Motivation
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Motivation

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Motivation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MOTIVATION
  • 2. MOTIVATION IS THE SET OF PROCESSES THAT DETERMINE BEHAVIORAL CHOICES – THAT, THOSE THINGS THAT MAKE PEOPLE DECIDE WHAT TO DO. HOW BEHAVIOUR GETS STARTED, IS ENERGISED, IS SUSTAINED, IS DIRECTED, IS STOPPED AND WHAT KIND OF SUBJECTIVE REACTION IS PRESENT IN THE ORGANISMS WHILE ALL THIS IS GOING ON. -- JONES , 1955 MOTIVATION
  • 3. DEFINITION MOTIVATION IS THE SELF - PROPELLING FORCE WITHIN A MAN WHICH KEEPS PROMPTING HIM TO IMPROVE HIS PERFORMANCE, HIS BEHAVIOUR. IT IS HIS WILL AND KEENNESS TO ACHIEVE NOT WHAT HE IS SUPPOSED TO ACHIEVE BUT WHAT HE SETS FOR HIMSELF TO ACHIEVE. -- DR SL DAS
  • 4. MOTIVATING SITUATION MOTIVE GOAL GOAL DIRECTED ACTIVITY GOAL ACTIVITY B E H A V I O U R
  • 5. PROCESS OF MOTIVATION NEEDS,WANTS DESIRES, EXPECTANCY, ANTICIPATION BEHAVIOUR/ ACTION GOAL, INCENTIVE BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
  • 6. VARIABLES AFFECTING MOTIVATION PROCESS
    • INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS
      • INTERESTS
      • ATTITUDES/BELIEFS
        • TOWARD SELF
        • TOWARD JOB
        • TOWARD WORK SITUATION
      • NEEDS
    • WORK CHARACTERISTICS
      • INTRINSIC REWARDS
      • VARIETY & CHALLENGE IN TASKS
      • FEEDBACK
      • AUTONOMY
    • WORK ENVIRONMENT
      • IMMEDIATE
        • PEERS
        • SUPERIORS
        • SUBORDINATES
      • ORGANISATION
        • REWARD SYSTEM
        • ORG CLIMATE
  • 7. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS LOWER ORDER HIGHER ORDER SELF ACTUALISATION ESTEEM SOCIAL PHYSIOLOGICAL SECURITY R E A L ISE POTENTIAL/ SELF- FULFILMENT
    • SELF
    • IMAGE
    • SELF
    • RESPECT/
    • CONFIDENCE
    • REPUTATION/
    • RECOGNITION
    ECONOMIC & SOCIAL EMOTION- ALLY SUPPORTIVE RELATION - SHIPS BASIC NEEDS OF SURVIVAL
  • 8. SATISFYING HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS SOCIAL NEED
    • 1. DESIGN JOBS THAT ALLOW SOCIAL INTERACTION .
    • 2. CREATE TEAM SPIRIT .
    • CONDUCT PERIODIC MEETING WITH ALL SUBORDINATES .
    • DO NOT ATTEMPT TO STIFLE INFORMAL WORK GROUPS THAT ARE NOT ACTUALLY NEGATIVE .
    • 5. PROVIDE OUTSIDE SOCIAL ACTIVITIES FOR ORGANISATIONAL MEMBERS .
  • 9. SATISFYING HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS ESTEEM NEED
    • 1. DESIGN MORE CHALLENGING TASKS .
    • 2. PROVIDE POSITIVE PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK .
    • GIVE RECOGNITION AND ENCOURAGEMENT
    • F OR PERFORMANCE .
    • INVOLVE SUBORDINATES IN GOAL SETTING
    • AND DECISION MAKING .
    • 5. DELEGATE ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY .
    • 6. GIVE PROMOTION .
    • PROVIDE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
    • T HAT INCREASES COMPETENCY ON THE JOB .
  • 10. SATISFYING HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS SELF ACTUALISATION NEED 1. PROVIDE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES THAT INCREASE A PERSON’S ABILITY TO MAKE FULL USE OF HIS/HER POTENTIAL. 2. PROVIDE CHALLENGING, MEANINGFUL WORK THAT REQUIRES A PERSON TO USE HIS/ HER FULL POTENTIAL. 3. ENCOURAGE AND DEVELOP CREATIVITY.
  • 11. COMMENTS OF MASLOW 1. ‘ NEED ’ SATISFACTION IS A CONTINUOUS PROBLEM FOR ORGANISATIONS . 2. THE THREE TO FIVE NEED LEVELS ONLY COME INTO PLAY ONCE ONE & TWO ARE SATISFIED. 3. INDIVIDUALS ARE MOTIVATED MORE BY WHAT THEY ARE SEEKING, THAN BY WHAT THEY HAVE. 4. DREW MIXED REACTIONS, RESEARCH NOT VALIDATED. 5. BASED ON WHAT ‘ MAN SHOULD BE’ RATHER THAN ‘ ACTUALLY IS ’ . 6. UNIVERSALITY QUESTIONABLE. 7. HIERARCHY MODIFIED BY CLAYTON ALDERFER (E R G).
  • 12. DAVID McCLELLAND’S THEORY
    • NEED A FFILIATION
    • N E E D ACHIEVEMENT
    • NEED POWER
    • FRIENDLY
    • SENSITIVE TO FEELINGS/ RELATIONS
    • SOCIALLY ACTIVE , SKILLFUL
    • COMPETITIVE
    • STRETCHES FOR RESULTS
    • NEEDS TANGIBLE FEEDBACK
    • OPINIONATED
    • CONTROL/INFLUENCE OVER OTHERS
    • HARD-HEADED AUTOCRAT
  • 13. McCLELLAND’S NEED AFFILIATION
    • POSITIVE POINTS
    • HE IS HELPFUL
    • SPENDS MOST OF THE TIME PARTICIPATING IN MEETINGS, PARTIES, FRIENDLY GATHERINGS
    • CARES A LOT ABOUT TEAM HARMONY
    • HAS ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF INTERPERSONAL COMPETENCE
    IT IS A DESIRE TO BE WITH OTHERS, TO FORM WARM, FRIENDLY, COMPASSIONATE RELATIONSHIP NEGATIVE POINTS 1. HAS LOW TASK ORIENTATION, FAILS IN TARGET ORIENTATION 2. MAKES FAR TOO MANY EXCEPTIONS IN HANDLING OF PERSONNEL CASES 3. IS NOT LIKELY TO PROVE A SUCCESSFUL COMMANDER
  • 14. McCLELLAND’S NEED ACHIEVEMENT IT IS A DESIRE TO COMPETE WITH OTHERS AND ACHIEVE HIGHER & HIGHER GOALS AS ALSO TO EXCEL ONE’S OWN INTERNALISED AND PREVIOUSLY ACHIEVED STANDARDS
    • NEGATIVE POINTS
    • 1. IS A LONER – IS NOT A TEAM MAN
    • 2. GIVES VAGUE FEEDBACK
    • FAILS TO DEVELOP HIS SUBORDINATES
    • POSITIVE POINTS
    • TAKES CALCULATED RISKS
    • TAKES PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY
    • WORKS WITH FORESIGHT AND CARE
    • MAKES SHORT TERM PLANS
    • WANTS CONCRETE FEEDBACK
    • BELIEVES IN THE PRINCIPLE OF STRETCHING
    • 7. SUCCEEDS AS AN ENTREPRENEUR
  • 15. McCLELLAND’S NEED POWER IT IS A DESIRE TO INFLUENCE AND CONTROL OTHERS, TO GAIN A POSITION OF STATUS AND AUTHORITY . FREE IN GIVING SUGGESTIONS, HAS OPINION ABOUT ALMOST ALL MATTERS.
    • NEGATIVE POINTS
    • 1. PROVOCATIVE / ARGUMENTATIVE / OVER BEARING
    • 2. HARD HEADED / AUTOCRATIC
    • DESIRE TO IMPRESS / INFLUENCE – MAKES THEM
    • UNWANTED IN COMPANY
    • 4. USUALLY A TALKATIVE BORE
    • POSITIVE POINTS
    • LEADS ALL THE WAY
    • FORCEFUL
    • WHEN USED FOR BENEFIT OF ORGANISATION
    • VERY USEFUL , DEVELOPS SUBORDINATES ,
    • BALANCED BEHAVIOUR
  • 16. PAREEK’S NEED DEPENDENCY 1. UNQUESTIONED OBEDIENCE - FEAR OF CONSEQUENCES . 2. DEEP CONCERN FOR MAINTENANCE OF HIERARCHY AND STATUS DIFFERENTIAL. 3. EXPRESSION OF HELPLESSNESS OVER SITUATIONS AND ATTRIBUTING CIRCUM- STANCES TO SUPERIOR AUTHORITY. 4. REWARD - DOLE FROM SUPERIORS, PUNISHMENT - PREROGATIVE OF SUPERIORS.
  • 17.
    • HIGH REGARD FOR ELICITING CO-OP OF
    • OTHERS IN ACHIEVE MENT OF COMMON GOAL.
    • 2. HELPING, COLLABORATING, EMPATHISING.
    • 3. WILLINGNESS TO SACRIFICE FOR COMMON
    • GOOD AND WELFARE OF THE GROUP.
    • 4. IS THE BASIS OF PATRIOTISM.
    PAREEK’S NEED EXTENSION
  • 18. PAREEK’S NEED - RIGOUR
    • DESIRE TO DISCIPLINE ONE-SELF – BASIS OF SELF DISCIPLINE.
    • INVOLVES ‘HIGH INHIBITION’ – WORKING HARD , DENYING COMFORT & PLEASURE TODAY TO ENJOY IT MANY TIMES MORE TOMORROW.
    • AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE LIVES OF YOUNG INDIVIDUALS.
    • NATIONS WHICH HAVE HIGH NEED RIGOUR DEVELOP FAST.
    • IN SERVICES WE OFTEN USE TERMS – LIKE INTENSIVE TRAINING , RIGOROUS TRAINING – THAT E M P H ASI Z E THE ROLE OF NEED RIGOUR IN OUR CONTEXT.
  • 19. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
    • 1. ADM POLICIES 1. CHALLENGING WORK
    • 2. SUPERVISION 2. RESPONSIBILITY
    • 3. WORKING CONDITIONS 3. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
    • INTERPERSONAL 4. RECOGNITION
    • RELATIONS
    • MONEY, STATUS, 5. ACHIEVEMENT
    • SECURITY
    HYGIENE FACTORS MOTIVATORS ( JOB CONTEXT ) ( JOB CONTENT )
  • 20. MOTIVATORS
    • ACHIEVEMENTS
    • TRAINING AND EXERCISES.
    • OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENTS.
    • REALISTIC GOALS.
    • OPPORTUNITY FOR CHALLENGING TASKS.
    • RECOGNITION
    • SELF RESPECT.
    • STATUS OF SERVICE.
    • CODIFICATION OF CRITERIA.
    • COMMENDATIONS & AWARDS.
    • GROWTH
    • LEADERSHIP.
    • COURSES AND SEMINARS.
    • SPECIALISATION.
    • DEPUTATION/INTEGRATION WITH OTHER ORGANISATIONS.
    • RESPONSIBILITY
    • INDEPENDENT TASKS.
    • ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITY.
    • DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY.