – customer hopes to receive
    • Adequate service – the level of service the customer may accept
  • Figure 3-1 Dual Customer Expectation Levels (Two levels of expectations) Adequate Service Desired Service Zone of Tolerance
  • Figure 3-3 Zones of Tolerance VARY for Different Service Dimensions Most Important Factors Least Important Factors Level of Expectation Source: Berry, Parasuraman, and Zeithaml (1993) Adequate Service Desired Service Zone of Tolerance Desired Service Adequate Service Desired Service Adequate Service Zone of Tolerance
  • Figure 3-2 The Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Desired Service Zone of Tolerance
  • Figure 3-5 Factors that Influence Desired Service Desired Service Adequate Service Zone of Tolerance Enduring Service Intensifiers Personal Needs
  • Figure 3-6 Factors that Influence Adequate Service Desired Service Adequate Service Zone of Tolerance Self-Perceived Service Role Situational Factors Perceived Service Alternatives Transitory Service Intensifiers
  • Figure 3-7 Factors that Influence Desired and Predicted Service Desired Service Adequate Service Zone of Tolerance Predicted Service Explicit Service Promises Implicit Service Promises Word-of-Mouth Past Experience
  • Figure 4-1 Customer Perceptions of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction Service Quality Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles Product Quality Price Personal Factors Customer Satisfaction Situational Factors
  • Figure 4-4 A Service Encounter Cascade for a Hotel Visit Check-In Request Wake-Up Call Checkout Bellboy Takes to Room Restaurant Meal
  • Sales Call Ordering Supplies Billing Delivery and Installation Servicing Figure 4-5 A Service Encounter Cascade for an Industrial Purchase
  • Figure 6-3 Underlying Logic of Customer Retention Benefits to the Organization Customer Retention & Increased Profits Employee Loyalty Quality Service Customer Satisfaction
  • Chapter 11 EMPLOYEES’ ROLES IN SERVICE DELIVERY Pankaj kr mishra S M
  • Service Employees
    • They are the service
    • They are the firm in the customer’s eyes
    • They are marketers
    • Importance is evident in
      • The Services Marketing Mix (People)
      • The Service-Profit Chain
      • The Services Triangle
  • Service Employees
    • Who are they?
      • “boundary spanners”
    • What are these jobs like?
      • emotional labor
      • many sources of potential conflict
        • person/role
        • organization/client
        • interclient
        • quality/productivity
  • SERVICE PERSONNEL QUALITY
    • FUNCTIONAL QUALITY (HOW?)
    Attitudes Behaviour Internal Functional Relations Quality Accessibility Customer Appearance Contact
  • Figure 11-3 Boundary Spanners Interact with Both Internal and External Constituents Internal Environment External Environment
  • Figure 11-4 Sources of Conflict for Boundary-Spanning Workers
    • Person vs. Role
    • Organization vs. Client
    • Client vs. Client
    • Quality vs. Productivity
  • Figure 11-5 Human Resource Strategies Customer- oriented Service Delivery Hire the Right People Provide Needed Support Systems Retain the Best People Develop People to Deliver Service Quality Compete for the Best People Hire for Service Competencies and Service Inclination Provide Supportive Technology and Equipment Treat Employees as Customers Empower Employees Be the Preferred Employer Train for Technical and Interactive Skills Promote Teamwork Measure Internal Service Quality Develop Service- oriented Internal Processes Measure and Reward Strong Service Providers Include Employees in the Company’s Vision
  • Chapter 12 CUSTOMERS’ ROLES IN SERVICE DELIVERY Pankaj kr mishra S M
  • Importance of Other Customers in Service Delivery
    • Other customers can detract from satisfaction
        • disruptive behaviors
        • excessive crowding
        • incompatible needs
    • Other customers can enhance satisfaction
        • mere presence
        • socialization/friendships
        • roles: assistants, teachers, supporters
  • Figure 12-2 Customer Roles in Service Delivery Productive Resources Contributors to Quality and Satisfaction Competitors
  • Customers as Productive Resources
    • “partial employees”
      • contributing effort, time, or other resources to the production process
    • customer inputs can affect organization’s productivity
    • key issue:
      • should customers’ roles be expanded? reduced?
  • Customers as Contributors to Service Quality and Satisfaction
    • Customers can contribute to
      • their own satisfaction with the service
        • by performing their role effectively
        • by working with the service provider
      • the quality of the service they receive
        • by asking questions
        • by taking responsibility for their own satisfaction
        • by complaining when there is a service failure
  • Customers as Competitors
    • customers may “compete” with the service provider
    • internal/external decision often based on:
      • expertise
      • resources
      • time
      • economic rewards
      • psychic rewards
      • trust
      • control
  • Figure 12-3 Strategies for Enhancing Customer Participation Effective Customer Participation Recruit, Educate, and Reward Customers Define Customer Jobs Manage the Customer Mix
  • Thanks
    • Have a nice and delight day
    • pankaj kr mishra
    • Shabas azmi