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  • 1. STYLE OF WRITING COMPOSITION & LETTERS Essay writing. An essay is a written composition, an expression of ones personal opinion on a subject. The process of selection & arrangement of materials must always be completed before beginning to write on the topic. Essays are classified into the following 4 categories. : a) Narrative Essay : It consists of some narration of some events or incidents, which are practical, and true to ones knowledge. Nothing imaginative is added to it. b) Descriptive Essay : These essays only describes a person or a thing. – on a particular object.c) Reflective Essay : It consists of reflection of thoughts on some topics, which is generally of an abstract nature, like Cast System, Present Politics, Qualities, Co-education, unemployment… Expository Essay : It is an explanatory one, which generally consists of an exposition of some subject….like : 1. Industries, Occupations (Explaining & setting them as an example) 2. Scientific topics & literary topics ( Explanation) Hints for writing an attractive essay.: 1. DO NOT START writing at once 2. SELECT your ideas carefully, and ACCUMULATE the materials. 3. ARRANGE the ideas. 4. DIVIDE THE ESSAY in Introduction; Body; & Conclusion. 5. Introduction should explain the topic not describe the topic./ Body consist of illustration and Explanations of the facts / Conclusion should reflect your opinion, and also should leave room for the readers to place his or hers. 6. Be brief, use simple words & short sentences. 7. Always remember, your overall task SHOULD BE INTERESTING, to ones eyes & ears.
  • 2. Topics for practice : 1. A street quarrel 2. A Visit to an exhibition 3. A picnic or an Excursion 4. Co- education. 5. An evening in the cinema house. Letter writing.Every now & then we all are required to write a letter, be it a personalone or an official one.Private letters are those, which are written to friends & relatives. Theirstyle is chiefly conversational.A personal letter must contain the following things: a) Address : On the right hand top corner. b) Greetings / Salutations. c) Body of the letter d) Leave takingIn writing a letter to intimate people, one may start it as a) My dear—Father, Mother, Brother/Sister (If own),grandparents b) Dear – Uncle, aunt, & FriendsOpening sentences for official letters : a) It is to state that b) It is to bring to your notice that c) In response to the advertisement…….. d) I beg to state that Note : One should always remember to write the subject to the letter, when writing an official letter (Sud: ________________)
  • 3. SEMESTER 3 + 4 KNOWING PHRASESA phrase is a group of words, acting as a Noun, Adjective or Adverb in asentence. It does not contain a finite verb, that is, in itself it cannot make acomplete sentence, but does contain a meaning to some part of the sentence, inwhich it stands.For Example : 1. A write is a man of great wealth./ Knowledge counts more than money. 2. He was a young man of great promise./ Very sincere in his deeds. 3. It was a scene of great beauty./ Very beautiful landscape 4. I shot an arrow in the air./  I guessedNOUN PHRASE: A noun phrase is a group of word, that does a work of a nounrather, it denotes the wish of “want”.For Example : 1. We enjoy playing cards. 2. To win a prize is my ambition. 3. He hopes to win the first prize. 4. I love to issue hard orders. 5. I tried to get the sum right. 6. Did you enjoy reading this book? (wants to know the opinion or feeling) 7. To know one self is a difficult task. wish to know one-self.Pick out the noun phrase: 1. To err is human 2. To forgive ones enemies is noble. 3. I enjoy walking in the fields.
  • 4. 4. To dance in the street is disgraceful. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------ADJECTIVE PHRASE: An Adjective phrase is a group of word, doing the work ofan adjective.For Example : 1. A golden crow./ A crow made of gold 2. A popular hero /  A hero liked by all. 3. A populous city /  A city having large no. of inhabitants. 4. A deserted village /  A village without any inhabitants. 5. A blank page. /  A page with no writing on it.Pick out the Adj. phrase: 1. He is a man of honour 2. A bird in hand is worth two in bush. 3. He is a man of means. 4. Suddenly a furious storm began to blow. 5. He is a professional cricketer. 6. He is a homeless orphan. 7. She wears a woolen hat. 8. He was a lad with promising career. 9. A stitch in time saves nine.ADVERB PHRASE: An Adverb phrase is one which not only does the work of anadverb, but answers a silent question.For Example : 1. Rama ran quickly. (How) /  Rama ran with great speed. 2. He answered rudely. (How) /  He answers in a very rude manner. 3. He is coming now. (When) /  He is coming at the moment. 4. No such disease were known then. (When) /  No such diseases were known in those days. 5. You can buy it everywhere.(Where) /  Can buy it in all places 6. The arrow fell here.(Where) /  The arrow fell in this spot. 7. Go away. (Where) /  Go anywhereFill the blanks with Adverb phrase: 1. The Knight fought ___________. 2. Don’t answer _____________. 3. Old mother Mary went ______________. 4. The mountaineer climbed _______________. 5. He takes life _________________. 6. He is a homeless orphan. 7. She wears a woolen hat.
  • 5. 8. He was a lad with promising career.9. A stitch in time saves nine. DICTIONARY WORK & VOCABULARY Behaviour of a person 2. Enthusiastic / Unenthusiastic. 2. Outspoken / Reserved 3. Frank / Secretive 4. Predictable / Unpredictable 5. Docile / Rebellious 6. Bold / Coward
  • 6. 7. Sensational / Ineffective8. Modest / Immodest9. Sympathetic / Unsympathetic or Apathetic10. Cordial / Indifferent11. Composed / Disturbed or Tensed12. Dutiful / Negligent13. Accepting / Refusing14. Sober / Rowdy.15. Sincere / Insincere16. Flexible / Rigid or Adamant17. Courteous / Discourteous18. Reliable / Unreliable19. Puritanical / Unpuritanic20. Acceleration / Retardation Personality Traits. 1. Generous / Unenthusiastic. 2. Dashing / Unimpressive 3. Extrovert / Introvert 4. Masculine / Effeminate 5. Articulate / Inarticulate 6. Decisive / Indecisive or Fickle minded 7. Determined / Wavering or oscillating 8. Agile / Sloth 9. Elegant / Inelegant or Uncultivated
  • 7. 10. Benign / Spiteful 11. Shrewd / Stupid 12. Enterprising / Unresourceful 13. Optimistic / Pessimistic 14. Evincible / Invincible 15. Versatile / Unresourceful 16. Amicable / In amicable 17. Dynamic / static 18. Extravagant / Parsimonious 19. Professional / Amateur 20. Prudent / Imprudent or Sycophant or Churlish Persons Mood & Attitude1. Pleasant / Unpleasant2. Proud / Humble3. Arrogant / Modest4. Alert / Indolent5. Sociable / Aloof6. Cognizant / Unaware7. Yielding / Unyielding8. Religious / Agnostic9. Ecstatic / Depressed10.Rigid / Flexible11.Restive / Pensive
  • 8. 12.Elated / Mitigated 13.Sane / Insane 14.Theist / Atheist 15.Conciliating / Provocation 16. Chivalrous / Cowardly 17.Bigoted / Liberty 18.Aggressive / Retrogressive 19.Benevolent / Malevolent 20.Authoritive / Submissive Single word Vocabs.1. A place where fish are kept – Aquarium1. Place where pigs are kept – Sty2. A place where milk is converted into butter & cheese – dairy3. A place where cakes & bread are made – Bakery4. A place where biscuit & cookies are made –Confectionary5. Factory for manufacturing Beer – Brewery6. A place where liquor or alcohol is produced – Distillery7. A place for housing airplanes – Hanger8. Where Govt. records are kept - Achieves
  • 9. 9. Places where leather is tanned – Tannery 10. Placed where money is coined – Mint 11. Place where astronomical observations take place – Observatory 12. Place for infants & young children – Crèche 13. A place where bees are kept – apiary 14. A note or thing help memory – Memorandum 15. A poem of lamentation – Elegy 16. Declaration of plans put forward by a candidate for election - Manifesto 17. Language which is confusing – Jargon 18. A statement which is generally accepted true – Axiom 19. List of books in library alphabetically – Catalogue 20. List of writers, whose matter are collected to compile a book – Bibliography. Words showing collections1. A Team of – Horses / Players2. A Swarm of – files / bees3. A Stack of hay4. A Stock of good
  • 10. 5. A Shower of – rain / arrow6. A Sheaf of – arrow / corn7. A Gang of convicts8. A Flock of – bird / sheep9. A Fight of stairs10. A Fleet of ship11. A Course of lectures12. A Constellation of stars13. A Pack of – Wolf / cards14. A Library of books15. A League of – nations / states16. A Heap of stones17. A Herd of cattle18. A Congregation of worshippers19. A Bunch of – grapes / flowers / keys20. A Bundle of – sticks21. A Bale of – cotton / wool22. An Army / A Company of soldiers. Some common place comparisons
  • 11. 1. As black as Coal2. As blind as a bat3. As bold as brass4. as brave as a lion5. As busy as bee6. As dry as dust7. As dumb as a statue8. As fair as rose9. As cold as ice10. As firm as a rock11.As gentle as a lamb12. As merry as cricket13.As pale as death14. As regular as a clock15. As sweet as honey16. As swift as lightening17.As white as snow18. As wise as Solomon19. As rich as a Jew20. As sharp as a needle.
  • 12. Single word sentence1. A person who shows extreme favoritism towards his relatives, regardless of their virtues – Nepotism.2. A person who believes in merry making – Epicureanism3. A person who asserts his opinion arrogantly – Dogmatism4. A person who believes & supports self religious matters – Fanaticism5. A person who is indifferent to pleasure & pain – Stoicism6. A person who opposes every form of Govt. – Anarchist7. A person who believes in all God – Polytheist8. Person who believes in one God – Monotheist9. Person who doesn’t know if God is present or not – Agnosticism10. Person who believes in God – Theist11. Person who doesn’t believe in God – Atheist12. A person who believes in selfish interest – Egoism13. A person who doubts everything – Scepticism14. A person who believes in over throw of rules as per his own whims – Fascism.15. Custom of having more than one wife at the same time – Polygamy16. Custom of having more than one husband at the same time – Polyandry17. One which cannot be done with out – Indispensable18. That cannot be believed – Incredible
  • 13. 19. Person who sells illegally or smuggles alcoholic liquor – Bootlegger 20.A person who spends extravagantly – Spend Thrift 21. Dead-Body of an animal – carcass 22. Dead-Body of human being - corpse 23. One who abstains from Alcoholic drink – Teetotaler 24. Place where bees are kept – Apiary 25. Place where birds are kept – Aviary 26.One who collects postage stamps – Philatelist 27. A woman who remains unmarried – Spinster 28. Person with no belief in religion – Infidel 29.Soldiers who fight on horse back – Infantry 30. Person indifferent to both pleasure & pain – Stoic 31. One who is unable to pay ones debt - InsolventIrony is the mode where the real meaning is exactly the opposite of which isliterally conveyed.Example : No doubt you are the people and wisdom shall die with you. He is the only person who deserves the prize, and not our effort.PUN is the usage of words , which has the capability of more than oneapplication, the object being to produce a ludicrous effect.Is life worth living ? – it depends upon the liver.Know safety, no accidentsAn Ambassador is s person who lies abroad for the good of his country.