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  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis assignment is related to organizational behaviour .itis the best feature of RAI BUSINESS SCHOOL that thefaculty of this college is very sincere to assign a project.that is related to enhance the knowledge of studentsWe want to give a lot of thanks Ms. Shruti Sharma whoassign us a very good project that is beneficial for MBA SEM-2ND SEC-B MANISH KUMAR PRIYANKA GODARA RAVI SHANKAR RUPESH KUMAR SHALENDRA KUMAR SUNITA RANI 2
  • 3. Content1. MOTIVATION CONCEPT--------------------------------------------------------- 4-16 A. Meaning& definition of motivation------------4-4 B. Features of motivation.--------------------------4-5 C. Importance of motivation.-----------------------5-5 D. Types of motivation.-----------------------------5-6 E. Objectives of motivation-------------------------6-6 F. Motivation theory.--------------------------------6-16  Maslow’s need hierarchy theory-----9-10  Mc.grer Motivation theory.----------11-12  Herberg Motivation theory---------12-13  Vroom’s Motivation theory.---------13-14  E.R.G.theory.---------------------------14-142. APPLICATION OF CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION-------------------------14-16 A. Money.-------------------------------------------------16-17 B. Job design.----------------------------------------------17-18 C. Participative management----------------------------18-20 D. Behaviour modification and others------------------21-243. CORPORATE EXAMPLE. ----------------------------------------------------------24-264. SUMMARY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------26-275. CONCLUSION -------------------------------------------------------------------------28-286. BIBILOGRAPHY-----------------------------------------------------------------------29-29 . 3
  • 4. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION MEANING OF MOTIVATION:- Motivation is derived from `motive`, means the idea, need, emotion or organicstate, which prompts a man to an action. Motive is an internal factor that integrates a mans behaviour. As the motive is within the individual, it is necessary to study his needs, emotions, etc. in order to motive him to work. There are so manyinducing factors, which influence the human behaviour and induce him for the best performance to meet his need and emotions. A strong positive motivation will enable the increased output ofemployee and a negative motivation will reduce their performance. The success ofan organization depends not only on technical expertise but also on the interest ofthe workers. As management is an art of getting work done by the people, butgetting work done is not an easy task for the management, there are so manyproblems in this process because it is an organizational behaviour that affects theworking of people. So management must know why people act, as they do notknow what will make them to give best on the job. The only answer of thesequestions is an act of motivation.DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION:- "Motivation can be defined as a willingness tospend energy to achieve a goal or a reward." DALE.S.BEACHFEATURES OF MOTIVATION:-1. MOTIVATION IS A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPT:- Motivation is aninducement of inner feeling of an individual and it cannot be forced upon fromoutside.2. MOTIVATION IS SYSTEM ORIENTED:- Motivation is the result of inneractions among three types of forces: An Individual, the organization, Externalenvironment.3. MOTIVATION CAN BE POSITIVE OR NAGITIVE:- Positive motivationimplies use of incentive such as increase in pay, reward, promotion etc. andnegative motivation emphasis on penalties.4. MOTIVATION IS AN UNENDING PROCESS:- Satisfaction of wants is anunending process so motivation is also an unending process.5. MOTIVATION LEEDS TO JOB SATISFACTION:- Motivation is the processwhereas job satisfaction is the outcome or consequence. 4
  • 5. 6. MOTIVATION IS THE DEGREE OF READNESS:- When an employee ismotivated, he takes all incentive and willing come forward to accept any challengeand responsibility. HE Becomes a willing employee a self-starter.IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION:-1. MOTIVATION IS A POWER OF ACT:- It inspires an individual to work.Feeling of need creates tension and a person wants to come out of tension andworks to satisfy his need when the need is satisfied the person feels motivated towork for the achievement of common goals.2. MOTIVATION LEADES TO HIGHER EFFICIENCY:- Motivations increasethe efficiency of an individual. He uses his ability and the best possible extentbecause to motivation which increase his efficiency. Motivations increase thequality of as well as the quality of production.3. MOTIVATION LEADES TO HIGH MORALE & SATISFACTION:-motivational environment the employee to work with the co-operation. Motivationis helpful in increasing the morale to employees. High morale will bring job –satisfactions, which come with many permanent benefits in the organization.4. MOTIVATION DEEPLY ASSOCATIED WITH INCENTIVES:- INCENTIVES -------SIMULATION---------MOTIVATIONincentive –, which may be financial, or non-financial are must to bring stimulationamong workers and once workers are stimulated they are motivated. No incentiveno motivation. More are they incentive more would be the motivation.TYPE OF MOTIVATION  POSITIVE MOTIVATION  NAGATIVE MOTIVATION 1. POSTIVE MOTIVATION:- Positive motivation is based on reward. Theworkers are offered incentive for achieving the desired the goals. The incentivemay be in the shape of money pay, promotion, recognition of work .etcAccording to PETER DRUCKER’’. …Real and positive motivators areresponsible for placement, high standard of performance, responsible citizen in theplant community. It is based on pull mechanism: which is desirable, the receipt of rewards, duerecognition and praise for work done definitely lead to good team split, co-operation and felling of happiness. It may include:1. Workers participation in management 5
  • 6. 2. Feeling of pride in the job3. Delegation of authority4. Healthy competitiveness5. Appreciation of handsome wages and salary and fringe benefits.2. NAGATIVE MOTIVATION:- Negative or forced motivation is based on forceor fear. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. It case, they do not actaccordingly then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. The fear acts asa push mechanism. The employees do not willingly co-operate rather they want toavoid the punishment. Though employees work up to a level where punishment isavoided but this type of motivation causes the industrial unrest.OBJECTIVE OF MOTIVATION:1. To build a fire in the employees to do more work.2. To satisfy the economic, social, and psychological needs of the employees so that they could be motivated.3. To develop and harmonize human relations in the enterprise.4. To enhance the morale and job satisfaction of employees.5. To increase the efficiency and team effectiveness of employees.6. To get the co-operation and team spirit among employees.7. To establish healthy relations between Labour and Management.8. To get maximum utilization of human resources.9. To achieve the operational objective of the enterprise.MOTIVATION THEORIESThere are two types of motivation theory- 1) Early theory and. 2) Contemporary theory.There are two types of early theory- 1) Scientific management. 2) Human relations management.SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT- Several luminaries contributed their ideas to (1 the 6
  • 7. Philosophy of scientific management. But the movement is more associated with.“f.w Taylor is known as the “father of scientific managementScientific management had contributed several techniques, which are relevant:even today-The techniques are.scientific method of doing work (1.planning the task(2.scientific selection ,training and remuneration of workers (3.standardization (4.specialization and division of work (5.time and motion studies (6.mental revolution (7 -HUMAN RELATIONS MODEL (2It became clear that the assumptions thatworkers were primarily motivated by money, provided to be inadequate. Employee.was given some freedom to make their own decisions on their jobsIn the humanrelations model workers were expected to accept management’s authority because.supervisors treated them with consideration and were attentive to their needs-There are three types of human relations model.CONTENT THEORIES (1.PROCESS THEORIES (2.REINFORCEMENT THEORIES (3Content theories- Maslow’s need hierarchy theories, Hertzberg’s theory, (1.Aldermen’s theory and Murray’s theory are classified as content theoriesProcess theory- Content theories emphasize the importance of inner needs in (2motivation. Maslow, Alderfer, Hertzberg and other researchers focused on.existence of these needs and their role in initiating the motivational cycle-There are three such theories, namely 7
  • 8. .expectancy theory <1equity theory. and <2.performance satisfaction model <3-Reinforcement theory <3The operant conditioning approach to behaviour is based on the lawOf effect, which states that behaviour which has a rewarding consequence islikely to be repeated. There is positive reinforcement. On the other hand abehaviour that leads to negative or punishing consequence trends not to be.repeated. There is negative reinforcementThe theory has an important implication tomanagers. if a manager desires to change the behaviour of his subordinates , he.must change the consequence of the behaviourHowever, rewarding desirable behaviour is.more effective than punishing an undesired behaviour -ConclusionReinforcement theory is the most comprehensive of all the theories. Itcavers all the stages in the model, but ignores the needs which are the basis formotivation. However all the theories put together contribute to our understanding.of the motivational processCONTENT THEORY- There are five types of content theory-1) Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.2) Herzberg’s two-factor theory.3) Alderfer’s erg theory.4) Achievement theory. 8
  • 9. 5) Manifest needs theory. 1. MASLOWS NEED HIERARCY THEORY Human life is surrounded by wants. A person satisfies one of his needsand immediately the next need arises. This order continues throughout the life of aperson. If all the needs of a person are satisfied, he will not work any more. In factthe human need never come to an end. One need arises after another and the personremains busy to find out ways for satisfying his needs. Prof.A.H.Maslow hasdivided Human Needs into five parts as shown in Model. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs1. BASIC OR PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS – These needs include the needs of-Meals, Clothes and Shelter. When these basic needs are satisfied man makes theefforts for the satisfaction of other needs.2. SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS – This includes the need to get safetyfresh air, water and environment.A. SAFETY NEEDS:-  Safety against natural calamities like, flood, famine, earthquakes etc.  Safety against human made calamities like war, riots, and terrorism.  Safety against exploitation and victimization.  Safety against pick and choose policy.A. SECURITY NEEDS:-  Security of ones life.  Security of ones belongingness.  Job/profession security.  Economic or financial security.3. SOCIAL NEEDS:- These are also known as love and affection needs. Man is asocial being. He is interested in conversion, social, exchange of feelings and 9
  • 10. grievances, companionship, recognition appreciated by his colleagues, friend’s neighbors and members of the social organizations. Each person expects a different type of love and affection in every stage of life, failing which he feels frustrated. 4. EGO AND ESTEEM NEEDS:- Esteem may be self-esteem and public esteem. Self-esteem means in the eyes of self i.e. a feeling that he is doing something worthwhile. Public esteem means esteem or image in the eyes of public such as praise, admiration, public appreciations etc. 5.SELF-FULFILMENT NEEDS:-It involves realizing ones potentialities for continued self development and for being creative in the broadcast sense of work. After this his other needs are fulfilled. ASSUMPTIONS OF MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY:  Human needs are arranged and try to be satisfied in a hierarchy. A satisfied need can bring motivation and no longer remains a need. Only unsatisfied needs lead to efforts and bring motivation on being satisfied. When one level of needs is satisfied, the next level of needs will emerge as the depressed needs seeking to be satisfied. The physiological and security needs are finite but the needs of higher order are infinite and are likely to be doing dominant in person at higher level in the organization. Prof. Maslow was of the opinion that various levels of needs are inter-dependent and overlapping. Each higher level need emerges before the lower level need has been completely satisfied. 2. McGregor X & Y Theory This theory is based on the dual nature of human being, different human being, as they differ in their physical appearance they also differ in the nature and approaches. Some people have a capacity and nature for tenderness, sympathy, love and affection. On the other hand some people possess tendencies toward cruelty, callousness and hate. On the basis of their basic nature they can be classified as X and Y category of people. But these categories are not like water –tight compartment, they can change the nature and category. x type of people can become Y type of people and accordingly Y type of people can be 10
  • 11. transferred to X type of people due to the presence and absence of motivational environmental around them. THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS: It is traditional theory of management philosophy, power is supreme is the main theme of the theory where the people at work level have no authority to suggest or object anything except to carry out the orders of the supervisor. Most people inherently dislike work and always try to avoid their responsibility. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibilities andputs of the work till it is necessary. p The average human being wants security and safety; hence he tends to work slowly. s Working method of people is generally traditional and hence there is little scope for the development and research. f People can be motivation at money end. On the basis of financial incentive they can do whatever management wants. c Most people at work have little ambition as to the improvement of work. They do not work with interest but wait for direction and act according to it. THEORY Y ASSUMPTION: Theory Y is entirely opposite to theory X. This theory assumes that goals of the organization and those of the individuals are not of much importance but the basic problem in most of the organization is that of securing commitment of workers towards the organizational goals. Workers commitment is directly related to the satisfaction of the needs particularly the higher or outer needs. The theory says that self-direction, self-control self- motivation, and self discipline are most desirable to bring results. They could be motivated by delegation of authority, job-enlargement, participative management and management by objectives. Theory y, is based on the following assumptions: T The average human being does not dislike work. Work is as natural as play or rest. Depending upon the controllable conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction or punishment. o External control and threat of punishment are not only means for accomplishing the organizational objectives. Workers are committed to objective and exercise self-control and self- direction to achieve them. They are fully conscious in their job if they get good environment. e The average man wants to work under proper condition not only to accept but seek responsibilities. Avoidance of responsibility, lake of ambition and emphasis on 11
  • 12. security are not the inherent qualities of the man but they all are consequences of experience.e The average human learn, under proper conditions, not only to accept but also seek responsibility.r This theory is based on democratic principal where in all process are given equal chance to develop their personalities. 3. TWO FACTORS OR HYGIENIC MAINTENANCE THEORY OF MOTIVATION Frederick herberg: a well known management theorist developed a specific. In the 1950 he conducted a study of need satisfaction concept of 200 engineers and accountants employed by firms in end around Pittsburgh. The purpose of his study was t find out what people want, and what motivates them. He studies the factors responsible for job satisfaction and the factors that led to dissatisfaction. In this way this theory is based on a two factor hypothesis. These factors were classified into two parts: 1. Motivational Factors 2. Maintenance Factors1. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS: Within the presence of such factors people always respond positively. Herzberg has mentioned six such motivational factors: Achievement ARecognition RAdvancement AResponsibility RPossibility of growth P Work itself These factors are intrinsic in nature and are related to job and have a positive effect on job satisfaction and result in an increase in total output by improving the level of satisfaction.2. MAINTENANCE FACTORS OR HYGIENIC FACTORS: The presence of such factors prevent dissatisfaction and maintained a certain level of motivation, but any reduction in the availability of these factors was likely to affect motivation and bring down the level of performance. FOR EXAMPLE:- AN increase of Rs.100 in the salary of an employee does not mean much but a reduction of Rs.100 in the salary of an from his salary may upset him and is likely to cause dissatisfaction maintenance factors are mostly related to environment factors outside the job. 12
  • 13. HERZBERGS HYGINECE OR MAINTENANCE FACTORS: Companys personnel policy. Quality of supervision. Inter personal relation with officers. Financial incentives. Job security. Quality of professional and personal life. working condition. Status, position, designation Job satisfaction 4. VROOMS VALENCE- EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION This theory is based on the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of the reward. Under this people will be motivated to do things to achieve some goals to the extent that they expect that certain actions on their part will help them to achieve the goal. MOTIVATION= VALENCE×EXPECTANCY× INSTRUMENTALITY• Valence:- Known as reward preference. It refers to the strength of an individuals preference for receiving a reward. It the value he places on the outcomes or reward.• Expectancy:- It is performance probability, to the extent to which person believes that his efforts will lead to outcome i.e., completion of a task.• Instrumentality:- It refers to the performance reward probability i.e., probability to which performance i.e., first level outcome will lead to desired reward second level reward. 5. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY The most popular extension and refinement of Maslow’s theory of need is the one proposed by Alderfer (1972) While Maslow’s model was not 13
  • 14. developed specifically for work organization .Alderfer’s theory attempted to establish of human needs that are relevant to organizational setting. ERG theory takes the strong points of the earlier. Content theories but it is less restrictive and limiting as compared to the others. In extended Maslow’s theory Alderfer argued that the need categories could be groped into three more general classes:1. Relatedness: these are needs that involve interpersonal relationship in the2. Existence: These are needs related to human existence and are comparable to Maslow’s physiological needs and certain of his safety needs.3. Growth: these are needs associated with the development of the human potential. IMPLICATION OF ERG THEORY: ERG theory does not offer clear cut guidelines. This theory says that an individual can satisfy any of three needs first. LIMITATION OF ERG THEORY:• There is no validation of this theory.• There is no evidence to show that actions based on these assumptions improve motivation.• Chances are more when an employee shows the characteristics/assumption of both the theories. -Summary of motivation concept Motivation represents the outcomes of several behavioural inputs such as perception, attitude and learning, and it is an important concept receiving considerable attention from academics, ressevearchers and .practicing managers The increasing attention paid towards motivation is justified because of several reasons. Motivated employee comes out with new ways of doing jobs. They are more productive. Any .technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully Several approaches to motivation are available. Early theories are too simplistic in their approach towards motivation. for, example ,advocates of scientific management believe that money is the motivating factor. The human relations movement posits that social contacts will .workers 14
  • 15. Among the content theories, Maslow’sneed hierarchy, Hertzberg’s theory and Alderfer’s ERG approach are very popular.Maslow’s believes that there exits a hierarchy of needs and a person gets motivatedto satisfy them in the order of hierarchy. Herberg suggested that to distinct sets offactors affect motivation. Improve hygiene and provide motivator’s motivationtakes place. This is the essence of Herberg theory. Alderer has categorized the .needs into three existence relatedness and growth needsMcClelland’s achievement motivation theoryis yet another content theory. The theory posits that individual is motivated by:three needs.Need for achievement Need for power. And .Need for affiliation.Of the three, need for achievement has greater significance Process theories include vroom’s expectancy approach, Adam’s equity theory and porter and Lawler’s performance- satisfaction model. For Vroom, motivation is the -product of three variables.Valance- an individual’s preference for an outcomeExpectancy- his belief that effort will lead to task completion .and.Instrumentally- His conviction that performance will result in the desired outcomeAdam’s equity theory stresses that an individual’s motivation depends on hisfelling of inequity. Inequity is said to exist when his ratio of outcome to input is.lower than that of the othersFor Skinner, motivation of an individual depends on the consequences of hisprevious behaviour. If the consequences of his previous behaviour are favorable,there is tendency to repeat the behaviour- there is positive reinforcement.Unfavorable consequences will weaken the tendency to repeat behaviour- there is.negative reinforcement 15
  • 16. Though no one theory is successful in bringing out all thecomplexities of motivation, all of them together help us understand the behaviour .of employees APPLICATION OF CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION:-The main content of this chapter is 1) The specific ways available to motivate employees in work environment. 2) Correlating each method with a specific theory of motivation.In theprevious chapter the nature of and theories on motivation were discussed indetail. The more important techniques are1 .MONEY (.JOB DESIGN (2.PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT (3.BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION AND OTHERS (4A- MONEY- money is understood to be a powerful motivator for more than onereason. in the first money is fundamental for completion of a task. Work, unlessit is voluntary or “play” involves a contract between two parties “guaranteed” bythe payment of money. The employee takes pay as the reward for his work and.the employer views it as the price for using the services of the employee.Second- Money as a medium of exchangeThird- Money is one of the hygiene factors, and improving maintenance factors is.the first step in efforts directed towards motivationFourth- Money also performs the function of a “Score card” by which employeesassess the value that the organization. Places on their services and by which.employees can compare their “values” to othersFifth- Reinforcement and expectancy theories attest the value of money as a.motivator 16
  • 17. Sixth- Money acts as punctuation in one’s life. It is an attention getting and affectproducing mechanism. Money has, therefore tremendous importance in.influencing employee behaviourSeventh- Money is easily vulnerable for manipulation. Other factors like.satisfaction, responsibility a challenging job and the like are nebulousFinally- We can say that money will be a powerful motivator for a person who istense and anxious about lack of money. Money worries and concerns are.financially basedConclusion- Money can motivate some people under some conditions. Another.way we can say that money cannot motivate all people under all circumstancesExample- There was a found that only 33 per cent of managers chose their jobsremuneration. In another study conducted by Mirza S. saiyadain it was concludedthat 72 per cent of the students who opted for management induction gavechallenging jobs and freedom to make decisions as predominant reason, was indicated by only 55 per centB- JOB DESIGN- Job design involves conscious efforts on the part of themanagement, to organize takes duties and responsibilities into a unit of work insuch way that meets the needs of employee and organization. The design of jobshas a critical impact on organization and employee objectives. Jobs that are notsatisfying or are too demanding are difficult to fill. Boring jobs may experience.higher turnoverPoorly designed jobs, on the other hand, may lead to lower productivity,employee turnover, absenteeism, complaints sabotage, unionization, resignations.and other problems-FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN-Job design is affected by mainly three factors.A) ORGANISATIONAL FACTORSB) ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS.AND.C) BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS 17
  • 18. A) ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS- These includes characteristics of task,.work flow, ergonomics and work practicesOn the other hand, task, functions may be splitbetween a team working closely together or strung along an assembly line. Inmore example jobs, individuals may carry out a variety of connected tasks; eachwith a number of function, or these tasks may be allocated to a group of workers.or divided among themB) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS- These includes employee abilities and.availability and social and cultural expectationsThere were days when getting a job was theprimary considerations. The worker was prepared to work on any job and underany working conditions. Not any more literacy, knowledge and awareness ofworkers have improved considerably, so also their expectations from jobs. must be designed to meet the expectations of workersNeglect national and cultural differences. House of work, holidays, vacations,rest breaks, religious beliefs, management styles and worker satisfaction andattitudes are just of the predictable differences that can effect the design of jobs.across international bordersC) BEHAVIOURAL ELEMENTS- Behavioral factors have to do with thehuman needs and the necessitate satisfy them. Behavioral factors, autonomy, use of abilities and varietyAutonomy is being responsible for what one does. It is the freedom to controlto one’s responses to the environment. Jobs that given authority to job holders tomake decisions will provide added responsibilities which tend to increase the.employee’s sense of recognition and self-esteemAttempts have been made to use jobsfor motivating employees in organizations. Job enrichment, job enlargement, and.job rotation are part of behavioural elementsJOB ENRICHMENT- it simply means adding a few more motivators to a job to .make it more rewardingTo be specific, a job is enriched when the nature of thejobs is exciting, challenging, and creative, or gives the jobholder more decision-.making planning and controlling powers-There are many characteristics of an enriched job.Direct feedback (1.Client relationship (2 18
  • 19. .New learning (3.Scheduling own work (4.Unique experience (5.Control over resources (6.Direct communication authority (7.Personal accountability (8These points are the main features of job.enrichmentJOB ENLARGEMENT- this means adding more and different task to aspecialized job to provide greater variety it is also called horizontal jobenlargement. And it helps to improve dissatisfaction monotony by increasingvariety and scope of tasks this is used for specialization quality production and it.improves worker satisfaction-An enlarged job can motivate an individual for five reasons.Task variety (1.Meaningful work modules (2.Ability utilization (3.Worker-paced control (4.Performance feedback (5 -JOB ROTATIONIt is considered to employee one job to another and theemployee who works on a routine moves to another jobs for some hours/ monthsand then comes back to the first jobs. It helps to remove boredom, monotony andimproves the skill of employee regarding various jobs and prepares them forcompetitive advantage in the organization. However the frequent job rotation.leaves a negative impact on the performance of employee and the organization 19
  • 20. Other benefits are alsoavailable. Employees with a wider range croft skill give management more.flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies.Job rotation also has drawbacksTraining costs are increased, work is disrupted as rotated employees take time toadjust to a new set-up, and it can decorticate intelligent and ambitious trainees.who seek specific responsibilities in their chosen speciality PARTICIPATIONParticipative management is compatible with motivation-hygiene and EGR theoriesof motivation. In term of the two-factor theories , participative management couldprovide employees with intrinsic motivation by increasing opportunity for growth,responsibility, and involvement in the work it self. Similarly, the process of makingand implementing a decision and then seeing how it works could satisfy the growth.needs of the ECR theoryParticipative management, however, need to be introduced with circumspection. Itcan not be applied universally to all people. Best result will follow when1. Management has a large heart to share responsibilities with employee representative2. Employees are prepared to accept responsibilities3. Employees have knowledge about the subject4. Time to participate is available5. Participant are familiar with the constraints to be observed6. Effective communication exists, and7. Each participant knows that personal position and status will not be adversely affected by participation. BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Organizational behavior modification is yet anothertechnique of influencing behavior of people in organizations. OB Mod uses thereinforcement principle of B. F. Skinner to provide managers with a powerful and 20
  • 21. Proven means for changing employee behavior.Step1-Identification of critical behaviors:-The first step is to identify the criticalbehaviors that make a signification impact on the employee’s job performance.These are those 5 to10 percent of the behaviors that may account for up to 70%to80% of each employee’s performance. IDENTIFY PERFORMANCE RELATVED BEHAVIOUR EVENTS MEASURE: BASELINE THE FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE IDENTIFY EXISTING BEHAVIOURAL CONTINGENCIES THROUGH FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS DEVELOP INTERVENTION STRATEGY APPLY APPROPRIATE STRATEGY MEASURE: CHART THE FREQUENCY OF RESPONSES AFTER INTERVENTION PROBLEM SOLVED? 21
  • 22. MAINTAIN DESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR EVALUATE FOR PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTStep2:- Measurement of the behavior:- After the behaviors have been identified in step1,they are measured. A baseline frequency is obtained by determining the number of timethat the identified behavior occurs under personal condition behavior.Step3:- Functional analysis of the behavior:- The goal of an OB Modal programmed is toincrease the likelihood that people will in fact engage in the behaviors which are criticalto the successful performance of their jobs. ANTECEDENT CUES BEAVIOURS CONSEQUENCESStep4:- Development of an intervention strategy- The term intervention refers to actionthat will be taken by the manager or organization in order to increase the frequency ofdesirable critical behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior.Step5:- Evaluation to ensure performance improvement: - In order to determine whetheran OB Mod programmed has achieved its desired results, it is necessary to evaluate theeffects of the programmed in systematic and objective fashion. The result of suchevaluation can be used both to determine wealth the programs. 22
  • 23. OB MOD IN PRACTICE:-OB Mod has been used by a number of organizations toreduce cost, increase attendance, improve productivity, improve safety, increasesatisfaction, reduce lab our cost, and increase profit. The organization which benefitedinclude general Electric, standard oil, B.F. Goodrich chemical Co., Emery Air Freight,Michigan Bell.QUALLITY OF WORK LIFE:- The term “quality of work life” means different things todifferent persons. For example, to a worker on an assembly line, it may just mean afair days pay, safe working condition, and a supervisor who treats him with dignity.To a younger new entrant, it may mean opportunities for advancement, creative tasksand a successful career. To academics it means, the degree to which members of workorganization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences inthe organization. ACTORS, WHICH THERE ARE MANY FCAN, CONTRIBUTE TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE. THEY ARE1. Adequate and fair compensation.2. A self and healthy environment.3. Jobs aimed at developing and using employees’ skills and abilities.4. Growth and security; jobs aimed at expanding employees capability, rather than leading to their obsolescence.5. An environment in which employees develop self-esteem and a sense of identity6. Protection and respect for employee’s rights to privacy, dissent and equity.7. A sensible integration of job career and family life and leisure time.It would not be incorrect to say that quality of work life in fact, covers all aspects ofworkers life with special reference to his interaction with his work and his workingenvironment. The following are suggested: 23
  • 24. 1. Adequate and fair compensation:- adequacy to the extent to which the income from full time work meets the needs of the society .2. Safety and healthy working conditions:- Including reasonable hours of work and rest pause, physical working condition that ensure safety, minimize risk of illness and occupational diseases and special measures for protection of women and children.3. Security and growth opportunity:-including factor like security of employment and opportunity for advancement and self-improvement.4. Opportunity to use and develop creativity:- such work autonomy, nature of supervision , use of multiple skills, workers role in total work process and his appreciation of the outcome of his own effort and self-regulation.5. Respect for the individuals personal right:-such as the application of the principles of natural justice and equity , acceptance of the right of free speech and right to the personal privacy in respect of the workers off-the-job behavior.6. Work and family life: - including transfers, schedule of hours of work, travel, requirements and overtime requirements. OTHERS The other motivational techniques used in organizations to influenceemployee behavior include management by objective (MBO), flexible workinghours, two-tier pay system, flexible benefits, and the link. MBO refers to a formal set of procedures that begins with goal settingand contributes through performance review. The key of MBO is that it is aparticipative process, actively involving managers and subordinates at every 24
  • 25. organizational level. Propounded by peter F. Ducker in1954, MBO has motivationalpotential because the participants become ego-involved in decisions they have made.CORPORET EXAMPLE WITH MOTIVATION CONCEPTThe past year (2002) has seen Americas values attacked on two fronts:By freedom hating Islamic zealots, and by freedom abusing corporate predators. Inlight of these two extremes, many Americans are confused, and feel like we arefighting a two front war. Whats the cause of this? Can American philosophy ?surviveFirst, we must understand that this moral calamity is not new. Our problems are theproblems of human moral development, as illustrated by the research of LawrenceKohlberg (1927-1987). A professor at Harvard University, Kohlberg tracked "moralreasoning" in response to hypothetical moral dilemmas. He was not concerned withWHAT people did, but focused attention on WHY they chose a course of action. He :established 6 levels of motivation, from lowest to highest Pre-Conventional MoralityExternal motivations which will cause action to disappear as soon as the threat or)(.the reward goes awayMotivation by Fear of Punishment - obedience orientation .1 Motivation by Greed/Personal Reward - looking out for #1 .2Conventional Morality (External motivations which MIGHT remain under certain (.circumstancesMotivation by Shame/Saving Face - willing conformity to parents/peers/culture, .3but as prostitutes selling themselves at a convention know, many people check their!morals at the city limits, if they think that nobody will find outMotivation by Internalization of the Law - obey rules for the laws sake, because .4you were taught to obey the Ten Commandments, but you dont understand why andif legitimate authority changes the law (i.e., its OK to kill Jews) then you go along.with itPost-Conventional Morality (The only true internalized motivations based onabstract concepts. Someone in level 5/6 will generally not change their behavior (.unless you convince them, intellectually, rationally, of the necessity to do soMotivation by Social/Moral Contract - this "pulls up" (sometimes not near .5enough, but nonetheless discernibly) the general moral level of the population.Example, the United States Constitution, which establishes our fundamental baselineof principles that are used to guide our nation by creating in interactive, amendable .contract that establishes laws to serve the majority while protecting basic rights 25
  • 26. Motivation by Universal Ethical Principles - the Golden Rule, New Testament, or .6the Declaration of Independence (or, perhaps, the Preamble to the Constitution),implies a perfect equivalence of duties and rights, but also self-sacrificing lovebeyond expecting anything in return. This level of morality is the ideal, but is.sometimes too abstract for routine day-to-day operationsThe amazing thing in the research is that in totalitarian nations where, L-4, blind,rigid adherence to the law (as set forth by the rulers) is the objective, almosteveryone functions at L-1 and lives in fear, with a handful in L-2, greed, and.anything above that is (almost) non-existentBut in democracies (if you will permit me to use the term broadly, since in the USwe are technically in a republic or a representative democracy), in democracies theaverage individual exists in level 2/3/4, motivated by greed, shame and law, whilethere is a smattering of those powerful moral individuals who truly have internalizedtheir moral values (mostly deeply religious individuals) and serve to pull the rest ofus up. (Think, for example, of the priest in Victor Hugos "Les Miserable," whose(.generosity transformed Jean ValjeanWe have nearly defeated the most significant totalitarian (L-1) threat with thecollapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, and today the majority of theworlds population elects their national leaders. But there is still a MAJOR threatfrom terrorists (remnants of L-1 control by "fear," and fostered by the remainingnon-democratic, totalitarian governments). But the NEXT challenge before us is toovercome (L-2) greed motivation, such as the media whose "drug dealer morality"says: "People buy our violence and sex, so we have the right to sell it!" And all thosecorporate predators who undermine our capitalist economy by looting company.profits and pensions for their own selfish benefitIf we were to win the war against corporate greed (L-2), how would a victorymanifest itself? I would submit that we should see increased corporate focus oncommunity, citizenship, charity, overall spirituality, and demands for more.accountability at all levels, acting just like a governmentIn fact, some companies are already forming their own L-5 "constitutions" to)establish moral laws and baselines. Whole Foods Market, for example, whichbesides having environmentally friendly policies, has capped their top salary tobeing no more than ten times what the average employee makes, and they give amandatory 5% of gross profit to charity. With this legal foundation, they then try to(.inspire L-6 behavior from their employeesWhat Kohlberg demonstrates is that, just because (almost) everyone falls short ofactually operating at the moral level of the Constitution (L-5) and religious "grace"(L-6), does not mean that we should give up on these. We NEED these as ourinspiration and scales for justice! Now, since Sept 11, we are back to fighting L-1 26
  • 27. fear mongers. Still, we have to fight the battle on our corporate front against L-2greed mongers. And the way to do that is to hold people to HIGH moral standards,.as found in religion, and the ConstitutionSo, does all this make sense? Can we perceive that the war on totalitarian zealots andselfish corporate raiders is actually a war on ourselves? But are good thingshappening Summary of application of motivation conceptMotivation represents the outcomes of several behavioural inputs such as perception,attitude and learning, and it is an important concept receiving considerable attention.from academics, ressevearchers and practicing managersThe increasing attention paidtowards motivation is justified because of several reasons. Motivated employeecomes out with new ways of doing jobs. They are more productive. Any technology.needs motivated employees to adopt it successfullySeveral approaches to motivation are available.Early theories are too simplistic in their approach towards motivation. For, example,advocates of scientific management believes that money is the motivating factor..The human relations movement posits that social contacts will workersAmong the content theories, Maslow’s needhierarchy, Hertzberg’s theory and Alderfer’s ERG approach are very popular.Maslow believes that there exits a hierarchy of needs and a person gets motivated tosatisfy them in the order of hierarchy. Herberg suggested that to distinct sets offactors affect motivation. Improve hygiene and provide motivator’s motivation takesplace. This is the essence of Herberg theory. Alderer has categorized the needs into .three existence relatedness and growth needsMcClelland’s achievement motivation theory is yet:another content theory. The theory posits that individual is motivated by three needs.Need for achievementNeed for power. And.Need for affiliation. Of the three, need for achievement has greater significance 27
  • 28. Process theories include vroom’s expectancy approach, Adam’s equity theory andporter and Lawler’s performance- satisfaction model. For Vroom, motivation is the-product of three variables.Valance- An individual’s preference for an outcomeExpectancy- his belief that effort will lead to task completion .and.Instrumentally- His conviction that performance will result in the desired outcomeAdam’s equity theory stresses that an individual’s motivation depends on his felling ofinequity. Inequity is said to exist when his ratio of outcome to input is lower than.that of the othersFor Skinner, motivation of an individual depends on the consequences of his previousbehaviour. If the consequences of his previous behaviour are favorable, there istendency to repeat the behaviour- there is positive reinforcement. Unfavorableconsequences will weaken the tendency to repeat behaviour- there is negative.reinforcement Though no one theory is successful in bringing out all the complexities of motivation, all of them together help us understand the behaviour of .employees CONCLUSION The word motivation is derived from ‘motive’ means idea, need, emotion that is essential to each and every individual. Motivation teaches us how .an individual work in social life as well as corporate world We all are going to be a manager in coming time, than it is essential to every person how we will cope an origination to our subordinate as well as senior. in this lesson is totally related to motivation, types of motivation, .theory of motivation, and application of motivation 28
  • 29. -After the study of this chapter we are able to know this point- Definition and types of motivation.- Importance of motivation.- Theory of motivation.- Concept of motivation. Motivation is essential to each and every moment, suppose you want to do take extra work to your subordinate that means you want to over time to your subordinates that time it is your responsibility how you will motivate to that person to do extra work if you have practical and well knowledge of motivation than definitely you will success in your aim. It tells us that the knowledge of motivation .is necessary At last we want to say that motivation is panacea of any organization if you have a proper knowledge of motivation no one can defeat you as a manager because you have a capability to cope any types of situation in any circumstance because you .can do any types of constructive work with the help of motivation theory BIBILOGRAPHY When we make this assignment that time we take help -these books1. Robbins, S.P., Organizational Behaviour, Prentice Hall of India, N.Delhi.2. Hall, Organisation : Structures, Processes and Outcome, Prentice Hall of India, N.Delhi. 29
  • 30. 3. Daft, Organisation Theory & Design, Thomson Learning, Bombay.4. Luthans, Fred, Organizational Behaviour, McGraw Hill, New York5. Weiss, Joseph W; Organizational Behaviour and Change, Thomson Learning- Vikas Publishing.6. Dwivedi, R.S., Human Relations and Organisational Behaviour, Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi.7. Mishra, M N, Organizational Behaviour, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.8. Chandan, J.S. Organizational Behaviour, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.9. Hellriegel, D; Slocum, Jr. J.W; and Woodman R.W, Organizational Behaviour, Cincinnati, Ohio, South-Western College Publishing, 200110.Singh, Dalip, Emotional Intelligence at Work, Response Books, New Delhi11.New Storm Davis,: Organisation Behaviour, TMH, N.Delhi. .McSchane,Organisation Behaviour, TMH, N.Delhi 30