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  • 1. Message Strategy Determining the Intervening Variable(s) that will Create a Positive Brand Attitude
  • 2. The Persuasion Process of Advertising is through a variety of effects Awareness/familiarity Brand Benefits / Attributes Info Creating image / personality Associating feelings with Brand Linkage of Brand with peers/experts/group norms Reminder / Brand trial inducement Positive Brand Attitude Purchase Behavior These Intervening Variables between Advertising & Action are more effective Advertising Objectives than Sales
  • 3. Creating / Changing Brand Attitude
  • 4. Consumer Attitudes
    • Learned predispositions to respond toward an object—an individual’s overall feelings toward or evaluation of an object.
    • Consumers may hold attitudes toward:
    • Individuals
    • Brands
    • Companies
    • Organizations
    • Product categories
    • Retailers
    • Advertisements
    • Media
  • 5. Understanding ‘Attitude’
      • Attitude Structure consists of 3 closely interrelated components
      • Cognitive (awareness, comprehension, knowledge)
      • Affective (evaluation, liking, preference)
      • Conative (possibility of action e.g. trial, purchase)
    • Attention is usually focused on the second level as it assumes the ‘Cognitive’ has occurred and the ‘Conative’ will follow
  • 6. Attitude Research
    • Direct Overall Measures – to know the overall market attitude to the brand
      • Questioning or observation of behavior
        • No specific attribute criterion is mentioned
        • Yield no diagnostic information
    • Derived measures – to know the reasons for the attitude
        • Overall attitude is derived from responses to attributes
        • Attitude models are based on these
        • Provides useful diagnostic information
  • 7. ‘Attitude’ in Advertising
      • ‘ Attitude’ as an Advertising Objective
        • Sustain positive Attitude
          • Reinforce the positive attitude
        • Shift Attitude
          • Neutral to positive
          • Negative to positive
      • ‘ Attitude’ Segmentation
        • Segmentation specific to the above mentioned objectives
        • Segment on the basis of - Attribute importance and weightage
  • 8. Benefit Based Attitudes Formation / Change Central Route Motivation & Ability to process information Peripheral Route No motivation & No ability to process information
  • 9. The Importance of Attributes
    • Attributes explains the Attitude composition (the cause of brand’s strengths / weaknesses)
    • 2. Attributes are important in a choice situation
        • Important attributes (set) – category attributes that satisfy needs & wants
        • Determinant attributes – the brand choice attribute
  • 10. Study of Attributes
      • The Study of Attributes is at 2 levels
      • Physical and pseudo-physical characteristics / benefits
      • Means-end chain model:
        • product attributes consumer consequences personal values
  • 11. Multiattribute Attitude Model
    • Attitudes are a function of :
    • A = Σ B i X E i
    • A = Attitude
    • E i = Importance attached to attribute i
    • B i = Beliefs about brands performance on attribute i
    • N = Number of salient attributes considered by the consumer
  • 12. Study of the Brand’s Attributes
        • Identify and determine the important set of attributes by which brands are perceived and evaluated
          • Identify the important attribute (list)
          • Determine importance weightage of each Attribute
          • Identify Determinant and Leverage Attributes – these have greatest impact on attitude structure and are purchase / choice drivers
          • Evaluative beliefs about the Brand’s level of attributes and benefits
  • 13. Attribute Research
        • Derived Multi-attribute Measures –
        • Ranking & Rating – indicates importance of attributes but does not give insights into the trade off customers make - the importance weightage
        • Conjoint analysis – derives the importance weights of attributes and attribute levels
  • 14. Evaluative belief model of cognitive structure
    • Effect of ‘Beliefs’ on Attitude
      • importance weight of Attribute
      • Attitude = +
      • Evaluative beliefs about the Brand’s attribute scores
      • The importance weightage of attributes, combines with the individual’s beliefs about the extent to which the brand has these attributes, which creates brand attitude
  • 15. Integration Processes & Decision Rules
    • Types of decision making rules:
      • Heuristics – simple rule of thumb rules that are easy to use and apply
        • Buy least expensive brand
        • Buy brand on sale or for which I have a coupon
      • Affect referral rule – make decision on basis of overall affective impression or feelings about the brand
      • Compensatory rules – evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each brand
    Integration processes are the way product knowledge, meaning, and beliefs are combined to evaluate alternatives
  • 16. Message Strategy
    • Ways to Influence or Change Attitudes
    • Compensatory Model
    • Increase or change the strength or belief rating of a brand on an important attribute
    • Change consumers’ perceptions of the importance or value of an attribute
    • Add a new attribute to the attitude formation process
    • Change perceptions of belief ratings for a competing brand
  • 17. Message Strategy
      • Ways to Influence or Change Attitudes
      • Non-compensatory models - low involvement products
        • Conjunctive model (acceptable standard rating on all attributes) advertising must mention all important attributes
        • Disjunctive model (one or more attributes rated high) advertising must prominently display those attributes that it scores high
        • Lexicographic model (evaluation on the most salient benefit) salient attribute should be highlighted
      • Non-compensatory models are often used in conjunction with Compensatory models
  • 18. Message Strategy
    • Category evaluation model The established attitude to the category can be recalled and applied to the new stimulus that is placed in the category
      • category attitudes is applied to the object without explicitly mentioning them
      • Advertising based on this model -
        • Positions the object with respect to the category prototype /exemplar
        • Attributes are not explicitly specified
      • E.g. margarine and butter
  • 19. Segmentation Based on Attitude Structure
    • For advertising campaigns and marketing strategy Segmentation Analysis can be done on 2 central constructs of the Attitude Model
      • Evaluative beliefs
      • Importance weights
    • Consumers can be classified by these criteria
      • Benefit segments
  • 20. Advertising and Attitude Formation / Change Central Route Motivation & Ability to process information Peripheral Route No motivation & No ability to process information
  • 21. Associating Feelings with the Brand
  • 22. Associating ‘Feelings’ with the Brand
      • Consumer’s Feeling /‘ Affective Response ’ (‘Emotive bonding’) influences attitude / behavior
        • The ads are execution focused with little or no information
        • Some of the feelings can lead to brand imagery and personality
        • Symbolic and cultural meaning of the brand can be affected
        • Informative ads can also develop affective response
      • Feeling ads also have a cognitive element.
      • Good ads have both an emotional and a rational hook.
  • 23. When are ‘Feelings’ Important?
      • Feelings are important when consumers do not have deeply considered attitudes towards the brand.
        • In low involvement situations / categories
        • Mature brands - when there is little or no new information to be conveyed
        • In socially conspicuous high involvement categories
      • Feeling ads also have a cognitive element.
      • Good ads have both an emotional and a rational hook.
  • 24. Rossiter –Percy Grid
  • 25. Model of Feeling Response to Advertising Ad evoked Affective Response Decreases Thinking Raises ratio of +ve to -ve Thoughts Increases Band Attitude Raises Attribute Valuation Transforms Use Experience Increases Valuation of Ad characteristics Increases Attitude to Ad
  • 26. ‘ Feelings’ Influence Brand Attitude – Positive mood
    • Warm feelings puts people in a positive mood to build Brand Attitude
      • Positive feelings increases positive thoughts
      • It increases the ratio of support to counter arguments
      • And brand attributes are evaluated more positively
      • But total number of thoughts decrease and attitude is formed on peripheral cues rather than central
      • Increases ‘Likeability' by reducing thinking
  • 27. ‘ Feelings’ Influence Attitude - Transforms the Use Experience
    • 2 .Feelings can transform the use experience
    • By showing positive Use Experience & Users the brand experience is transformed to match the one shown in the Ad.
      • Makes the brand experience richer and more enjoyable
      • through recall of past experience associated with similar feelings
    • Creates new brand beliefs - Transformational Advtg
      • Influences perceptions about quality of product
  • 28. Association Process - Transformational Advertising
    • Transformational Advertising – involves 2 types of associations
      • Association of feelings with the use experience
      • The association between the brand and the use experience / user
    • This is done through
      • ‘drama advertising’ – a story with use experience action, music etc.
  • 29. ‘ Feelings’ Influence Attitude - Transforms the Use Experience
      • Conditions necessary for Transformational Advtg
      • The Ad must ring true – empathetic, meaningful
      • Feelings must be connected tightly with the brand
      • Associations must be created and maintained through heavy repetition
      • The same association must be sustained through time
  • 30. Requirements for Successful Transformational Advertising
    • Adequate budget – requires heavy repetition (frequency) and reinforcement to build associations
    • Consistency – the ad must be cohesive, supporting the same associations
    • Links with the brand – must be tight so that one cannot be recalled without the other – make the brand the hero of the story
  • 31. ‘ Feelings’ Influence Attitude – Attitude towards the Ad
    • 3. Feelings can create a positive attitude towards the Ad.
        • Affective – directly through peripheral mechanisms
        • Cognitive – indirectly through evaluation of ad characteristics
      • A positive attitude to the ad gets transferred to brand & brand attributes.
      • Negative attitude to ad may not be transferred to the brand because of
        • Attitudes are not deeply formed before the purchase
        • ‘ sleeper effect’
      • Positive ad attitude is particularly important when the product is new
      • Also important in low involvement categories
      • A positive attitude towards the Ad improves Recall, but so do disliked ads
  • 32. Association Process Classical Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning - Ad evoked feelings are associated with the brand through repetition
      • The link between the brand (US) with the commercial (CS) must not be broken
      • The strength of the association will depend on the amount of repetition
  • 33. What Affects Intensity of Feeling
      • Believability / realism - suspend disbelief ‘Ring true’ (even if it is not literally true)
      • Gain empathy – with similar characters as the target audience in familiar situations / experience
        • Use drama form of advertising - rather than lecture
  • 34. ‘ Feelings’ that are Associated
      • Warmth
        • Precipitated directly or vicariously
        • Love, family, relationships, animals
        • The key message may be lost
      • Fear
        • Creates emotional response & cognitive awareness of problem
        • An optimal level of fear is necessary
        • A solution must be provided
      • Humour
        • May become irritating with repetition
        • The key message may be lost
        • May upset some
  • 35. Advertising and Attitude Formation / Change Central Route Motivation & Ability to process information Peripheral Route No motivation & No ability to process information
  • 36. Brand Equity
    • A set of assets
    • linked to the Brand’s name and symbols
    • that adds to the value
    • provided by a product or service
    • to a firm and customer
  • 37. Brand name and Symbols Other proprietary Brand assets
  • 38. Recognition and Recall Type of brand associations Association Favourability Attributes Benefits Attitudes Prod related Non-prod related Functional Experiential Symbolic Association uniqueness Association Strength Brand Knowledge Brand Image Brand awareness Price Packaging User imagery Usage imagery Consumer Knowledge about a Brand Kevin Keller
  • 39. Brand Personality
      • What it implies
      • Why it matters
      • When it is more important
      • How to create / enhance it
  • 40. Brand Personality Implies
    • Brand Personality goes beyond attributes and feelings and includes the final consequences -
    • Associated values – self expressive
    • Relationship with brand and the consumer
      • Brand is as comfortable as an old friend
      • Brand alienation is a liability
    • BP is described in terms of
      • Demographics, and more importantly
      • Personality traits, attitudes, lifestyle (extrovertedness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, culture)
  • 41. Why Brand Personality Matters
    • To the Organisation it is important as -
      • It builds Brand Equity which delivers value at 2 levels
        • For marketing efforts (loyalty, price, extensions, leverage with trade, competitive advantage)
        • For financial value (a tradable asset)
      • It differentiates the brand from the competition in a unique and preemptible manner
      • Brand Personality enables customers to make their brand choice and stay loyal
  • 42. Why Brand Personality Matters
    • For consumers
    • It provides a self-defining perspective:
      • identifies brands that match their self-concept
      • defines the groups they belong to and do not belong to
    • It enables
      • Interpretation and processing of information
      • Confidence in the purchase decision
      • Use satisfaction
  • 43. Brand Personality Entails….
    • Desired Personality is associated with the Brand through
      • endorsers
      • type of users
      • life-styles
      • characters – Amul Moppet, Air India Maharaja
      • Symbols – cocoanut, umbrella
      • Ad execution elements – music, colours, fonts etc
    • Personality is also acquired through other factors
      • WOM
      • Press reports
  • 44. What Brand Personality Does
    • Brand Personality gives the brand a unique and defining character -
      • As it includes Attributes, Feelings and Values
        • the relationship with product - peoples’ life-style, needs and values
        • the ultimate consequences of product use - values
  • 45. Brand Personality is important when…..
      • When a category has ‘social signaling value’
        • Purchased or consumed in socially conspicuous situations
        • Expensive and relatively scarce products
      • Helps calibrate quality in otherwise ambiguous situations
      • Target market consists of high ‘self monitors’ (individuals who are are easily swayed by brand personality)
  • 46. Implementing Brand Personality
    • Researching the Brand Personality (Quanti – rating on personality objectives Quali – projection techniques )
      • Seek consistency with the functional and psychological benefits the brand promises
      • Research the symbolic associations that currently exists with the product category
      • Understand the type of personality the TG is most likely to be responsive to - both actual and aspired
      • Check how different brands currently rank on different personality characteristics
  • 47. Implementing Brand Personality cont….
      • Targeting Brand Personality is judgmental
        • Consider the Brand’s use settings and context
        • Use endorsers / spokes-characters / users’ life-style imagery / symbols
        • Use of appropriate ad. elements, actors, music, colour, fonts etc (ad execution)
      • Maintaining the Personality
        • over time - to ensure it remains contemporary across different elements of the marketing mix
  • 48. Group Influence and Word-of-Mouth Advertising
  • 49. Reference Groups
    • RGs can be actual or imaginary institutions / individuals, that have relevance on the individual’s aspirations, evaluation, behavior.
      • RG used as standards for self appraisal – ‘the Joneses’ neighbors, social class
      • RG used as a source of norms , standards and attitudes - icons
      • RG considered to be informative experts / opinion leaders
  • 50. Reference Group Association
    • Advertising can associate a brand with a reference group by making the brand
      • an integral part of group norms through explicit or implicit endorsement of role model
      • link the brand to the successful performance of a certain role
  • 51. Nature of Reference Group Influences
    • External and explicit (social interaction is involved - WOM)
    • or
    • Internal and implicit (affected by a mental process, that involves a person or group)
    • and
    • Informational (low knowledge consumers seek information from those considered to be knowledgeable)
    • or
    • Normative (comply with the group to satisfy ego, gain rewards, avoid punishment)
  • 52. Factors that Influence the Degree of Group Influence
    • The type of decision making unit – larger the unit greater the influence
    • The kind of consumption and purchase situation – more conspicuous the situation greater the influence
    • The nature of product category – riskier, high involvement greater the influence
    • Individual differences in susceptibility
  • 53. Informational Sources Diffusion and the Success of WOM
    • Factors Affecting success of Diffusion / WOM
      • Motivation of Opinion Leaders
      • Motivation of Opinion Seekers
      • And the nature of the innovation
  • 54. Informational Sources Diffusion and the Success of WOM
    • 1. Motivational characteristics for opinion leaders
        • Involvement in the product
        • Self involvement
        • Other involvement
        • Message involvement
  • 55. Factors Affecting Diffusion and the Success of WOM
    • 2. Opinion seekers motivation to listen to opinion leaders is, he believes that -
      • OL is trusted as he is seen as ..
      • Interested in the listener’s well being
      • Knowledgeable, experienced and convincing
    • OL in one category may not work for another
  • 56. Factors Affecting Diffusion and Success of WOM
    • 3. Product characteristics – innovation
      • Relative advantage
      • Compatibility
      • Complexity
      • Divisibility
      • Communicability
    • The degree to which the OL is responsive to advertising will determine the efficacy of the 2 step communication
  • 57. Implementing an Informational Influence Strategy
    • It is not practical to single out the innovator and opinion leader segment and target communication at them Hence -
      • Advertising can simulate - designed to appeal to innovators - Slice-of-life advertising
      • Other promotion tools to stimulate WOM – DM, PR, Sales Promos can be used
  • 58. Normative Influence Become Important….
    • Influence of reference Group is important with -
      • New products – determine nature and extent of risk
      • Established products that are socially visible products (high social risk) – use celebrities , slice of life advtg.
      • Functionally risky products – use experts
      • Culturally significant products – give cultural meaning
  • 59. Normative Influence - Advertising Gives Brands Cultural Meaning
    • In a more inclusive way Advertising can give cultural meaning to Brands
      • Knowing the particular type of cultural meaning associated with the category, and
      • Transferring a desirable cultural meaning to the brand
  • 60. External Influences on Consumers Subculture Culture Social class Reference groups Situations