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UNIT – III (OB) Foundations of Group Behaviour“Whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”Individuals and groups constitute the human resource foundations of organizations.A Group is “a collection of two or more interaction individuals with a stable pattern ofrelationships between them, who share common goals and who perceive themselves asbeing a group.”Thus, Group Characteristics are:INTERACTION AMONG MEMBERSSHAREDD GOALSPEOPLE SEE THEMSELVES AS MEMBERS GROUPTWO OR MORE PEOPLE TYPES OF GROUP(I) FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure.A distinctive stature of formal groups is that a hierarchy of authority exists with specifiedmember rules & regulations.These are two main types: i) COMMAND GROUPS: The manager and his or her immediate subordinates. ii) TASK GROUPS: Those working together to complete a job task AN INFORMAL GROUP, also called a clique, relates to natural formations in the work environment which appear in response to the need for social contract.(II) INTERACTING, COACTING AND COUNTER ACTING GROUPS:In an interacting groups the work of one group member is contingent upon that of theothers. Ex: ASSEMBLY LINE WORKERSIn co-acting groups, the work of individual group members is independent, such as job-shop operations.Counter-acting groups are those that interact to reconcile mutual differences such aslabour-management negotiating techniques.(III) OPEN AND CLOSED GROUPS These are two extreme points at one end is open group, which is in a constant state of change while in closed group, it is quite stable.
(IV) MEMBERSHIP AND REFERENCE GROUPS: Membership groups are those to which the individual actually belongs, while Reference groups is the one with which one identifies or would like to belong. (V) IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS The group to which one belong are in groups, and groups to which they do not are out- groups, especially if they look upon them with certain amount of antagonism. Why do people join groups? There is no single reason why people join groups. Since most individuals belong to different groups, So they have different attractions towards these. MOST POPULAR REASONS: Proximity, Interaction & Influence Security Esteem Affiliation Power Identity Huddling. Determinants of Group Behaviour. Group Task Performance Group Member Group And Resources Processes Satisfaction. .ExternalConditionsImposed onGroups Group Structure
Explanation:-Several variables influence GroupPerformance and satisfactionExternal ConditionsA Group is a Subsystem of a formal organization. All elements of the Organisation willhave their influence on a group such elements includeORGANIZATION STRATEGYAUTHORITY STRUCTURESFORMAL REGULATIONSORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCESPROCUREMENT OF PERSONNELPERFORMANCE APPRAISAL $ REWARD SYSTEMORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREPHYSICAL WORK SETTING GROUP MEMBER RESOURCESGroup performance depends, to a considerable extent, on the member resources. Itcomprises: • ABILITIES OF MANAGERS • PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS GROUP STRUCTUREWork groups are organized systems they have a structure that shapes the behaviour ofmembers and makes it possible to explain and predict a large portion of individualbehaviour within a group as well as of group’s performance.It include:LEADERSHIPINTERPERSONAL COMPATIBLITYROLESSTATUS CONGRUENCEGROUP SIZE
GROUP PROCESSYet another variable in the group behaviour model is group process.Group processes refer to the communication patterns used by members for informationexchanges, group decision processes, leader behaviour etc. GROUP TASKSGroups facilitate organizational task accomplishment.Group performance depends on the type of task it is involved inTypes of Tasks: 1) On the basis of time frame: Short term & long-term Routine 2) Task Requirements Complex 3) Task Objectives. GROUP DEVELOPMENTGroups are formed and developed through several stages.The process of developing a feaur group form a group of strangers to a unit of cohesiveand well coordinated teaur members requires time and a great deal of intersection amonggroup members. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT: PRE-STAGE O O O O OFORMING-I STORMING-II O O O O O O O O O O
Performing -V NORMING-III O O O OADJOURNING-V There is an alternative theory of group development New Task Mutual New Members Acceptance Control and Communication and Organization Decision Making STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Motivation and Productivity GROUP NORMS
Group norms are a set of beliefs, feelings and attitudes commonly shared by groupmembers.These are also referred to as rules & standards of behaviour that apply to group members.Norms serve three functions in groups: - Predictive - Control - Rational.As first, norms provide a basis for understanding behaviour of others Second, norms regulate the behaviour of members. Finally, some norms define relationships among roles. HOW DO NORMS DEVELOP?Carry over from Primacy first behavioralOther experiences Precedents GROUP NORMExplicit S CriticalStatements from leaders Events inOr members. Group’s history Why are norms strongly enforced?Once norms are established, they are enforced on members particularly when these helpgroups meet their twin aims of performing successfully and keeping morale high. - Group success - Reflect preferences of supervisor - Predict behaviour expected - Avoid embarrassing interpersonal GROUP COHESIVENESS
A characteristic feature of groups which is particularly important for the behaviour oftheir members is COHESIVENESS Extent to which the members are attracted to eachother.It is the degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of agroup.SOURCES OF COHESIVENESS:-Group cohesiveness can be affected by factors: • INTERACTION • THREAT • SEVERITY OF INITIATION • CO-OPERATION • SHARED GOALS • ATTITUDES $ VALUES • SIZE CONSEQUENCES OF GROUP COHESIVENESSThese are both positive & negative.+VE Increased morale in cohesive groups. Next is, its effect on productivity. Easy communication flow in such a group. Conformity and Influence are the benefits of cohesive groups.-VE Group think is a biggest problem. Lower productivity is crucial when performance norms are low. DECISION – MAKING IN GROUPS:-One of the Key activities in which group members engage is the making of decisions. MEANING OF DECISION MAKING:-Decision making is the process of choosing a course of action froms among alternativesIt is important to understand decision making process in the organizational behaviourbecause choice processes play a vital role in communication, motivation, leadership, andother aspects of individual, group and organizational interfaces. DECISION MAKING PROCESS
DIGNOSE THE PROBLEM DEVELOP ALTERNATIVS EVALUATE ALTERNATIVES AND SELECT THE BEST ONE IMPLEMENTING AND MONITORINGDECISION MAKING STYLES:- Managers exhibit different styles as decision makers. These are observed at two stages: (a) DIAGNOSING THE PROBLEM It involves two styles: SENSATION TYPES INTUITIVE TYPES (b) EVALUATIONOF THE ALTERNATIVES Thinking types. Feeling types HOW DO GROUPS MAKE DICESIONS Decision by lack of response Decision by authority rule Decision by minority Decision by majority rule Decision by consensus Decision by unanimity ADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING:1} Greater knowledge base for problem solving.2} Greater number of approaches available to a problem.3} Group allows increased participation of people.4} Better understanding of final decision. DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING:
1) More time consuming. 2) A social pressure to conform. 3) Dominate nature of a member. 4) Group decisions are sometimes. UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMSWhat it is a team?A team is a small number of people with complimentary skills who are committed to acommon purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they holdthemselves mutually accountable.Teams are also known by other teams such as empowered teams, self-directed teams andself-management teams.So, A team includes few people, same as a small group, because the interaction andinfluence processes, vital for a team to function, when the number of members are small. FEATURERS OF TEAM They are empowered to share various management and leadership functions. They plan, control and improve their own work processes. They set their own goals and inspect their own work. They after create their own schedules and review their performance as a group. They usually order materials, keep inventorus and deal with suppliers. They are frequently responsible for acquiring any new training they might need. TEAMS V/S GROUPS1] Ina group, work performance typically depends on the work of individuals while in a team, it depends on both individual contributions and collective efforts of team members.2] In a group it is individual performance and then leader is accountable. While in a team, the entire team is accountable.3] Group members may share a common goal, but team members share a common commitment to purpose. BENEFITS OF TEAMSSeveral benefits accrue to organization from teams. THE PROMINENT ONES ARE Enhanced performance. Employee benefits. Cost Reduction Organizational Entrancements. (Which includes increased innovation, creativity and flexibility).Empowered teams are catching on among Indian managers titan, Reliance, ABB, TataInformation system. TYPES OF TEAMSThe wide spread popularity, has led to the success and stay of teams.
WORK TEAMS:- These are primarily concerned with the work done by the organizationsuch as developing and manufacturing new products.PROBLEM-SOLVING TEAMS:- These are temporary teams established to attackspecific problems in work place. After solving the problem, the team is usuallydisbanded. MANAGEMENT TEAMS:These consist of managers from various areas and coordinate work teams. They arerelatively permanent because their work does not end with the completion of a particularproject or the resolution of a problem.VIRTUAL TEAMS: These are the teams that may never actually meet together in thesame room-their activities take place on the computer via teleconferring and otherelectronic information system.Implementing teams in OrganizationsCreating teams is no easy task Forming a team requires the right combination of skilledpeople and individuals who are willing to work together with others as a team. PROVIDE ONGOING ASSISTANCE FORM AND BUILD THE TEAM CREATE PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS MAKING THE DECISION PHASES IN CREATING TEAMSPOWER $ POLITICS:
Power is understood as the ability to influence other people and events. According towhite and Bednar, “Power is the ability”, “to influence people or things, usually obtainedthrough the control of important resources.”This Implies:- (1) A potential that need not be actualized to be effective. (2) A dependent relationship. (3) The assumption that the second party has some discretion over his or her own behaviour.POWER DYNAMICS:-The dynamics of power can be studied from several angles.DISTRIBUTION:- • There is no rational in the distribution of power among organizational members. [Some may yield more power than others] • An individual cannot have power at all times and at all places.DEPENDANCY:-The greater the dependency of an orgn on a limited number of individuals, the greater thepower these individuals enjoy.UNCERTAINTY:-Organisation seeks to avoid uncertainty as far as possible. People who can absorbuncertainty wield more power.COMPLIANCE:-Compliance element of dynamics of power can be described as:Of all the types of power, people generally comply with legitimate power.POWER INDICATORS:-It is difficult to tell when power is being used. Those who use power usually do not wantothers to know about it. People tend to resist the use of power when they see themselvesbeing influenced in a way that is contrary to their own destines.DETERMINANTS OF POWER:- (Expertise)(Individuals who possess better knowledge and expertise can exert better influence insituations where their knowledge is important)REWARD POWER. COERCIVE POWER. REFERENT POWER. LEGITIMATE POWER. EXPERT POWER.CONSEQUENCES OF POWER:-The distribution of power can also be assessed by examining the consequences of adecision making power. Budget allocations. Win – Loss record in debated issues. Ability to authorize exceptions to policy. Authority to hire and fire others.
SYMBOLS:-Examining how many symbols of power they possess can assess the power of differentindividuals. Symbols include such thins as titles, office, size, location, furnishings etc.REPUTATION:-Another way of assessing power in organization is to ask members of the organizationwho possess the greatest power or exerts the greatest influence.BASES OF POWER:- Where does power come from? Why can some individuals prevail upon others in the allocation of resources or in the hiring and promotion of personal friends?Answer to all these is that power can be derived from five sources:Reward powerCoercive powerLegitimate powerReferent powerExpert powerACQUISITION OF POWER:-It is everybody’s knowledge that some people enjoy more power than others.They do so by:-DOING THE RIGHT THINGSEXTRAORDINARY ACTIVITIESVISIBLE ACTIVITIESRELEVANT ACTIVITIESCULTIVATION THE RIGHT PEOPLESUPERIORSSUBORDINATESPEERSCOALESCINGCO-OPTINGPOLITICS:-Closely related to power is politics relates to the ways people gain and use pwer inorganizations.DEFINITION:-Politics or political behaviour in organ is that it “refers to those activities that are notrequired as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but the influence, or attempt toinfluence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.”IMPLICATIONS OF THIS DEFINITUION:-
(1) Political Behaviour is outside one’s specified job requirements. (2) Efforts to influence the goals, criteria, or processes used for decision making that will result in the distribution of advantages & disadvantages in the organisation. POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR LEGITIMATE ILLEGITIMATEFirst includes normal everyday politics complaining to one’s superiors, formingcoalitions etc.Second includes the behaviour which is extreme and violate the implied “ of the game”.POLITICAL STRATEGIES:-There are several political strategies the individuals and submits who want to exhibitpolitical behaviors can select from a long list of strategies.WHICH STRATEGY IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE DEPENDS ON THESITUATION. Control The Agenda Select The Criteria For Making Decisions Control Access To Information Use Of Outside Experts Control Access To Influential People Form A Coalition Co-Opt The Opposition Manipulate Symbols By Re-Defining ThemFUNCTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS:-Organization, is the collection of individuals who pursue individual as well as commongoals. It is a network of individuals with widely different interests attempting to deal witha host of inconsistent demands from within and outside the organisation.Organizational polities helps these people to adapt and helps the organization to succeedin ways that the formal structure alone cannot.FUNCTIONS:- Overcome personnel inadequacies Copy with change Channel personnel contacts Substitute for formal authority
ETHICS OF POWER AND POLITICS:-Discussion of power and politics is incomplete without Ethics. USE OF POWER POLITICAL NON-POLITICALPower is non-political in use, when it remains within the boundaries of formal authority,Organizational policy& procedures. Shile, when the use of power moves outside therealm of authority, policies & procedures-is directed towards and not sanctioned by theorganization.E Ethics needs to be included.A person’s behaviour must satisfy 3 criteria Criterion of utilitarian outcomes Criterion of individual rights Criterion of distributiveIMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION.:-Power and politics are inevitable concomitants of coary organizations. It has bothfunctional & dysfunctional roles.Example: Expert power has have influon employee’s performance & satisfaction. Itprovides an ideological framework to an organization for determining the allocation,distribution & maintenance. But, it may also weaken morale, demotivate the employees,victims & victors. LIMITING THE EFFECTS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR:- CONSTRAINING STRATEGY • Open CommunicationPOLITICAL • Reduction of EFFECTS OFBEHAVIOUR Uncertainty POLITICAL • Awareness BEHAVIOUR • Role Model • Watch on game
CONFLICT“An Organisation is more stable if members have the right to express their differencesand solve their conflicts within it.” -MACHIAVELLICONFLICT:-Conflict is a part of everyday life of an individual or of an organization. It hasconsiderable influence on employee behaviour performance and satisfaction.NATURE OF CONFLICT:-Conflict may be understood as collision or disagreement Conflict may be Within an individual when there is incompatibility between his own goals or events. Interpersonal Conflict. May be between two individuals. (when one does not see eye to eye with another) Interpersonal Conflict Or in the process; between different groups in an OrganizationCONFLICT IN THE WORDS OF: CHUNG AND MEGGINSON:-“ The Struggle Between Incompatible Or opposing needs, wishes, ideas, interests, orPeople. Conflict Arises When Individuals Or Groups Encounter Goals That Both PartiesCannot Obtain Satisfactorily”.FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT:-FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT:- It refers to confrontation between two ideas, goals andparties that improve employees and the organization’s performance.Well managed conflict helps workers anticipate and solve problems.Construction conflict is crucial for effective functioning of organization like:- Conflict increases awareness of what problem actually exists Conflict motivates organizational members to consider problems by giving them a focus. Conflict promotes change. Conflict enhances morale & cohesion Conflict stimulates interest & Creativity. It adds to the fun of working with others.
There is a relationship between Conflict and Organizational performanceORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IS low when conflict is extremely high orlow. HIGH B ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE A C LOW LOW Level of Conflict HIGHDYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT:Conflict is inevitable in organizations. But without an effective means for handling it, itcan tear relationships apart and interfere with the exchange of ideas, information etc.THE PROCESS OF CONLICTStage I Stage II Stage III Stage IVPotential Cognition Behaviour Outcomeopposition Perceived Increased Conflict group PerformanceReasons for OvertConflict ConflictExist Felt Decreased Conflict group performance
LEVELS OF CONFLICT: Intra – Individual Conflict Intra – Individual Conflict Inter – Group Conflict.INTRA – INDIVIDUAL CONFLICTIe Conflict within an individual it arises from:-FrustrationNumerous roles demanding equal attentionGoals.Conflict from Frustration – arises when a motivated drive is blocked before a personreaches a desired goals and it may be in any formAGGRESSIONWITHDRAWLFIXATIONCOMPROMISEGoal Conflict – It is more complex than from frustration it takes these forms.1} Approach – approach conflict2} Approach – avoidance conflict3} Avoidance – avoidance conflict. + Perso +Perso + Perso
INTER – PERSONAL CONFLICTInter individual conflict occurs between two individuals in an Organisation. It arisesmainly because of differences in perception, temperaments, personalities, value systems,socio – cultural factors –role ambiguities.The phenomenon of inter – personal conflict can be explained as :-TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSISJOHARI WINDOWSTROKINGLIFE POSITIONS.TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:-When two people interact with each other there results a social transaction Analysis ofthe social transactions is called the transactional AnalysisFormally; transactional Analysis (TA) is “ The study of moves people make in theirdealings with each other and is based on the idea that people’s interactions resemblemoves in games.”EGO STATES:-Basic to TA is the assumption that a person has three ego states. PARENT EGO ADULT EGO CHILD EGOThe parent EGO State:- Represents the part of a person’s personality that is authoritative,over protective, murmuring ie _____________ “taught” ego state.The adult ego state:- Represents the nature, rational and objective part of person’spersonality ie______________ “thinking “ego state.The child ego state:- Represents the childish, dependent, and immature part of a person’spersonality. Ie _____________ “felt” ego state.Social transactions:-According to Berne, people interact with each other from the child, adult or parent egostate. Depending upon the kinds of ego states involved, the interaction can be.
v P P P P P P S A A A A A A R R C C C C C C COMPLIMENTARY CROSSED ULTERIOR Transactions JOHARI WINDOWDeveloped by Joseph Luft, this model is highly useful in analyzing the causes forinterpersonal conflict. The person knows The person does not About others Know about othersThe person knows About himself Or OPENSELF HIDDEN SELF HerselfThe person doesNot know about BLIND SELF UNDISCOVERED Himself SELF Or Herself.OPEN SELF – PUBLIC AREAHIDDEN SELF – PRIVATE OR SECRET AREABLIND SELF - BLIND AREAUNDISCOVERED – DARK AREA LIFE POSITIONS
Each of the individual tends to exhibit one of four life positions.The life positions influences one behaviour when they interact with others.Life position stems from a combination of two viewpoints. 1) How people view themselves. 2) How do they view other people in general. Positive I am ok you are not I am ok you are ok ok Negative I am not ok you are I am not ok you are not ok not ok Negative Positive STROKINGIt refers to recognition of one’s presence by others.Strokes may be positive or negative. The stroke that makes one feel cheerful is a positivestroke.Like: - Words of recognition, affection, cuddling, pat on the back, pleasant smile.Criticism, hatred and & cold are examples of negative strokes.People need strokes, mainly positive ones, but not always. In the absence of positivestrokes, people seek negative strokes, mainly because of quilt or lack of self-image. INTER – GROUP CONFLICTInter group conflict, also called organizational conflict refers to the conflict between twogroups, departments, or sections in an organization.The reasons for inter – group conflict are:- 1) Task Inter – dependence 2) Goal Incompatibility 3) Competition for limited Resources 4) Competitive Reward systems 5) Line and staff 6) Intra personal and Inter – personal conflicts.
NegotiationWallton and Mckersie have defined negotiation “as the deliberate interaction of two ormore social units in an attempt to reach a jointly acceptable position on some conflictingissues ”A little more complicity is involved when two people, such an employee and manager, sitdown to decide on personal performance goals for the next year against which theemployees performance will be measured. Even more complex are the negotiation thattake place between labour unions and management of a company, or between twocompanies as they negotiate the term of a joint-venture.In modern organization, negotiation process is commonly used for resolving differences,allocating resources and taking other decision. Negotiation, in fact is a decision makingprocess among interdependent parties who do not share identical preferences.Bargaining may be of two types:-Distributive & integrativeTraditional or distribution bargaining is concerned with the distribution of benefits eg:wages, commission etc.Integrative bargaining, on the other hand is covered with subjects of group mutualinterest to both parties and typically involves a problem-solving mode of reconcilingconflicts.Ex:-issues of integrative bargaining are allocation of work resources and loads, design ofinteresting job, provision for greater employee control.Integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates cooperation betweenthe parties, it bonds negotiators and allows each to leave the bargaining table feeling thathe has achieved a victory.NEGOTIATION SKILL AND STRATEGIES:-The traditional approach to negotiation has been of “win-lose” type becauseit was assumed that gain by one party is the loss of the other.Both the parties compromise is each agrees to give up something of value to the other.But the modern approach calls for “win-win” solution to the problems between theparties. It can be done by conformation of the issues and the use of the spirit of problem solving to reconcile difference.