Group dynamics is the study of groups, and also a general term for group processes. In psychology, sociology, and communication studies. A group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships. Because they interact and influence each other, groups develop a number of dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals. These processes include norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effects on behavior .
The activities of two or more units can be integrated through a common superior. The common superior is not only constantly aware of and keeps in perspective, a higher order of organizational goals than each of the unit directors, but the common superior who is bestowed with more power since he or she is higher up in hierarchy, can also bring the groups together to highlight the common goals and resolve any differences
It is obvious that group processes have an impact on a group’s actual effectiveness:
SYNERGY is a term used in term used in biology that refers to an action of two or more substances those results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of the substances. We can use the concept to better understand group processes.
Social loafing, for instance, represents negative synergy. The whole is less than the sum of its parts .Research teams are often used in research laboratories because they can draw on the diverse skills of various individual to produce more meaningful research than could be generated by all of the researchers working independently. That is, they produce positive synergy. Their processes gains exceed their process losses.
Emotional Intelligence Concepts And Applications
The concept of Emotional Intelligence is e- merging as a potentially powerful framework for understanding and addressing "soft skill" development. Linking Emotional Intelligence approaches to specific competencies useful to both work and personal situations provides a basis for concrete skills acquisition.
This model has four separate components of emotional intelligence: accurately identifying emotions in people and objects; being able to generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion; understanding the causes of emotions; and selecting strategies that result in positive outcomes.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A THEORY OF PERFORMANCE
Goldman defines emotional competence as ‘‘a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work’’ . Emotional competencies are learned abilities; however, they are dependent on an underlying EI ability.
Empathy is a particularly important aspect of emotional intelligence, and researchers have known for years that it contributes to occupational success. Rosenthal and his colleagues at Harvard discovered over two decades ago that people who were best at identifying others’ emotions were more successful in their work as well as in their social lives . More recently, a survey of retail sales buyers found that apparel sales reps were valued primarily for their empathy. The buyers reported that they wanted reps who could listen well and really understand what they wanted and what their concerns were .
emotional intelligence really is not new. In fact, it is based on a long history of research and theory in personality and social, as well as I/O, psychology. Furthermore, Goleman has never claimed otherwise. In fact, one of his main points was that the abilities associated with emotional intelligence have been studied by psychologists for many years, and there is an impressive, and growing, body of research suggesting that these abilities are important for success in many areas of life
The most common form of group decision making takes place in interacting groups. In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other. But as our discussion of groupthink demonstrated, interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. Brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and electronic meetings have been proposed as ways to reduce many of the problems inherent in the traditional interacting group.
The most common form of group decision making takes place in interacting groups. In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other.But as our discussion groupthink demonstrated, interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion.
In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other.But as our discussion groupthink demonstrated, interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion
Brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the development of creative alternatives. It does this by utilizing an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
Group technique members are all physically present, as in a traditional committee meeting, but A members operate independently. Specifically, a problem is presented and then m the following steps take place….
1- Members meet as a group but, before any discussion takes place, each member independently writes down his or her ideas on the problem.
2- After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group
According to k. Aswathppa, “cohesiveness is understood as the extent of liking each. member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remain as a member of the group.” It is a degree of attachment among members of the group and membership. Attractiveness is the key to cohesiveness. Cohesiveness group attract membership from new members. It also changes in degree over time.
1. The members of cohesive groups have high morale.
2. They don’t have conflicting views, hence decrease in conflicts among
the group members at the workplace or elsewhere.
3. People of cohesive groups have no anxiety at the workplace.
4. members of cohesive groups are from botheration, hence they are very regular at their work. This reduces absenteeism and high employee turnover.
5. Cohesiveness increase productivity.
6. organizations gain from the members of cohesive group because they communicate better, they share ideologies and respect opinions of fellow employees. This all create an environment of cooperation resulting into benefits to the organization in the from of increased productivity, low employee turnover,etc .
Teams:- Within the group, teams consisting of one or more members are formed to solve a problem. A team is developing to solve long terms problems, achieve a permanent formal assignment, and maintain dual responsibility and so on. When the team has achieved its objectives, the team members return to their original departments. UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS