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  • 1. Understanding and managing group process Made by :- Bhawana Sharma Chandan Deepak Kumar Deepak sharma Dolly kumari Singh
  • 2. GROUP
    • Definition:-
    • 􀁡 A collection of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve a common objective
  • 3. Types of groups
    • Formal group
    • Groups are deliberately created by the organization in order to help the organizational members
    • Informal group
    • develop rather spontaneously among an organization’s members without any direction from the organizational authorities.
  • 4. Types of informal groups
    • Interest groups
    • Friendship groups
    • Functional group
    • Task groups
    • Family group
  • 5. Stages of group
    • Forming
    • Storming
    • Norming
    • Performing
    • Adjourning
  • 6. GROUP PROCESSES group process refers to the understanding of the behaviour of people, such as task in groups that are trying to solve a problem or make a decision .
  • 7. Dimensions of group process
    • Patterns of communication and coordination
    • Patterns of influence
    • role relationship
    • Patterns of dominance (e.g. who leads, who defers)
    • Balance of task focus vs social focus
    • Level of group effectiveness
    • How conflict is handled
  • 8. GROUP DYNAMICS
    • Group dynamics is the study of groups, and also a general term for group processes. In psychology, sociology, and communication studies. A group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships. Because they interact and influence each other, groups develop a number of dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals. These processes include norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effects on behavior .
  • 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS
    • There are several characteristics that define a true group:
    • Interaction among members
    • Social influence within the group (normative and informational)
    • Group norms or unwritten rules dictating acceptable
    • behavior and group functioning
    • Individual roles within the group are defined formally or informally
    • Interdependence among members: members rely on each other to achieve group goal
  • 10. GROUP INTERPERSONAL
    • Hierarchy:
    • The activities of two or more units can be integrated through a common superior. The common superior is not only constantly aware of and keeps in perspective, a higher order of organizational goals than each of the unit directors, but the common superior who is bestowed with more power since he or she is higher up in hierarchy, can also bring the groups together to highlight the common goals and resolve any differences
  • 11. EFFECTS OF GROUP PROCESS: INTERPERSONAL
    • It is obvious that group processes have an impact on a group’s actual effectiveness:
    • SYNERGY is a term used in term used in biology that refers to an action of two or more substances those results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of the substances. We can use the concept to better understand group processes.
    • Social loafing, for instance, represents negative synergy. The whole is less than the sum of its parts .Research teams are often used in research laboratories because they can draw on the diverse skills of various individual to produce more meaningful research than could be generated by all of the researchers working independently. That is, they produce positive synergy. Their processes gains exceed their process losses.
  • 12. Emotional Intelligence Concepts And Applications  
  • 13. Emotional Intelligence
    • The concept of Emotional Intelligence is e- merging as a potentially powerful framework for understanding and addressing "soft skill" development. Linking Emotional Intelligence approaches to specific competencies useful to both work and personal situations provides a basis for concrete skills acquisition.
  • 14. THE ABILITY MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
    • This model has four separate components of emotional intelligence: accurately identifying emotions in people and objects; being able to generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion; understanding the causes of emotions; and selecting strategies that result in positive outcomes.
    •  
  • 15. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A THEORY OF PERFORMANCE
    • Goldman defines emotional competence as ‘‘a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work’’ . Emotional competencies are learned abilities; however, they are dependent on an underlying EI ability.
  • 16. EXAMPLE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
    • Empathy is a particularly important aspect of emotional intelligence, and researchers have known for years that it contributes to occupational success. Rosenthal and his colleagues at Harvard discovered over two decades ago that people who were best at identifying others’ emotions were more successful in their work as well as in their social lives . More recently, a survey of retail sales buyers found that apparel sales reps were valued primarily for their empathy. The buyers reported that they wanted reps who could listen well and really understand what they wanted and what their concerns were .
  • 17. CONCLUTION
    • emotional intelligence really is not new. In fact, it is based on a long history of research and theory in personality and social, as well as I/O, psychology. Furthermore, Goleman has never claimed otherwise. In fact, one of his main points was that the abilities associated with emotional intelligence have been studied by psychologists for many years, and there is an impressive, and growing, body of research suggesting that these abilities are important for success in many areas of life
  • 18. GROUP DECISION MAKING
    • The most common form of group decision making takes place in interacting groups. In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other. But as our discussion of groupthink demonstrated, interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. Brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and electronic meetings have been proposed as ways to reduce many of the problems inherent in the traditional interacting group.
  • 19. DECISION MAKING GROUP TECHNIQUES
    • The most common form of group decision making takes place in interacting groups. In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other.But as our discussion groupthink demonstrated, interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion.
  • 20. THESE ARE THE VARIOUS TECHNIQUES
    • Interacting groups
    • Brainstorming
    • Nominal group technique
    • Electronic meeting
  • 21. INTERACTING GROUPS
    • In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other.But as our discussion groupthink demonstrated, interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion
  • 22. BRAINSTOREMING
    • Brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the development of creative alternatives. It does this by utilizing an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
  • 23. NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE
    • Group technique members are all physically present, as in a traditional committee meeting, but A members operate independently. Specifically, a problem is presented and then m the following steps take place….
    • 1- Members meet as a group but, before any discussion takes place, each member independently writes down his or her ideas on the problem.
    • 2- After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group
  • 24. ELECTRONIC MEETING
    • The most recent approach to group decision making blends the nominal group technique with sophisticated computer technology.
  • 25. GROUP COHESIVENESS
    • According to k. Aswathppa, “cohesiveness is understood as the extent of liking each. member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remain as a member of the group.” It is a degree of attachment among members of the group and membership. Attractiveness is the key to cohesiveness. Cohesiveness group attract membership from new members. It also changes in degree over time.
  • 26. FACTORS AFFECTING COHESIVENESS
    • GROUP FORMATION FACTOR
    • INTERACTION
    • DIFICULTY IN MEMBERSHIP
    • SUCCESS
    • THREAT
    • SIZE OF GROUP
    • CONTINUED MEMBERSHIP
    • ATTITUDE AND VALUES
  • 27. ADVANTAGES OF COHISIVENESS
    • 1. The members of cohesive groups have high morale.
    • 2. They don’t have conflicting views, hence decrease in conflicts among
    • the group members at the workplace or elsewhere.
    • 3. People of cohesive groups have no anxiety at the workplace.
    • 4. members of cohesive groups are from botheration, hence they are very regular at their work. This reduces absenteeism and high employee turnover.
    • 5. Cohesiveness increase productivity.
    • 6. organizations gain from the members of cohesive group because they communicate better, they share ideologies and respect opinions of fellow employees. This all create an environment of cooperation resulting into benefits to the organization in the from of increased productivity, low employee turnover,etc .
  • 28. Teams:- Within the group, teams consisting of one or more members are formed to solve a problem. A team is developing to solve long terms problems, achieve a permanent formal assignment, and maintain dual responsibility and so on. When the team has achieved its objectives, the team members return to their original departments. UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS
  • 29. Why Have Teams Become So Popular
    • Teams typically outperform individuals.
    • Teams use employee talents better.
    • Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.
    • Teams facilitate employee involvement.
    • Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation.
  • 30. Team Versus Groups: What’s the Difference
  • 31. Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams
  • 32. Types of Teams
  • 33. Types of Teams (cont’d)
    • Task forces
    • Committees
  • 34. Types of Teams (cont’d)
    • Team Characteristics
    • The absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues
    • A limited social context
    • The ability to overcome time and space constraints
  • 35. Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer
    • Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:
      • Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives?
      • Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals?
      • Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?
  • 36. Creating Effective Teams
  • 37. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d)
  • 38. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d)
  • 39. Creating Effective Teams (cont’d)
  • 40. A Team-Effectiveness Model
  • 41. Turning Individuals Into Team Players
    • The Challenges
      • Overcoming individual resistance to team membership.
      • Countering the influence of individualistic cultures.
      • Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement.
    • Shaping Team Players
      • Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles.
      • Training employees to become team players.
      • Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.
  • 42. Contemporary Issues in Managing Teams
    • Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams:
      • Are small enough to be efficient and effective.
      • Are properly trained in required skills.
      • Allocated enough time to work on problems.
      • Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action.
      • Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
  • 43. Reinvigorating Mature Teams
    • Problems of Mature Teams
      • Becoming stagnant and complacent as cohesiveness increases.
      • Developing groupthink.
      • Confronting more difficult issues.
    • Reinvigorating Teams
      • Prepare members to deal with problems of maturity.
      • Offer refresher training.
      • Offer advanced training.
      • Encourage teams to treat their development as a constant learning experience.
  • 44. THANKS