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  • 1. Disha Institute of IT & Management ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR (3.21)What is organizational behavior? Discuss the impact work force diversity on organizationalbehavior?Organizational behavior is field of study that illustrates the impact that individual, groups andstructure have on behavior within organization for his purpose of applying such knowledgetowards improving an organization affective ness i.e. OB is concussed with the study of whatpeople do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization.Underlying this systematic approach is the belief that behavior is not random. It stems from and isdirected towards some and that individual believes, rightly or wrongly, is in his or her best interest.Ob is an applied behavioral science that is built on contribution from a number of behavioraldisciplines. The predominant areas are:- a) Psychology:- The science that sets to explain and sometimes change the behavior of human being. The contribution includes study of topics like Motivation, personality, Emotions, Job Satisfaction etc. b) Sociology:- The study people in relation to them human beings. The contribution includes study of topics like Group dynamics, work team, communication, power etc. c) Anthropology:- The study of societies to learn about human being and their activities. The contribution includes study of topics like organizational culture, organizational environment, cross-cultural analysis etc. d) Political science:- The study of individual and groups within a political environment. The contribution includes the study of topics like conflict, Intra-organizational politics, power etc.One of the most important and broad based challenges currently facing organizations is adapting topeople who are different. The term to describe this challenge is work force diversity. Whileglobalization focuses on differences between people from different countries work force diversityaddresses differences among people within given countries.Work force means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, whichvaries from the so-called norm. It includes women, south Indians, Bengalines, Punjabis, physicallydisabled, elderly etc.Work forces diversity has important implications for management practice. Managers have to shifttheir philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to thosedifferences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity while at thesometimes, not (page no 7) discriminating. This shift includes, for instead, providing diversitytraining and revamping benefits programs to accommodate the different employees. Work forcediversity if positively managed, can increase creativity and innovation in organizations as well asimprove decision making by providing different perspectives on problems. When work diversity isnot managed properly, there is potential for higher turnover, more difficult communication andmore interpersonal conflicts. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 2. Disha Institute of IT & Management PERSONALITYPersonality is defined as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts an interacts withothers. Adult personality is generally considered to be made up of hereditary and environmentalfactors, moderated by situational conditional.Hereditary:- Hereditary refers to those factors that were determined by conception. Physicalstature, facial alteration, gender temperament, energy level and biological rhythms arecharacteristics that are either completely or substantially influenced by parents. Evidencedemonstrates that traits such as shyness, fear and distress are most likely caused by inheritedgenetic characteristics. If personality characteristics were completely dictated by heredity, they would befixed at birth and no amount of experience would alter them. If one is relaxed and easygoing as achild, for ex. that would be the result of one’s genes, and it would not be possible to change thosecharacteristics. But personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity.Environment:- Among the factors that exact pressures on our personality formation are thecultures in which we are area raised; our earlier conditioning the norms among our family, friendsand social groups and other influences that we experience. These environmental factors play asubstantial role in shaping our personalities. Cultural establishes the norms attributes and valuesthat are passed along from generations to the and create consistencies of time ideology that is onlymoderate intensely fostered in one culture may only have emphasis in another. It can be concludedthat both heredity and environment are the primary determinations of personality.Situations:- The third factor, the situation influences the effects of heredity and environment onpersonality. An individual’s personality, although generally stable and consistent does change indifferent situations. The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects ofone’s personality. So we shouldn’t look at personality patterns in isolation.Determinations of personality that are more input than in others in shaping the personality of amanager include:- 1. Locus of control:- The degree to which people believe they masters of their own fate. Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them make more successful manager than those who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. 2. Introvert and Extrovert:- Extrovert i.e. individuals who are gregarious and social are more successful as managers than Introverts i.e. individuals who are shy, quite and retiring. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 3. Disha Institute of IT & Management ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREOrganizational culture is defined as a system of shared meaning held by member’s that distinguishhas one organization from other organization. Simply stated, a company’s culture comprises thevalues, norms and behavior that characterize it and its work environment. It encompasses, amongother things, the way people behave, especially how they work with each other, how they areaccountable, and how they are rewarded. Culture also includes the communication flow within theorganization.There are seven primary characteristics that, in aggregate, capture the essence of an organizationculture. 1) Innovation and risk taking:- The degrees to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risk. 2) Attention to detail:- The degree to which employees is expected to exhibit precision analysis and attention to detail. 3) Outcome orientation:- The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather then on the techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes.In the organization for mutual benefits and lobbying on the behalf of or against a particularindividual or decision alternative. Political behavior can be legitimate or illegitimate. Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics-complaining to yoursupervisor, bypassing the chain of command forming coalitions, obstructing organizationalpolicies or decisions through inaction or excessive adherence to rules and developing contactsoutside the organization through one’s professional activities.Illegitimate political behavior violates the implied rules of the game. Illegitimate political behaviorincludes sabotage whistle blowing and symbolic protests such as wearing unorthodox dress andgroup of employees simultaneously calling in sick.1)Factors contributing to political behavior:- Factors contributing to political behavior either {I} individual characteristics, derived from theunique qualities of the people the organization employees or {ii} organization’s culture or internalenvironment.2) Individual Factors:- In terms of traits, employees who are high self-monitors, process aninternal focus of control and have a high need for power are more…………………… Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 4. Disha Institute of IT & Management PoliticsWhen employees in organizations convert their power into action, they are described as beingengaged in politics. Those with good political skills have the ability to use their bases of powereffectively. Political behavior in organizations is defined as activities that are not required as part ofone’s formal role in the organization, but that influence or attempt to influence the distribution ofadvantages and disadvantages within the organization. This definition encompasses 3 key elements:- a) Political behavior is outside one’s specified job requirements. The behavior requires some efforts to use one’s political bases. b) Political behavior tries to influence the goals, criteria or processes used for decision making when is said that politic is concerned with the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. c) The definition include varied political behaviors such as with holding key information from decision makers, joining a condition, spreading rumors, leaking confidential information about organizational activates to the media, exchanging favors with others………………………………. POWER AND POLITICSPower is the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the beliefs or actions of otherpersons or groups. A person can have power over the other person only if the first person hassomething which other person desires.Bases of Power:-Power can be of two types- formal and personal.Formal Power:- Formal power is based on an individual’s position in an organization. Formal power can comefrom the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authoring or from control of information.Coercive power:- The coercive power base is dependent on fees. One reacts to this power out of fear of the negativeresults that might occur if one failed to comply. It rests on the application, or the threat ofapplication, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustrationthrough restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 5. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementQ1. Discuss the meaning and scope of organizational behavior what are the contemporarychallenges to organizational behavior.Ans. Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates that impact that individuals,groups and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose applying, suchknowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness. OB is concerned with the study of what people do in an organizations end how thatbehavior affects the performance of an organization.These are lot of challenges today for managers to use OB concepts. These include: A) Responding to Globalization:- Globalization affects a manager’s people skills in at least two ways. First, if a manager is transferred to his employer’s operating division or subsidiary in another another country. Once there, he has to manage a work force that is likely to be very different in needs, aspirations, and attends from those he used to work back home. Second even in his own country a manager is going to find himself working with bosses, peers, and other employees who were born and raised in different culture what motivates one person may not motivate another person. Or the manager’s style of communication may be straight forward and threatening. To work effectively with these people, the manager will need to understand their culture, how it is shaped, and how to adapt his management style to their differences.b) Managing workforce diversity:- One of the most important and broad based challengescurrently facing organizations is adapting people who are different. While globalization focuses ondifferences between people from different countries, workforce diversity addresses differenceamong people within given countries. Workforce diversity means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous interms of gender, race and ethnicity. Employees don’t set aside their cultural values and lifestylepreferences when the come to work. The challenge for organizations, therefore, is to make themmore accommodating to diverse group of people by addressing their different lifestyle, familyneeds and work style. Workforce diversity has important implications for management practice. Managers haveto shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding tothose differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity while, at thesame time, not discriminating. This shift includes for instance providing diversity training andrevamping benefits programs to accommodate the different needs of different employees.Diversity if positively managed can increase creativity and innovation in organizations as well asimprove decision making by providing different perspectives on problems. When diversity is notmanaged properly, there communication and more interpersonal conflicts. Quality management is driven by constant attainment of customer satisfaction through thecontinuous improvement of all organizational processes. It has implications for OB because itrequires employees to rethink what they do and become more involved in workplace decisions. Today’s managers understand that the success of any effort at improving qualityand productivity must include their employees. These employees will not only be a major force in Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 6. Disha Institute of IT & Managementcarrying out changes but increasingly participate in planning those changes. OB offers importantinsights into helping managers work through there changes. Individual BehaviorIndividual Behavior is influenced by factors such as biographical characteristics, ability andlearning. Biographical characters include factors such as employee’s age, gender, length of servicewith an organization. Age:- The relationship between age and job performance is of increasing importance in thestudy of organization behavior. The reason for this is a widespread belief that job performancedeclines with increasing age. But at the same time, there are some positive qualities that olderworkers bring to their jobs, especially experience, strong work ethics and commitment to quality.But older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and as resistant to new technology. The older worker gets, the less likely he is to quit his job. As workers get older, they havefewer alternative job opportunities. In addition, older workers are less likely to resize than areyounger workers because their long tenure tends to provide them with higher wage rates, longerpaid vacations and more attractive pension benefits. The natural conclusion is that the demands of most jobs, even those with heavymanual labor requirement are not extreme enough for any decline in physical skills attributable toage to have an impact on productivity, or if there is some decay due to age, it is offset by aging dueto experience.Gender:- Important differences between men and women that will effect their job performance.There are no consistent male-female differences in problem-solving ability, analytical skills,competitive drive, and socio ability. Psychological studies have fund that women are more willingto conform to authority and that men are more aggressive and more likely then women to haveexpectations of success, but those differences are minor. One issue that seems to differ betweengender, especially when the employee has preschool-age children, is preference for workschedules. Working mothers are more likely to prefer pail time work, flexible work schedules andtelecommunicating in order to accommodate their family responsibilities.Marital Status:- Research consistently indicates that married employees have fewer absences,undergo less turnover and are mere satisfied with their jobs then are their unmarried workers.Marriage imposes increased responsibilities that may make a steady job more valuable andimportant.Tenure:- If we define seniority as time on a particular job, we can say that the most recentevidence demonstrates positive relationship a between seniority and job productivity. So tenure,expressed as work experience, appears to be negatively related to absenteeism. Tenure is also apotent variable in explaining turnover. The longer a person is in a job, the less likely he or she is toquit. Consistent with research that suggests that past behavior is the best predictor of futurebehavior evidence indicates that tenure on an employee’s previous job is a powerful predictor ofthat employee’s future turnover. The evidence indicates that tenure and satisfaction are positivelyrelated. Ability Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 7. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementAbility refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. It is a currentassessment of what one can do. An individual’s overall abilities are essentially made up of two setsof factors. Intellectual and physical abilities.Types of abilities:-Intellectual Abilities:- These are those activities that are needed to perform mental activities.Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. Theseven most frequently cited dimensions are number aptitude, verbal comprehension, inductivereasoning, spatial visualization and memory. Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbentsto use their intellectual abilities. Generally speaking the more information-processing demand thatexist in a job, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to performancethe job successfully. The most recent evidence suggests that intelligence can be better understoodby breaking it down into four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional and cultural. Cognitiveintelligence encompasses the aptitudes like IQ, number aptitude etc. Social intelligence is person’sability to relate effectively to others. Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, understand,and manage emotions. And cultural intelligence is awareness of cross-cultural differences and theability to function successfully in cross cultural functions.Physical Ability:- Physical ability refers to the capacity to tasks demanding stamina, dexterity,strength and similar characteristics. To the same degree that intellectual abilities play a larger rolein complex jobs with demanding information. Processing requirements, specific physical abilitiesgain importance for successfully doing less-skilled and more standardized jobs. For examples, jobsin which success demands stamina manual dexterity, leg strength similar talent requiremanagement to identify an employee’s physical capabilities. LEARNINGAny relatively permanent change in behavior is called learning. Three theories have been offeredexplain the process of learning by which we acquire patter us of behavior. These are classicalconditioning operant conditioning and social learning. a) Classical Conditioning:- deals with the association of one event with another desired event resulting in desired behavior or learning. b) Operant Conditioning:- A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents punishment. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement about by the consequences of the behavior. Therefore, reinforcement strengthens a behavior and increases the like hood that it will be repeated. c) Social learning:- People can learn through observation and direct experience. The influence of this model is central to the social viewpoint. Four processes have been found to determine the influence that a model will have an individual. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 8. Disha Institute of IT & Management i) Attention Processes:- People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. ii) Retention Processes:- A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily available. iii) Motor Reproduction Process:- After a person has a new behavior by observing the model the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that their individual can perform the modeled activities.Because learning takes place on the job as well as prior to it managers will be concerted with howthey can teach employees to behave in ways that most benefit the organization and this changetheir attitude. When managers attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduatedsteps, they are “shaping behavior” and this changing their attitude.There are four ways in which to shape behavior positive reinforcement negative reinforcement,punishment and extinction.Following a response with something pleasant is called positive reinforcement Negative responsehappens when individuals learn to avoid or escape from unpleasant consequences. Punishment iscausing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an unpleasant behavior. Eliminating anyreinforcement that is maintaining a behavior is called extinction. VALUESValues represent basic conviction that a specific mode of conduct or end- state of existence ispersonally or society preferable to an opposite mode of conduct. They contain a Judgmentalelement in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good or desirable. Values haveboth context and intensity attributes. The context attribute says that a mode of conduct isimportant. The intensity attributes specifics how important it is. Values are important to the study of organizational behavior they lay the foundation for theunderstanding of attributes and motivation and because the influence our perception.Managers have to become capable of working with people from different cultures. Because valueand attributes differ across cultures, are understanding of these differences should be helpful inexplaining and predicating behavior of employees from different cultures. Nine dimensions onwhich cultures differ:- 1) Assertiveness:- The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, assertive, confrontational and competitive verses modest and tender. 2) Future Oriented:- The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in future and laying gratification. 3) Gender Differentiation:- The extend to which society maximizes gender role and differences. 4) Power Distance:- Degree to which members of society expect power to the unequally shared. 5) Performance Oriented:- This refers to the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group’s members for performances improvement an excellent. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 9. Disha Institute of IT & Management 6) Individualism/collectivism:- This is the degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated groups within organizations and society. ATTITUDESAttitudes are evaluative statements or Judgment concerning objects, people or events. They reflecthow one feel about something. These are three components of an attitude: cognition, affect andbehavior. 1) Cognitive component of an attitude is opining or belief segment of an attitude. E.g. discrimination is wrong. Such an opinion is the cognitive component of an attitude. 2) Affective component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude e.g. I don’t like Mr. X because he discriminates against minorities. 3) Behavioral component of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something.These three component:- cognitive, affect and behavior- are helpful in understanding the potentialrelationship between attitudes and behavior. In contrast to values, attitudes are less stable. E.G.Advertising message attempt to alter your with feeling related to product/services. That attitudemay lead to desirable response/behavior i.e. the purchase of product or service. TYPES OF ATTITUDESA person can have thousand of attitudes. The work related attitudes can positive or negativeevaluation that employees hold about their work environment. Most of the research inorganizational behavior is concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement andorganizational commitment.Job Satisfaction:- The term job satisfaction refers to an individuals general attitudes towards hisor her job. A person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes about the job, whilea person who is dissatisfied with his/ her job holds negative attitudes about the job.Job Involvement:- Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifiedpsychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important toself work. Employees with high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really careabout the kind of work they do.Organization Commitment:- It is a degree to which an employee identifies with a particularorganization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. The researchdemonstrates negative relationship between organizational negative relationship betweenorganizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover. ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP Attitudes effect behavior and vice-verse. Important attitudes are ones that reflect fundamentalvalues, self interest or identification with individuals or groups that a person values. Attitudes thatindividuals consider important tend to show a strong relationship to behavior. The more specificthe attitude Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 10. Disha Institute of IT & Management and the more specific the behavior, the stronger the link between the two. Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur when social pressures tobehave in a certain ways hold exceptional power. The attitude-behavior relationship is likely to bemuch stronger if an attitude refers to something with which the individual has direct personalexperience. COGNITIVE DISSINANCEDissonance means inconsistency. Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individualswill attempt to reduce the dissonance and hence, discomfort. Therefore, individuals will seek astable state, in which there is minimum of dissonance. Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceivebetween two or more of his/her attitudes or between his/her behavior and attitudes. No individual can completely avoid dissonance. The desire to reduce dissonancewould be determined by the importance of the dements creating dissonance, the degree ofinfluence the individual beliefs he/she has over the elements, and rewards that may be involved indissonance. If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correctthis imbalance will be low. The degree of influence that individuals believe that they have over the elements will havean impact on how they will react to the dissonance. If they perceive the dissonance to be anuncontrollable result-something over which they have no correct –they are less likely to bereceptive to attitude change. If for ex. the dissonance producing behavior is required as a result ofthe boss’s directive the pressure to reduce dissonance would be less then if the behavior wasperformed voluntarily. While dissonance exists, if can be rationalized and justified. Rewards also influence the degree to which individuals are motivated to reducedissonance. High rewards accompanying high dissonance. The rewards act to reduce dissonanceby increasing the consistency side of the individual’s balance sheet.Self Esteem:- People differ in the degree to which they like or dislike themselves. This trait iscalled self esteem. Self esteem is directly related to expectations for success. High self esteembelieve that they possess the ability they need to succeed at work individuals with high self-esteemwill take more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs then peoplewith low self esteem. Low self esteem is more susceptible to external influence then is high self esteem. Low selfesteem is dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations from others. As a result they are morelikely to seek approval from others and more prone to conform to the beliefs and behaviors ofthose they respect than are high self esteems. In managerial positions, low self esteem will tend tobe concerned with pleasing others and therefore are less likely to take unpopular stands than arehigh self esteem. High self esteem is more satisfied with their jobs then is low self esteems.Self Monitoring:- It refers to personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjusthis/her behavior to external situational factors. Individuals high are self monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting theirbehavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behavedifferently in different situational. High self monitors are capable of presenting striking Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 11. Disha Institute of IT & Managementcontradictions between their public persona and their private self. Low self monitors can’t disguisethemselves in that way. They tend to display their true disposition and attitudes in every situationhence there is high behavioral consistency between who they are end what is they do. It can behypothesized that high self monitors will be more successful in managerial positions in whichindividuals are requires to play multiple roles. The high self monitors are capable of putting ondifferent “facts” for different audience. EMOTIONSEmotions are intense feeling that are directed at someone or something.In contrast to emotions, there is mood that refers to feelings that tend to be less intense thanemotions and that lack emotional stimulus.Both emotions and mood together form affect which is a generic term which covers a broad rangeof feelings that people experience. Emotions are reactions to an object, not a trait. They are objecting specific. A person showshis emotions which he is happy about something angry at someone or afraid of something. Moodson the other hand are not directed to a n object. Emotions can turn into moods when one losesfocus on the contextual object. Related to emotions is emotional labor which refers to a situation in which anemployee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.Emotional labor creates dilemmas for employees when their job requires them to exhibit emotionsthat are incongruous with their actual feelings. Hence there can be felt emotions and displayedemotion. Felt emotions are individuals actual emotions. In contrast, displayed emotions are thosethat are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. They are not innate,they are learned e.g. We are expected to a ct sad the funerals regardless of whether we consider thepersons death to be a loss, and to pretend to be happy at weddings even if we don’t feel likecelebrating.EMOTION DIMENSIONSVarity:- Emotions can either be positive or negative. Positive emotions-like happiness and hopeexpress a favorable evolution or feeling. Negative emotions like anger or hate express the oppositeemotions can not be neutral. Being neutral is non emotional. Importantly, negative emotions seemto have a greater effect on individuals. Research has identified six universal emotion:- anger, fear,sadness, happiness, disgust and surprise.Intensity:- People give different responses to identifiable emotion provoking stimuli. In somecases this can be attributed to the individual’s personality. Other times it is result of the jobrequirements. People vary in their inherent ability to express intensity. There are some individualwho almost never show their feelings. They rarely get angry. They never show rage. In contrast,there are some individuals who seem to be on an emotional roller-coaster. When they are happy,they are ecstatic. Where they are sad, they are deeply depressed. And two people can be in thesame situation- one showing excitement and joy, the remaining calm and collected. Jobs make different intensity demands in terms of emotions labor. For instance,judges and air traffic controllers are expected to be calm and controlled, even in stressful Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 12. Disha Institute of IT & Managementsituations. Conversely the effectiveness of public address announces at sporting events and lowerscan depend on their ability to alter their displayed emotional intensity as the need arises. Frequency and duration:- Emotional labor that requires high frequency or long durationsis more demanding and requires more exertion by employees. So whether an employee cansuccessfully meet the emotional demands of a given job depends not only on what emotions needto be displayed and their intensity, but also on how frequently and for how long the effort has to bemade.Gender and emotions:- The evidence does confirm differences between men and women when itcomes to emotional reactions and ability to read others, In contrasting the genders, women showgreater emotional expressions than men, they experience emotions more intensely and they displaymore frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions except anger. In contras to men,women also report more comfort in expressing emotions. Finally women cusses than are men.Women have more innate ability to read others and present their emotions then do men.Emotional intelligence:- (EI) refers to an assortment of non cognitive skills, capabilities andcompetencies that influence a person’s ability to successes in coping with environmental demandsand pressures. It is a compound of five dimensions. a) Self awareness:- Being aware of what you are feeling . b) Self management: - The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses. c) Self motivation:- The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. d) Empathy:- The ability to sense how others are feeling. e) Social skills:- The ability to handle the emotions of others. Several students suggest that EI may play an important role in job performance. Top performance recruiters exhibit high levels of EI. The implications from the initial evidences on EI is that employers should consider it as a factor in selection, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction Given the same objective data, we should expect people may make different choices when they are angry and stressed out then when they are clam and collected. Negative emotions can result in a limited search for new alternatives and less vigilant use of information. On the other hand, positive emotions can increase problem solving skills and facilitate the integrations of information.Motivation:- Motivation theories propose that individuals are motivated to the extend that theirbehavior is expected to lead to desired outcomes. The image is that of a rational exchange. Theemployees essentially trade efforts for pay, security, promotions, and so forth. But people are notcold, unfeeling machines. Their perceptions and calculations of situations are filled with emotionalcontent that significantly influences how much effort they exert. People who are highly motivatesin their jobs, they are emotionally committed. People who are engaged in their work “becomephysically cognitively and emotionally immersed in the experience of activity, in the pursuit of agoal.” Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 13. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementLeadership:- The ability to lead others is a fundamental quality sought by organizations.Effective leaders rely on the expression of feelings to help convey their messages. When leaderfeel excite, enthusiastic and active, they may be more likely to energies their subordinates andconvey a sense of efficacy competence optimize and enjoyment. Corporate executives know thatemotional content is critical if employees are to buy into their vision of their company’s future andaccept change. By arousing emotions and linking them to an appealing vision, leaders increase thelike hood that managers and employees alike will accept change.Interpersonal Conflict:- Whenever conflicts arise, emotions also surface. A manager’s success intrying to resolve conflicts is often largely attributed to his ability to identify the emotional elementsin the conflict and to get the conflicting parties to work through their emotions. And the managerswho ignores the emotional elements in conflicts, focusing singularly on rational and take focusedconcerns, is unlikely to be very effective in resolving those conflicts.b) Reward power:- The opposite of coercive power is reward power. People comply with thewishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits; therefore, one who candistribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. These rewardscan either be financial or non-financial.c) Legitimate Power:- Legitimate power represents the power a person receives as a result of hisor her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. It is the formal authority to control anduse organizational resources. Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward.Specifically, it includes acceptance by members in an organization of the authority of a position. d) Information Power:- Information Power comes from access to and control over information. People in an organization who have data or knowledge that others need can make those other dependent on them.II) Personal Power Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. Three bases of personal power- expertise, the respect and admiration of others and charisma. a) Expert Power: - Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skills or knowledge. Expertise has become one of the most power sources of influence as the world has become one of the most power sources of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented. As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. b) Referent Power:- Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. For example, celebrities are paid millions to endorse products in commercials. They have the power to influence people’s choice of products. c) Charismatic Power: - Charismatic Power is extent ion of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal skills. Charismatic people get others to follow them because they can articulate attractive VISIONS, take personal risks, demonstrate environmental and follower sensitivity and are willing to engage in behavior that most others consider unconventional. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 14. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementDEPENDENCYThe greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. When a person possess anything that others require, but alone has a control over it, hemakes others dependent over him and thus, gain power over them. Dependency, then, isinversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. If something is plentiful, possessionof it will not increase anyone’s power. If everyone is intelligent, intelligence gives no specialadvantage. Conversely, the more that a person has options, the less power he places in thehands of others. Hence, most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give theirbusiness to only one. Dependency is increased when the resources a person controls is important, scarceand nonsubstitutable.ImportanceIf nobody wants what a person has got, it’s is not going to create dependency. To createdependency, therefore. The things a person control must be perceived as being important.ScarcityIf something is plentiful, possession of it will not increase one’s power. A resource needs to beperceived as scarce to create dependency.NonsubstitutabilityThe more that a resource has no visible substitutes, the more power that control over thatresources provides.Power TacticsPower tactics refer to ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions.There are seven tactical dimensions or strategies by which managerial employees influenceothers:--Reason: - Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas.-Friendliness: - Use of flattery, creation of goodwill, acting humble and being friendly prior tomaking a request.-Coalition: - Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request.-Bargaining: - Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors.-Assertiveness: - Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance withrequest, repeated reminders, ordering individuals to do what is asked etc.-Higher Authority: - Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back-uprequest.-Sanctions:- Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments such as preventing orpremising a salary increase threatening to give an unsatisfactory performance evolution or withholding a promotion. Likely to engage in political behavior. The high self monitor is more sensitive to social cues, exhibits higher levels of socialconformity and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior then the low self monitor.Individuals with an internal locus of control, because they believe they can control theirenvironment, are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations intheir favor. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 15. Disha Institute of IT & Management Individuals with an internal focus of control, because they believe they can control their environment are more prone to take a productive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. Machiavellian personality which is characterized by the will to manipulate and the desire for power is comfortable using politics as a means to further his or her self interest. Individual’s investment in the organization perceived alternatives and expectations of success will influence the degree to which he/she will pursue illegitimate means of political action. The more a person has invested in the organization in terms of expectations of increased future benefits, the more he/she has to lose if forced out and less likely he/she is to use illegitimate means. The more alternative job opportunities an individual has due to favorable job market or the possession of scarce skills or knowledge a prominent reputation or influential contracts outside the organization the more likely he/she is to risk illegitimate political actions. Organizational Factors:- Political activity is probably more a function of the organizational characteristics than of individual difference variables. When organizations downsize to improve efficiency, reduction in resources has to be made.Threatened with the loss of resources, people may engage in political actions to safeguard whatthey have. But any changes, especially those that imply significant reallocation of resources withinthe organization are likely to stimulate conflict and increase politicking. Promotion decisions have consistently been found to be one of the most political actions inorganizations. The opportunity for promotions or advancement encourages people to comate forlimits resources and to try to positively influence the decision outcome.The less trust there is within the organization the higher the level of political behavior and themore likely that the political behavior will be of the illegitimate kind. So high trust should suppressthe level of political behavior in general and inhibit illegitimate action in particular.Role ambiguity means that the prescribed behavior of the employee is not clear. There are fewerlimits, therefore, to the scope and functions of the employee’s political actions. Because politicalactivities as those not required as part of one’s formal role the greater the role ambiguity, the moreone can engage in political activities with little change of it being visible.The more that organizations use subjective criteria in the appraisal emphasize the single outcomemeasure, or allow significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisal thegreater the like hood then an employee can get away with politicking.The more then an organization’s culture emphasizes the zero-sum or win-lose approach to rewardallocations, the more employees will be motivate to engage in politicking. In zero-sum approachany gain that one person or group achieves has come at the expense of another person or group.Such a practice encourages making others look bad and increasing the visibility of what you do.The more pressure that employees feel to perform well, the more likely they are to engage inpoliticking when people are strictly accountable for outcomes, this puts great pressures on them to“Look good”. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 16. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementWhen employees see the people on top engaging in political behavior especially when they do sosuccessfully and are rewarded for it, a climate is created that supports politicking. Politicking bytop management gives permission to those lower in the organization to play politics by implyingsuch behavior that is acceptable. How do people respond to organizational politicsThere is very strong evidence indicating that perceptions of organizational politics are negativelyrelated to job satisfaction. The perception of politics also tends to increase job anxiety or stress.This is due to perception that by not engaging in politics, a person may be losing ground to otherswho are actively politickers. When politickers becomes too much to handle, it can lead toemployees quitting. Politics lead to self-reported decline in employee performance. Perceivedorganizational politics appear to have a demotivating effect on individuals, thus leading todecreased performance levels. ORGANISATION STRUCTUREAn organization structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated.There are six elements that mangers need to address when they design their organization’sstructure. These are :- a) Work specialization. b) Departmentalization. c) Chain of command. d)Span of control. e) Centralisation & Decentralization. f) Formalisation A) Work Specialization: - refers to the degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. The essence of work specialization is that, rather than an entire job being done by one individual, it is broken down into a number of steps, with each step being completed by a separate individual. B) Departmentalisation:- Once the jobs have been divided through work specialization, these jobs have to be grouped together so that common tasks can be coordinated. The basis by which jobs are grouped together is called departmentalization. The activities can be grouped by functions performed. AManufacturing manager might organize his plant by separating engineering, accounting,manufacturing, personnel and supply specialists into common departments. Functionaldepartmentalization seeks to achieve economics of scale by placing people with common skills andorientations into common units. Tasks can also be departmentalized by the type of product theorganization produces. Each major product is placed under the authority of an executive who hascomplete global responsibility for that product. The major advantage of this type of grouping isincreased accountability for product performance, since all the activities related to a product areunder the direction of a single manager. Another way to departmentalize is on the basis of geographyor territory. The sales function, for instance, may have western, southern, eastern region. Each ofthese regions is in effect, a department organized around geography. If an organisation’s customersare scattered over a large geographic area and have similar needs based on their location, then thisform of departmentalization. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 17. Disha Institute of IT & Management A final category of departmentalization is to use the particular type ofcustomer. An organization can organize itself around customer groups like corporates, retail,government etc.C) Chain of Command is an unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of theorganization to the lowest level and clarifies who reports to whom. It answers questions foremployees such as” To whom do I go if I have a problem?” and ‘ To whom am I responsible?” The unity of command principle helps preserve the concept of anunbroken line of authority. It states that a person should have one and only one superior to whomhe or she is directly responsible. If the unity of command is broken, an employee might have tocope with conflicting demands or priorities from several superiors. D) Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. Span of control is important because, to a large degree, it determines the number of levels and managers and organization has all things being equal the wider or larger the span, the more efficient the organization. Narrow span has three major drawbacks. First, they are expensive because they add to the levels of management. Second, they make vertical communication in the organization more complex. The added levels of hierarchy slow down decision making and tend to isolate upper management. Third, narrow spans of control encourage overly tight supervision and discourage autonomy. E) Centralisation and Decentralisation Centralisation refers to the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. The concept includes only formal authority that is, the rights inherent to one’s position. Typically, it’s said that if top management makes the organisation’s key decision with little or no input from lower- level personnel, then the organization is centralized. In contrast, the actually given the discretion to make decision, the more decentralisation there is. An organization characterized by centralization is an Inherently different structural entity from one that is an inherently different structural entity from one that is decentralized. In a decentralized organization, action can be taken more quickly to solve problem, more people provide input into decisions and employees are less likely to feel alienated from those who make the decisions that effect their work lives. Consistent with recent management efforts to make organization more flexible and responsive, there has been a marked trend toward decentralizing decision making. In large companies, lower-level managers are closer to “the action” and typically have more detailed knowledge about problems than do top management. F) Formalisation refers to the degree to which job within the organization are standardized. If a job is highly formalized then the job incumbent has a minimum amount of discretion Pageno43………………………………….Over what is to be done, when it is to be done and how it is to be done. Employees can beexpected always to handle the same input in exactly same way, resulting in a consistentand uniform output. There are explicitly job description lots of organizational rules, anddearly defined procedures covering work processes in organizations in which thee is highformalization. Where formalization is low, job behaviors are relatively non-programmed Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 18. Disha Institute of IT & Managementand employees have a great deal of freedom to exercise discretion in their work. Becausean individual’s discretion on the job is inversely related to the amount of behavior in thatjob that is preprogrammed by the organization, the greater the standardization and theless input the employee has into how his or her work is to be done. Standardization nothis/her work is to be done. Standardization not only eliminates the possibility ofemployees engaging in alternative behaviors, but it even removes the need for employeesto consider alternatives.Common organizational Designs:-There are three common organizational designs- Simple structure, bureaucracy and thematrix structure. A) Simple Structure:- Simple structure is characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide span of control, authority centralized in a single person and little formalization. The simple structure is a “felt ” organization, it usually has only two or three vertical levels, a lower body of employees and one individual in whom the decision making authority is centralized. The simple structure is most widely practiced in small businesses in which the manager and the owner are one and the same. The strength of the simple structure less in its simplicity. It’s fast flexible and inexpensive to maintain and accountability is dear. B) Bureaucracy:- The key concept that underlies all bureaucracy is standardization. It is a structure with highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow span of control and decision making the chain of command. The primary strength of bureaucracy lies in its ability to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner. Putting like specialties together in functional departments results in economics of scale, minimum duplications of personal and equipment. Furthermore bureaucracy gives opportunity to less talented and hence less costly middle and lower level managers. The pervasiveness of rules and regulations substitutes for managerial discretion. Standardized operations, coupled with high formalization allow decision making to be centralized. There is little need therefore for innovative and experienced decision makers below the level of senior executives. c) Matrix Structure:- Matrix structure creates dual line of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization . The strength of functional departmentalization lies in putting like specialists together, which minimizes the number necessary while allowing the pooling and sharing of specialized resources across products. Its major disadvantage is the difficulty of coordinating the tasks of diverse functional specialists so that their activities are completed on time and within budget. Product departmentation, on the other hand, has exactly the opposite benefits and disadvantages. It facilitates coordination among specialties to achieve on-time completion and meet budgets targets. Further more, it provides clear responsibility for all activities related to a product, but with duplication Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 19. Disha Institute of IT & Managementof activities and costs. The matrix attempts to gain the strength of each, whileavoiding their weaknesses. The most obvious structural characteristics of the matrix is that it breaks the unityof command concept. Employees in the matrix have two bosses-their functionaldepartment managers and their product managers. Therefore, the matrix has a dualchain of command.The strength of the matrix lies in its ability to facilitate coordination when theorganization has a multiplicity of complex and interdependent activities. As anorganization gets larger, its information processing capacity can become overloaded.In a bureaucracy, complexity results in increased formularization. The direct andfrequent contact between different specialists in the matrix can make for bettercommunication and more quickly reaches the people who need to take account of it. There is another advantage to the matrix. It facilitates the efficient allocation ofspecialists. When individuals with highly specialized skills are lodged in onefunctional department or a product group their talents are monopolized andunderused. The matrix achieves the advantage of economics of scale by providing theorganization with both the best resources and an effective way of ensuring theirefficient development. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 20. Disha Institute of IT & Management NEW DESIGN OPTIONSSenior managers in a number of organizations have been working to develop new structuraloptions that can better help their firms to compete effectively. Two new structures of such typehave come up in recent times:- a) The Team Structure:- The primary characteristics of the team structure are that it breaks down departmental barriers and decentralize decision making to the level of the work teams. Team structures also require employees to be generalists as well as specialists. More often, primarily among larger organizations, the team structure complements whatis typically a bureaucracy. This allows, the organization to achieve the efficiency of bureaucracystandardization, while gaining the flexibility that team provides. b) The Virtual Organization (also sometimes called network or modular organization) virtual organization is typically a small, core organization that outsources major business functions. In structural terms, the virtual organization is highly centralized, with little or no departmentalization. The core of the organization is a small group of executives whose job is to overseedirectly any activities that are done in house and to coordinate relationships with the otherorganization that manufacture, distribute and perform other crucial functions for the virtualorganization. In essence, managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating andcontrolling external relations, typically by way of computer network links. The major advantage to the virtual organization is its flexibility. For instance, it allowsindividuals with an innovative idea and little money to successfully compete with biggercompanies. The primary drawback to this structure is that it reduces management’s control overkey parts of its business. NEGOTIATIONNegotiation is defined as a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services andattempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. There are two general approaches to negotiation- distributive bargaining and integrativebargaining. A) Distributive Bargaining:- Distributive bargaining is defined as negotiations that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources, a win lose situation. Its most identifying feature is that it operates under zero sum conditions i.e. each party bargains aggressively and treats the other as an opponent who must be defeated. The essence of distributive bargaining is that each party has a target point that defineswhat he/she would like to achieve. Each also has a resistance point, which marks the lowestoutcome that is acceptable the point below which they would break off negotiations rather thenaccept a less favorable settlement. The area between these two points makes up each one’saspiration range. As long as these is some overlap between the aspiration ranges, their exists asettlement range in which each one’s aspiration can be met. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 21. Disha Institute of IT & Management When engaged in distributive bargaining one’s tactics focus on try to get one’s opponent toagree to one’s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible. Examples of such tactics arepersuading to his/her target point and the advisability of accepting a settlement near yours arguingthat your target is fair, which your opponent’s is not and attempting to get you opponent to feelemotionally generous toward you and thus accept an outcome close to your target point.B) Integrative Bargaining :- Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements than create win-win situation. In terms of intra-organizational behavior all things being equal integrative bargaining ispreferable to distributive bargaining. Integrative bargaining builds long term relationships andfacilitates working together in the future. It bonds negotiators and allows each to leave thebargaining table feeling that he/she has achieved a victory. Distributive bargaining on the otherhand, leaves one party a loser. It tends to build animosities and deeper divisions when people haveto work together on an ongoing process.The Negotiation Process :- Negotiation is made up of five steps:- preparation and planning,Definition of ground rules, Clarification and justification, bargaining and problem solving andclosure and implementation. a) Preparation and planning:- Before the start of negations one must be aware of conflict the history leading to the negotiation the people involved and their perception of the conflict expectations from the negotiations etc. b) Definition of ground rules:- Once the planning and strategy is development one has to begin defining the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself that will do the negotiation. Where will it take place? What time constrains, if any will apply? To what issues will negotiations be limited? Will there be a specific procedure to follow in an impasse is reached? During this phase the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands. c) Clarification and justification:- When initial positions have been exchanged both the parties will explain amplify, clarify, bolster and justify their original demands. This need not be confrontational. Rather it is an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues why they are important and how each arrived at their initial demands. This is the point where one party might want to provide the other party with any documentation that helps support its position. d) Bargaining and problem solving :- The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. It is here where concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties. e) Closure and Implementation:- The final step in the negotiation process is formalization the agreement that has been worked out and developing and procedures that are necessary for implementation and monitoring. For major negotiations – this will require hammering out the specifics in a formal contract. Third Party Negotiations:- Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 22. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementIf the group or parties reach a stalemate and are unable to resolve their differences throughdirect negotiation they may turn to a third party to help them find a solution. The different thirdparty roles are:-a) Mediator:- Mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives and like. Mediators are widely used in labor-management negotiations and in civil court disputes. To be effective the mediator must be perceived as neutral and non-coercive.b) Arbitrator:- An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. Arbitration can be voluntary (requested) or compulsory. The authority of the arbitrator varies according to the rules set by the negotiators. The big plus of arbitration over medication is that it always results in a settlement. If one party is left feeling over whelming defeated, that party is certain to be dissatisfied and unlikely to graciously accept the………………………………….. EMPOWERMENTEmpowerment is putting employees in charge of what they do. Decision making ispushed down to the operating level, where workers are given the freedom to makechoices about schedules and procedures and to solve work related problems.Employees are allowed full control and their work. An increasing numbers oforganizations are using self managed teams, in which workers operate largelywithout bosses. Empowerment is necessary component of a customer responsiveculture because it allows service employees to make on the post decisions to satisfycustomer completely.In empowering employees managers have to learn how to give up control andemployees have to learn how to take responsibility for their work and makeappropriate decisions.There are several barriers to empowerment. Some managers are very reluctant todelegate authority and many sub-ordinates avoid taking on the responsibility andauthority. The causes for such reluctance are based upon certain beliefs and attitudeswhich are personal and behavioral in nature.A. Reluctance of executive. a. A manager may believe that he can do this work better than his subordinate. He subordinates are not capable enough. Delegation may take a lot of time in explaining the responsibility to the subordinate and the managers may not have the patience to explain supervise and correct any mistake. b. Lack of confidence and trust in subordinate: since the manager is responsible for the action of his subordinates he may not be wiling to take chances with the subordinates in case the job is not done right. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 23. Disha Institute of IT & Management c. Sense of in security .: some managers feel very insecure in delegating authority specially when the subordinate is capable of doing the job. The manager in such a situation may feel his loss or power and competition from the subordinates. B. Reluctance of subordinates. a. Many subordinates are reluctance to accept authority and make decisions for fear that they would be criticized or dismissed for making wrong decisions. This is especially true in situations where subordinates had make a mistake earlier. b. The subordinates may not be given sufficient incentives for assuming extra responsibility which could mean working harder under pressure. Accordingly I the absence of adequate compensation in the form of higher salary or promotional opportunities a subordinate may avoid additional responsibility. c. The subordinate may lock self confidence in doing the job and may fear the supervisor will not be available for guidance once the delegation is made and this makes them feel uncomfortable with additional responsibility. d. Some subordinates hesitate to accept new and added assignment when there is lack of necessary information and when the available resources are nit adequate or proper. Facilitators of empowerment. Since empowerment results in several organizational advantage, it becomes necessary for the management any barriers to effective empowerment. Arbitrator’s decision. Therefore, the conflict might surface at a later time. C) CONCILIATOR: A conciliator is a third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. In practice, conciliator typically acts as more than mere communication conduits. They also engage in fact finding, interpreting message and persuading disputants to develop agreements. D) CONSULTANT: A consultant is a skilled and impartial third party who attempt to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis, aided by his or her knowledge of conflict management. The consultant’s role is not to settle the issues but, rather, to improve relations between the conflicting parties so that they can reach a settlement themselves. Instead of putting forward specific solutions, the consultant tries to help the parties learn to understand and work with each other. CHANGEChange is making things different. It is an intentional goal oriented activity. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 24. Disha Institute of IT & Management Change can be planned or unplanned. Planned change seeksto improve the ability of the organization to adapt to the changes in its environment.Second, it seeks to change employees behavior. If an organization is to survive, it must respond to change inits environment. When competitors introduce new products, government enact new lawsor similar environmental changes take place, the organizations need to adapt. Because anorganization’s success or failure is essentially due to things that it employees do or fail todo, planned change also is concerned with changing the behavior of individuals andgroups within the organization.CHANGE AGENTS: People who are responsible to bring/introduce change in theorganization. They act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing changeactivities. Change agents can be managers or outside consultants who provide advice andassistance. The outside consultants, because they are from outside, can offer an objectiveperspective often unavailable to insiders. Outside consultant, however, aredisadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of theorganization’s history, culture, operating procedures etc. FORCES FOR CHANGE 1) Nature of the workforce:- Almost every organization is having to adjust to a multicultural environment. Human resource policies and practices have to change in order to attract and keep this more diverse workforce. 2) TECHNOLOGY:- Faster and cheaper computers, new mobile communication devices etc have forced the companies to take adaptive steps to survive in the market place. 3) COMPETITION:- Companies no longer face competition from local players but from international giants,” Change or die” is the rallying cry among today’s managers. It is neither the strongest who will survive nor the fittest but one who is receptive to change. 4) WORLD POLITICS:- Companies have to change taking into account the political changes taking around the world. The opening up of China, breaking up of Soviet Union, the terrorist attack on World Trade Tower has led to changes in business practices related to the creation of back up systems, employee security and post- terrorist attack anxiety. Resistance to change Organizations and their members resist change. Resistance to changehinders adapt ion and progress. Resistance can be overt, implicit, immediate or deferred.It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Forinstance, a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints,engaging in a work slowdown, threatening to go on strike that is implicit or deferred. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 25. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementImplicit resistance efforts are more subtle-loss of loyalty to the organization, loss ofmotivation to work, increased errors to work, increased absenteeism due to “sickness”-and hence more difficult to recognize. Resistance may be at individual level or organization level.INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE Individual Resistance to change reside in basic humancharacteristics. These are: a) Habit: Human beings are creatures of habits. Life is complex and humans don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions they have to make everyday. To cope with this complexity human beings rely on habit or pre-programmed responses. But when confronted with change, this tendency to respond in their accustomed way becomes a source of resistance. Security people with high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. Economic Factors:- Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. Fear of unknown:- changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. Employees in an organization hold dislike for uncertainty. Organizational resistance:- major sources of organizational resistance include. a) Structural Inertia:- Organizations have built-in- mechanism to produce stability. The people who are hired into an organization are chosen for fit, they are then trained and directed to behave in certain ways. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability. b) Limited Focus of change: - Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems you can’t change one without affecting the others. So limited changes in subsystem tend to get nullified by the larger system. c) Group inertia: - Even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as constrains. Any individual union member, for instance may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. But if union norms dictate resistance any unilateral change made by management, he is likely to resist. d) Threat to Established power Relationships:- Any redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long established power relationships within the organization. The introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams is a kind of change that is often seen as threatening by supervisors and middle managers. e) Threat to Established resource allocation:- Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Those who benefit the most from the current allocation of resources often feel threatened by changes that may affect future allocation. Overcoming resistance to change Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 26. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementSeveral tactics have been suggested by change agents in dealing with resistance to change. a) Education and Communication:- Resistance can be reduced through communication with employees to help them see the logic of the change. This tactic basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in poor communication. If employees receive the full facts and get any misunderstandings cleared up, resistance will subside. b) Participation:- It is difficult for individuals to resist a change decision in which they participated. Assuming that participants have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution, their involvement can reduce resistance obtain commitment and increase the quality of change decision. c) Facilitation and support:- Change agents can offer a range of supportive efforts to reduce resistance. When employee’s fear and anxiety is high, employee counseling or new skills training may facilitate adjustments. d) Negotiation:- If the resistance is centered in a few powerful individuals, a specific reward package can be negotiated that will meet their individual needs. e) Manipulation and cooptation:- Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. Twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more altercative, withholding undesirable information and creating false rumors to get employees to accept a change are all examples of manipulation. Co-optation the other hand is a form of both manipulation and participation. It seeks to“buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision. Theleader’s advice is rough, not to seek a better decision but to get their endorsement.Coercion:- Coercion is the application of direct threat or force on the resisters. Examples ofcoercision include threats of transfer, loss of promotion, negative performance evaluation and poorletter of recommendation.Approaches to manage organizational change:-There are three popular approaches to managing change:- lawin’s classic three step model; actionresearch and organizational development.Lawins three step model:- Kurt lawin argued that successful change in organization shouldfollow three steps.Unfreezing:- is defined as change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistanceand group conformity. The status quo can be considered to be an equilibrium state. To move from this equilibrium-toovercome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity-unfreezing isnecessary. It can be achieved in any one of three ways- a) The driving forceWhich directs behaviors away from status quo, can be increased (b) The restraing forces,which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium can be decreased. A thirdalternative is to combine the first two approaches. To deal with resistance,management could use positive incentives to encourage employees to accept the change.For instance, increases in pay can be offered to those who accept the transfer. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 27. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementManagement might also consider unfreezing acceptance of the status quo by removingrestraining forces. Employee’s concerns and apprehensions could be heard andspecifically clarified.B) REFREEZING: refers to stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving andrestraining forces. Once the consolidation change has been implemented, if it is to besuccessful, the new situation needs to be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time.Unless this last step is taken, there is a very high chance that the change will be short-lived and that employees will attempt to revert to the previous equilibrium state.II ACTION RESEARCHAction research refers to a change process based on the systematic collection of data andthen selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. Theirimportance lies in providing a scientific methodology for managing planned change. The process of action research consists of five steps: diagnosis,analysis, feedback, action and evaluation. Diagnosis is analogous to the physician search tofind specifically what ails a patient. The change agent begins by gathering informationabout problems, concerns and needed changes from members of the organization. Thechange agent asks question, interviews employees, reviews records and listens to theconcerns of employees. Diagnosis is followed by analysis. What are themajor problems people face? What patterns do these problems seem to take? The changeagent synthesizes this information into primary concerns, problem areas and possibleactions. Feedback requires sharing with employees what has beenfound from steps one and two. Action research includes extensive involvement of thechange targets. That is, the people who will be involved in any change programmed mustbe actively involved in determining what the problem is and participating in creating thesolution. The employees with the help of the change agent,develop action plans for bringing about any needed change. Now the action part of actionreaction is set in motion. The employees and the change agent carry out the specificactions to correct the problem that have been identified.The final step, consistent with the scientific underpinnings of action research is evaluationof the action plan’s effectiveness. Using the initial data gathered as a benchmark, anysubsequent changes can be compared and evaluated. Action research provides at least two specific benefitsfor an organization. First, it is the problem focused. The change agent objectively looksfor problems and the type of problem determines the type of the change action. Second,because action research so heavily involves employees in the process, resistance tochange is reduced. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 28. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementIII ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD) OD is a method aimed at changingthe attitudes, values and beliefs of employees so that employees can improve theorganization. The following briefly identifies the underlying values in most OD efforts. 1) Respect for people:- Individuals are perceived as being responsible, conscientious and caring. They should be treated with dignity and respect. 2) Trust and support:- The effective and healthy organization is characterized by trust, authenticity, openness and a supportive climate. 3) Power equalization:- Effective organization deemphasize hierarchal authority and control. CONFRONTATION:- Problems shouldn’t be swept under the rug. They should be openly confronted. PARTICIPATION:- The more that people who will be affected by a change are involved in the decisions surrounding that change, the more they will be committed to implementing those decisions. OD TECHNIQUES OR INTERVENTIONS 1) Sensitivity Training:- It involves training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. Members are brought in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes, loosely directed by a professional behavioral scientist. The group is process oriented, which means that individuals learn through observing and participating rather than being told. 2) Survey Feedback:- It involves the use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions, discussion follows and remedies are suggested. 3) Team Building:- It involves interaction among team members to increase trust and openers. Team building can be applied within groups or at The inter group level, at which activities are interdependent. The activities considered in teambuilding typically include goal setting, development of interpersonal relations among teammembers, role analysis to clarify each member’s role and responsibilities and team processanalysis.Inter-group development :- A major area of concern in OD is the dysfunctional conflict thatexists between groups. As a result, this has been a subject several change efforts. A popularmethod emphasizes problems solving. In this method, each group meets independently to developlists of its perceptions of itself, the other group, and how it believes the other group perceives its.The group then shares their lists, after which similarities and differences are discussed. Differencesare clearly articulated and the groups look for the causes of the disparities.Appreciative Inquiry:- AI seeks to identify the unique quality and special strengths of anorganization, which can be built on to improve performance. The AI process essentially consists offour steps. The first step is one of discovery. The idea is to find out what people think are thestrengths of the organization. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 29. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementThe second step is dreaming. The information from the discovery phase is used to speculate onpossible futures for the organization. The third step is design. Based on the dream articulation, participants focus in finding acommon vision of how the organization will look and agree on its unique qualities. The fourth stage seeks to define the organization dusting. In this final step, participantsdiscuss how the organization is going to fulfill its dream. This typically includes the writing ofaction plans and development of implementation strategies. EmotionEmotions are intense feeling that are directed at someone or something.Moods are feeling that tend to be less intense then emotions and which lack a contextualstimulus. Emotions and moods together make affect which is defined as broad range of feelings thatpeople experience. Emotions are reactions to an object, not a trait. They are objecting specific. A person showshis emotions when he is “happy about something, angry at someone or afraid of something.”Moods on the other hand are not directed at an object. Emotions can turn into moods when aperson loses focus on the contextual object. A person might find he just generally dispirited.He can not attribute this feeling to any single event, he just not his normal upbeat self. Thisaffect state describes a mood.Emotional labor:- is defined as a situation in which an employee expresses organizationallydesired emotions during interpersonal transactions. The concept of emotional labor originallydeveloped in relation to service jobs. Airline flight attendants, for instance are expected to becheerful, funeral counselors sad, and doctors emotionally natural. Emotions can be separated into felt emotions and displayed emotions. Fell emotionsare individuals actual emotions. In contract, displayed emotions are those that areorganizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. They are not innate, theyare learned. Displayed emotions constitute emotional labor. Emotion Dimensions:-1) Variety:- Emotions can either be positive or negative. Positive emotions-like happiness and hope-express a favorable evaluation or feeling. Negative emotions- like anger or hate- express the opposite. But emotions can not be neutral. Being neutral is non emotional. Research has identified six universal disgust and surprise.2) Intensity:- People give different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli. In some cases this can be attributed to the individual’s personality. Other times it is a result of the job requirements. People vary in their inherent ability to express intensity. Some individuals almost nevershow their feelings. They rarely get angry. In contrast, some individuals seem to be on anemotional roller coaster. When they are happy, they are ecstatic. When they are sad, they aredeeply depressed.Frequency and duration:- Emotional labor that requires high frequency or long durations ismore demanding and requires more extraction by employees. So whether an employee can Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 30. Disha Institute of IT & Management successfully meet the emotional demands of a given job depends not only on what emotions need to be displayed and their intensity, but also on how frequently and for how long the effort has to be made. Gender and emotions:- Women are more ”in touch” with their feelings then men-that they react more emotionally and are better able to read emotions in others. Emotional Intelligence(EI):- EI refers to an assortment of non cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influences a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. It is composed of five dimensions. Self awareness:- Being aware of what you are feeling.Self Management: The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses.Self Motivation: The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures.Empathy: The ability to sense how others are feeling.Social Skills: The ability to handle emotions of others.Decision Making: Given the same objective data, we should expect that people may make thedifferent choices when they are angry and stressed out than when they are calm and collected. Negative emotions can result in limited search for new alternatives and a less vigilant useof information. On the other hand , positive emotions can increase problem- solving skills andfacilitate the integration of information.Motivation: People who are highly motivated in their work are , they are emotionally committed,People who are engaged in their work “ become physically , cognitively and emotionallyimmersed in the experience of activity , in the pursuit of goal.Leadership : Effective leaders almost all rely on the expression of feelings to help convey theirmessages. The expression of emotions in speeches are often the critical element that results inindividuals accepting or rejecting a leader’s message . When leaders feel exited, enthusiastic andactive , they may be more likely to engage their subordinates and convey a sense of efficacy,competence, optimism and enjoyment.Interpersonal Conflict : Whenever conflicts arise, one can be fairly certain that emotions are alsosurfacing. A manager’s success in trying to resolve conflict is often largely attributable to his orher ability to identify the emotional elements in the conflict and to get the conflicting parties towork through their emotions . The managers who ignores the emotional elements in the conflictsfocusing singularly on rational and task- focused concerns, is unlikely to be very effective inresolving those conflicts. Perception Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 31. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementPerception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their seniority impressions inorder to give meaning to their environment. Attribution theory is used to develop explanations of the ways in which we judgepeople differently, depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behaviour. Basically thetheory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behaviour we attempt to determine whetherit was internally or three caused. That determination depends largely on three factors: 1)Distinctiveness 2) Consensus 3) Consistency Internally caused behaviors are those believed to be under the personal control of theindividual. Externally caused behaviors is seen as resulting from outside causes, that is person isseen as having been forced into a behavior by the situation. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in differentsituations what is to be determined is whether this behavior is unusual. If it is, the observer islikely to five the behavior an external attribution. If this action is not unusual, it will probably bejudged as internal.If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say thebehavior shows consensus. Consistently refers to whether responds the same way over time. The more consistent thebehavior, the more the observes is inclined to attribute it to internal causes. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors canreside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, or in the contrast of the situation inwhich the perception is made. When an individual looks at the target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, thatinterpretation is heavily influenced by the personal characteristics of the individual perceiver.Personal characteristics that affect perception include a person’s attitudes, personality motives.Interests, past experiences and expectations. Characteristics of the target being observed can effect what is perceived. Local people aremore likely to be noticed in a group than quite ones. So, too ,are extremely , attractive individualsbecause targets are not looked at in isolation, the relationship of a target to its background alsoinfluences perception, as does our tendency to group close things and similar things together. The context in which we see objects or events is also important. The time at which object orevent is seen can influence attention as can location, light or any number of situational factors.Frequently used shortcuts in judging othersSelective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests,background experience and attribute. People perceive aspects of a situation that were specifically Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 32. Disha Institute of IT & Managementrelated to the activities and goals of the unit to which they are attached. A group’s perception oforganizational activities is selectively altered to align with the vested interests they represent.Halo Effect: Halo effect refers to drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis ofsingle characteristics such as intelligence, sociability or appearance.Contrast Effect: We don’t evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influencedby other person we have recently encountered. Contrast effect refers to evaluation of a person’scharacteristics that are affected by comparison with other people recently encountered who rankhigher or lower on the same characteristics.Projections: Projections refers to attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. People whoengage in projection tend to perceive others according to what they themselves are like rather thanaccording to what the person being observed is really like.Stereotyping: Stereotyping refers to judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of thegroup to which that person belongs.Specific Applications of Perception in Organizations Employment Interviews: Interviews generally draw early impressions that become very quicklyentrenched. If negative information is exposed early in the interview, it tends to be more heavilyweighted than if that same information comes out later. Most interviewers’ decisions change verylittle after the first four or five minutes of the interview. As a result, information elicited early inthe interview carries greater weight than does information elicited later, and a “good applicant” isprobably characterized more by the absence of unfavorable characterizes than by the presence offavorable characteristics.Performance Evaluation: An employee’s performance appraisal is very much dependent on theperceptual process. Many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Subjective measures are, by thedefination, judge mental. To the extend the managers use subjective measures in appraisingemployee, what the evaluator perceives to be good or bad employee characterizes or behaviors willsignificantly influence the outcome of the appraisal.GroupA group is defined as two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have cometogether to achieve particular objectives. Groups can either be formal or informal. Formal groupsare designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Informal groups are network ofpersonal and social relations not established or required by the formal organizations but arisingspontaneously as people associate with on another. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 33. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementGroups are further sub classified into command, task interest or friendship groups command andtasks groups are dictated by the formal organizations, while interest and friendship groups areinformal alliances.The organizational chart determines a command group. It is composed of individuals who reportdirectly to a given manager.Task group are also organizationally determined. Represents those working together to completethe job task. However, as task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchicalsuperior. It can cross command relationship. All command groups are also task group, but becausetasks groups can cut across the organization, the reverse needs not be true.Interest groups includes those working together to attain a specific objective with each isconcerned. Employees who band together to have their vacation schedules altered, to support topeer who has been forced, or to seek improvement in working conditions represents the formationsof unified body to further their common interests.Friendship groups are formed by those who share on or more common characters.People join groups for various reasons like:Security: By joining a group individuals can reduce the insecurity of standing alone. People feelstronger, have fewer self doubts, and more resistant to threats when they are part of the group.Status: Inclusions in a group that is viewed as important by others, provides recognition and statusfor its members.Self –esteem – Groups can provide people with feelings of self worth. That is , in additi9on toconveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worthto the group members themselves.Affiliation: Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interactions that come withgroup membership. For many people, these on – the job – interactions are their primary source forfulfilling their needs for affiliation.Power: what cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. Thereis power in numbers.Good achievements: There are a times it takes more than one person to accomplish a particulartasks- there is need to pool talents, knowledge or power in order to complete a job. In suchinstances, management will rely on the use of a formal group.Group generally pass through a standardizes sequence in three eruditions. Group passes throughfive stages in its developmental process. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 34. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementThe first stage forming is characterizes by as great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purposestructure and leadership. Members are “testing the waters” to determine what types of behavior areacceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of agroup.The storming stage is one of intra-group conflict. Members accept the existence of the group, butthere is resistance to the constraints that the group composes on the individuality .furthermore,relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.The third stage is one in which close relationship develops and the group demonstratescohesiveness. There is now a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. This forming stage iscomplete when the group structure solidifies and the group assimilated a common set ofexpectations of what defines correct member behavior.The fourth stage is performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Groupenergy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.For permanent work groups. Performing is the last stage in their development, however, fortemporary committees, team, and task forces. And similar groups that have a limited task toperform, there is an adjourning stage. In this stage, the group prepare for its disbandment. Hightask performance is no longer the group’s top priority. Instead, attention is directed towardswrapping up activities. Responses of group members vary in this stage. Some are upbeat, baskingin the group’s accomplishments. Other may be depressed over the loss of camaraderie andfriendship gained the work group’s life.Group structure: Work groups are not unorganized .They have structure that shapes thebehavior of members and makes it possible to explain and predict a large portion of individualbehavior within the group as well as the performance of the group itself. They include formalleadership, roles, norms, status, size and the degree of group cohesiveness.Formal leadership: Almost every group has a formal leader. He or she is typically identified bytitles such as unit or department managers, supervisors etc. This leader can play an important rolein the group success .Role: Role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given positionin a social unit. Different groups impose different role responsibilities on individuals.Role Perception: As individual‘s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.Role Expectation: How others believe a person should act in a given situation. How a personbelieve is determined to a large extend by the role defined in the context in which a person isacting.Role Conflict: When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations, the result is roleconflict. It exists when an individual finds compliance with one role requirement may make it Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 35. Disha Institute of IT & Managementmore difficult to comply with another. At the extreme, it would include situations in which two ormore role expectations are mutually contradictory.Norms: Norms are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’smembers. Norms tell members what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances.From an individual’s standpoint, they tell what is expected of a person in certain conditions. Whenagreed to and accepted by the group, norms act as a means of influencing the behavior of groupmember’s withy a minimum of external controls.Common Classes of Norms:a) Performance Norms: Most common classes of norms .Work groups provide their memberswith explicit cues on how hard they should they work, how to get job done , their level of output ,appropriate level of tardiness and the like.b) Appearance Norms: This includes things like appropriate dress, loyalty to the work group ororganization, when to look busy and when it is acceptable to goal off.Social Arrangements Norms: These norms come from informal work groups and primarilyregulate social interactions within the group. With whom group members eat lunch, friendships onand off the job; social games and the like are influenced by these norms.Allocation of Resources Norms: These norms cover things like pay, assignment of difficult jobsand allocation of new tools and equipments.Conformity: It refers to adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. As amember of a group, a person desire acceptance by the group. Because of his desire for acceptance,person is susceptible to conforming to the group norms. There is considerable evidence that groupscan place strong pressures on individual members to change their attributes and behavior toconform to the group’s standards.Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group’s members by others. Status isan important factor in understanding human behavior because it is a significant motivator and hasmajor behavioral consequences. When individuals perceive a disparity between what they believetheir status to be and what others perceive it to be.Composition: Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Group is diverse interms of personality, gender, age, education, functional specializations and experience. There is anincreased probability that the group will possess the needed characteristics to complete its taskseffectively. The group may be more conflict laden and less expedient as varied positions areintroduced and assimilated but the evidence generally supports the conclusion that heterogeneousgroups perform more effectively than do those that are homogenous. Essentially diversity Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 36. Disha Institute of IT & Managementpromotes homogenous. Essentially, diversity promotes conflict which stimulates creativity, whichleads to improved decision making.Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness refers to degree to which group members are attracted to each otherand are motivated to stay in the group. For instance, some work groups are cohesive because themembers have spent a great deal of time together, or the group small size of facilitates highinteraction or the group has experienced external threats that have brought the member together.Cohesiveness is important because is has been found to be related to the group’s productivity. Relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance- relatednorms established by the group. If performance related norms are high (for example high output,quality work , cooperation with individuals outside the group) a cohesive group will be moreproductive than will a less cohesive group.Factors that encourage group cohesiveness1) Make the group smaller2) Encourage agreement with group goals3Increase the time members spend together4) Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in thegroup.5) Stimulate competition with other groups.6) Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members.Group decision makingStrengths of Group Decision Making: Groups generate more complete information and knowledge.By aggregating the resources of several individuals, groups bring more input into the decisionprocess. In addition to more input, groups can bring heterogeneity to the decision process. Theyoffer increased diversity of views. This opens up the opportunity for more approaches andalternatives to be considered. The evidence indicates that a group will almost outperform even thebeat individuals. So groups generate high quality decisions. Finally, group lead to increasedacceptance of a solution .Many solutions fail after the final choice is made because people don’taccept the solution. Group members who participated in making a decision is likely toenthusiastically support the decision and encourage to accept it.Weakness of Group Decision Making: Group decision making is time consuming. They typicallytake more time to reach a solution than would be the case if individuals were making the decisionalone. There are conformity pressures in groups . The desire by group members to be acceptedand considered an asset to the group can result in squashing any overt disagreement. Groupdiscussion can be dominated by one or few members. If this dominant coalition is composed oflow and medium ability members, the group’s overall effectiveness will suffer. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 37. Disha Institute of IT & Management Finally, group decisions suffer from the ambiguous responsibility. In an individual decision,it’s clear who is accountable for the final outcome. In a group decision’ the responsibility of anysingle member is watered down.Effectiveness and efficiency: In terms of accuracy, group decisions will tend to be more accurate.However, if decision effectiveness is defined in terms of speed, individual decision making issuperior. Similarly, in terms of acceptance again group decision making is superior.Group Think: Group think is a phenomenon in which the norms for consensus override the realisticappraisal of alternative course of an action. It describes situations in which group pressures forconformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority or unpopular view.Individuals who hold a position that is different from that of the dominant majority are underpressure to suppress, withhold or modify their true feelings and beliefs. As a member of a group, aperson finds it more pleasant to be in agreement – to be a positive part of the group- than to be adisruptive force, even if disruptive force is necessary to improve the effectiveness of the group’sdecision.Symptoms of group think phenomenonMembers apply direct pressure on those who momentarily express doubts about any of the group’sshared views or those who question the validity of arguments supporting the alternative favored bythe majority.Members who have doubts or hold the different point of view seek to avoid deviating from whatappears to be group consensus by keeping silent about misgivings and even minimizing tothemselves the importance about their doubts.There appears to be an illusion of unanimity. If someone doesn’t speak, it’s assumed that he or sheis in a full accord. In other words, abstention becomes viewed as “yes” vote.Group Shift: A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decisionthat members within the group would make; can be either towards conservatism or greater risks. The group shift can be viewed as a special case of groupthink .The decision of the groupreflects the dominant decision- making norm that develops during the group’s discussion. Whetherthe shift in the group’s decision is towards greater caution or more risk depends on the dominantpre discussion norm.Group Decision Making TechniquesThe most common form of group decision making takes place in interacting groups. In thesegroups, members meet face to face on rely on both verbal and non verbal interaction tocommunicate with each other. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 38. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementBrain Storming: An ideal generating process that specifically encourage any or all alternativeswhile withholding any criticism of those alternatives .Brainstorming , however is merely a processfor generating ideas.Nominal Group Techniques: A group decision –making method in which individual members meetface to face to pool their judgment in a systematic but independent fashion. Specifically, a problemis presented and then the following steps take place:1) Members meet as a group but before any discussion takes place, each member independentlywrites down his or her ideas on the problem.After this silent period, each member presents an idea to the group. Each member takes his or herturn presenting a single idea until all ideas have been recorded. No discussion takes place until allideas have been presented.The group now discusses the idea for clarity and evaluates them.Each group member silently and independently rank-orders the ideas. The idea with the highestaggregate ranking determines the final decision.Electronics Meeting: A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing foranonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.ConflictConflict is defined as process that begins when one party perceives than another party hasaffected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. The parties to it must perceive conflict; whether or not the conflict exists is a perception issue.If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists. Conflict can either be functional or dysfunctional. Functional Conflicts supports the goals ofthe group and improves its performance. It is constructive in nature. Functional conflict can beeither a task conflict or process conflict. Task conflict is over the context and goals of the work.Process conflicts are over how work gets done. Dysfunctional conflicts hinder group performance. It is destructive in nature. It includesrelationship conflict, which is based on interpersonal relationships.There are various conflicts resolution techniques. These include: Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 39. Disha Institute of IT & Management1) Problem Solving: Face to face meeting of the conflicting parties for the purpose of identifyingthe problem and resolving it through open discussion.2) Super ordinate goals: Creating a shared goal that cannot be attained without the cooperation ofeach of the conflicting parties.3) Expansion of resources: When a conflict is caused by the scarcity of a resources- say –money.Promotion opportunities, office space- expansion of the resource can create win- win solutions.4) Avoidance: Withdraw from or suppression of, the conflict.5) Smoothing: Playing down differences while emphasizing common interest between theconflicting parties.6) Compromise: Each party to the conflicts gives up something of value.7) Authoritative Command: Management uses its formal authority to resolve the conflict and thencommunicates its desires to the parties involved.Altering the human variables: Using behavioral change technique such as human relations trainingto alter attitudes and behaviors that cause conflict.9_Altering the structural variables: Changing the formal organization structure and interactionpatterns of conflicting parties through job redesign, transfers, creation of coordination positionsand the like.In order to differentiate functional and dysfunctional conflict, it is necessary to look into type ofconflict. Specifically , there are three types: tasks relationship and processTask conflict : relates to the contents and goals of the workRelationship Conflict: focuses on interpersonal relationship.Process conflict relates to how work gets done.Studies demonstrate that relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. It appears that thefriction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashesand decrease mutual understanding which hinders the completion of organizational tasks. On theother hand, low level of process conflict and low to moderate level of tasks conflicts arefunctional.The conflict processThe conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages (1) potential opposition orincompatibility (2) Cognition and personalization (3) intentions (4) Behavior (5) Outcome.Potential opposition or incompatibility: The first step in the conflict process is the presence onconditions that create opportunities for conflict to rise. These cause or create opportunities for Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 40. Disha Institute of IT & Managementconflict to rise. These causes or sources of conflict have been condenses into three generalcategories(1)Communications (2) Structure (3) Personal Variables.(1)Communications: Different words connotations, jargon insufficient exchange of informationand noise in communication channel are all antecedent conditions to conflict. Too muchcommunication as well as too little communication can rely foundation for conflict.(2)Structure: The term structure is used, in this context to include variables such as size, degree ofspecialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, members/ goalcompatibility, leadership styles, reward systems and the degree of dependence between groups.The size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. The larger the group and the morespecialized its activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict. Tenure and conflict have been foundto be inversely related,. The potential for conflicts tends to be greatest when group members areyounger and when turnover is high. The greater the ambiguity in defining where responsibility foraction lies, the greater the potential for conflict to emerge. Such Jurisdictional ambiguity increasesinter group fighting for control or resources and territory.(3)Personal Variables: Certain personality types- for example individuals who are highlyauthoritarian and dogmatic- lead to potential conflict. Another reason for conflict is difference invalue systems. Value differences are the best explanations of diverse issues such as prejudicedisagreements over one’s contribution to the group and rewards one deserves.Stage 2) Cognition and personalization: conflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether ornot conflict exists is a perception issue. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreedthat no conflict exists. Because conflict is perceives does not mean that is personalized. For e.g. ”A may be aware that B and A are in serious disagreements but it may not make A tense or nationsand it may have no effect whatsoever on A’s affection towards B” It is the felt level , whenindividuals become emotionally involved that parties experience anxiety , tension or hostility. Stage2 is the place in the process where the parties decide what the conflict is about andemotions plays a major role in shaping perception.Stage3 Intentions: Intentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene betweenpeople’s perception and emotions and their overt behavior. Using two dimensions cooperativeness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy theother party’s concerns)and assertiveness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his orher own concerns)- five conflict handling intentions can be identified.1) Competing: when one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impacton the other parties to the conflict, he is competing.2) Collaborating: A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully theconcerns of all the parties. In collaborating, the intention o the parties are to solve the problem byclarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 41. Disha Institute of IT & Management3) Avoiding: a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it orsuppress it. Avoiding included trying to just ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom youdisagree.4) Accommodating: The willingness of one partying a conflict top lace the opponent’s interestabove his or her own.5) Compromising: A situation in which each party to a conflict is wiling to give up something.Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. They define each party’spurpose. Yet people intention is not fixed. During the course of conflict, they might changebecause of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction to the behavior of other party.Stage 4: Behavior: This is a stage where conflict becomes visible. The behavior stage includes thestatements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors areusually overt attempt to implement each party’s intentions.Stage 5 Outcomes: The action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result inconsequences. These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement inthe group’s performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance.Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions simulates creativity andinnovations encourages interest and curiosity among group members provides the medium throughwhich problems can be aired and tensions released and fosters an environment of self evaluationand change. Conflict is dysfunctional when uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts todissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Among the moreundesirable consequences are a retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness andsubordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members.4) People orientation: The degree to which management decisions take into consideration theeffect of outcomes on people within the organization.5) Team orientation: The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather thanindividuals.6) Aggressiveness: The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.7) Stability: The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo incontrast to growth. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 42. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementOrganizational culture is concerned with how employees perceive the characteristics of anorganizational culture, not with whether or not they like them. That is, it’s a descriptive term.In contrast, job satisfaction seeks to measures affective responses to the work environment. It isconcerned with how employees feel about the organizational‘s expectations, rewards practices andthe like. Although the tow terms, organizational culture and the job satisfaction are overlapping,organizational culture is descriptive, while job satisfaction is evaluative.Most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous set of subcultures.Dominant cultures: expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organizationalmembers.Sub cultures: are mini cultures within an organizational, typically defined by departmentdesignations and geographical separations. Subcultures tend to develop in large organizations toreflect common problems, situations or experience that member face.Creating and Sustaining CultureBeginning of Culture: The founders of the organization rationally have a major impact on thatorganization’s early culture. An organization’s current customs, traditions and general way ofdoing things are largely due to what it has done before and the degree of success it has had withthose endeavors.Top Management: The actions of top management also have a major impact on the organization’sculture. Though what they say and how they behave, seniors executives establish norms that filterdown through the organization as to whether risk taking is desirable, how much freedom managersshould give their employers, what is appropriate dress, what actions will pay off in terms of payrises, promotions and other rewards and the like.Selection: The explicit goal of the selection process is to identifying and hires individuals whohave the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform the jobs within the organization successfully.The final decision is to who is hired will be significantly influenced by the decision maker’sjudgment of how well the candidate will fit into the organization. This results in the hiring ofpeople who have values essentially consistent with those of the organization or at least goodportion of those values. WORK TEAMSGroup is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who havecome together to achieve particular objectives. Work group is a group that interactsprimarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility.Work Team:- Work team is defined as a group whose individual efforts results in aperformance that is greater then the sum of the individual inputs. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 43. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementManagement looks for positive synergy that will allow their organization to increaseperformance. The extensive use of teams create the potential for an organization togenerate greater outputs with increase in inputs.Four most common types of work teams found in the organization:- 1) Problem solvingteams ii) Self managed work teams iii) Cross functional teams and iv) Virtual teams 1) Problems Solving Teams:- Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment. Rarely, however, are these teams given the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggested actions. 2) Self Managed work teams:- Are group of employees 10 to 15 who performs highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. Typically this includes planning and scheduling of work, assigning tasks to members, taking action on problems, and working with suppliers and customers. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each others performances. As a result, supervisory positions take on decreased importance and many even be eliminated. 3) Cross functional teams:- Employees from about the same hierarchical level but from different work areas who come together to accomplish a task. 4) Virtual teams:- Teams that use computers to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from face to face teams are 1) The absence of preverbal and non verbal cues. 2) Limited social context 3) The ability to overcome time and space constrains. The key components making up effective teams can be subsumed into four general categories:- 1) Work design:- Effective teams need to work together and take collective responsibility to complete significant tasks. The work design category includes variables lake freedom and autonomy, the opportunity to use different skills and talents, the ability to complete a whole and identifiable task or product and working on a task or project that has a substantial impact on others. 2) Composition:- This category includes variables that related to how teams should be staffed. It includes the ability and personality of team members, allocating roles and diversity, size of the team, member’s flexibility and member’s preference for team work. a) Ability of members:- To perform effectively, a team requires three different types of skills. First it need people with technical skills, second, people with problem solving and decision making skills and finally people with good listening, feedback conflict resolution and other interpersonal skills. b) Personality:- Personality of members has a significant influence on the individual employee behavior. This can also be extended to team behavior. Hence, five basic dimensions i.e. extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness; emotional stability and openness to experience are relevant for the success of a work team. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 44. Disha Institute of IT & Management c) Allocating roles and diversity:- Nine potential team roles have been identified. These are:- 1) Organizer(Provides structure) 2) Producer(Provide direction and follow through) 3) Controller(Examines details and enforce rules) 4) Maintainer(Fights external batter) 5) Advisor(Encourages the search for more information) 6) Linker(Coordinates and integrates) 7) Creator (Initiates creative ideas) 8) Promoter (Champions ideas after they are initiated) 9) Assessor (offers insightful analysis of options)Successful work teams have people to fill all these roles and have selected people to play in theseroles based on their skills and preferences. d) Size of teams:- Ideally a team should have seven to nine people. Generally speaking, the most effective teams have fewer then 10 people.Minimum four to five members may be necessary to develop diversity of views and skills. Whenteams have excess members, cohesiveness and mutual accountability declines, social loafingincreases and more and more people do less, talking more with others. e) Member flexibility:- Teams made up of flexible individuals have members who can complete each others tasks. This makes it less reliant on any single member. f) Member preference:- Not every employee is a team player. When people who would prefer to work alone are required to team-up, there is a direct threat to the team’s moral and to individual member satisfaction. Hence when selecting team members individual preferences should be considered. iv) Context:- Four contextual factors that appear to be most significantly related to team performance are the presence of adequate resources; effective leadership, a climate of trust end a performance and reward system that reflects team contribution. v) Process:- The final category related to effectiveness is process variables. These include member commitment to a common purpose, establishment of special team goal, team efficacy, a managed level of conflict and minimizing social loading. SHOPING TEAM PLAYERS 1) Section:- Many job candidates do not have team skills. This is especially true for those socialized around individual contributions. When faced with such candidates, managers basically have three options-The candidates should undergo training to “make them into team players”. If this is not possible or don’t work, the other two options are to transfer the individuals to another unit within the organization without teams or do not hire the candidate. 2) Training:- Training specialists conduct exercises that allow employees to experience the satisfaction that team work can provide. They typically offer work shops to help employees improve their problems- solving, communication, negotiation, conflict management and coaching skills. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 45. Disha Institute of IT & Management 3) Rewards:- The reward system needs to be reworked to encourage cooperative efforts rather then competitive ones. Promotion, pay raises and other forms of recognition should be given to individuals for how effective they are as a collaborative team member. The individual contributions have to be balanced with selfless contribution to the team. Ex. New colleagues sharing information with teammates helping to resolve team conflict and mastering new skills that team needs but in which it is deficient. STRESS Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity,constrains or demand related to what he/she desired and for which the outcome is perceived to beboth uncertain an important. Stress is associated with constrains and demand. The former preventone from doing what one desire. The latter refers to the loss of something desiredTwo conditions are necessary for potential stress to become actual stress. There must beuncertainty over the outcome and the outcome must be important. The stress is highest forindividual who perceive that they are uncertain as to whether they will win or loss and lowest forindividuals who think that winning or losing is a certainty. But importance is also critical. Ifwinning or losing is an unimportant outcome, there is no stress.Three sets of factor a) environmental b) organizational and c) individual that act as potential actualof stress. Whether they become actual stress depends on individual differences such as jobexperiences and personality when is experienced an individual, its symptoms can surface asphysiological and behavioral outcomes. a) Environmental factors:- just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an organization’s structure, it also changes in the business cycle create economic uncertainties. When company B is contractive, for ex. People become increasingly anxious about their job security. Similarly political instability is a cause of stress. Political crisis like civil war, riots, hostilities with neighboring countries etc can lead to stress. Technology uncertainties are a third type of environment factor that can cause stress. New innovations can make employee skills and experience obsolete in a very short time, computers, robotics, automation and similar forms of technology innovations are a threat to many people many cause them stress. b) Organizational factors:- Organizational factors that cause stress include task leadership. Task demands, organizational structure and organizational leadership. Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. They include the design of individual’s job, working conditions and physical work layout. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he/she plays in the organization. Role conflicts create expectations that may be herd to reconcile or satisfy. Role overload is experienced when there employee is expected to do more then time permits. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization, the degree of rules and regulation and where decision is made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decisions that might be potential sources of stress. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :
  • 46. Disha Institute of IT & ManagementOrganizational leadership represents the managerial style of the organization’s seniormanagers. One chief executive officer’s create a cultural characterized by tension, fear.Individuals perform better when they have specific and challenging goals and receivefeedback on how well they are progressive towards these goals. The use of goals canreduce stress as well as provide motivation.Role stress is detrimental to large extend because employees feel uncertain about goals,how they will be evaluated and the like. By giving the employees a voice in decisionsthat directly affect their job performance, managers can increased employee control andreduce this role stress. So managers should consider increasing employee involvementin decision making.Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertaintyby lessening role ambiguity and role conflict. Given the importance that perceptionsplay in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also use effectivecommunications as a means to shape employee perception. Disha Institute of IT & Management Delhi Office: +91-11-65238118,65238119 Bahadurgarh Office : 01276-324593,232700,232800 E-mail :