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Message strategies
 

Message strategies

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    Message strategies Message strategies Presentation Transcript

    • Message Strategy Determining the Intervening Variable(s) that will Create a Positive Brand Attitude
    • The Persuasion Process of Advertising is through a variety of effects Awareness/familiarity Brand Benefits / Attributes Info Creating image / personality Associating feelings with Brand Linkage of Brand with peers/experts/group norms Reminder / Brand trial inducement Positive Brand Attitude Purchase Behavior These Intervening Variables between Advertising & Action are more effective Advertising Objectives than Sales
    • Creating / Changing Brand Attitude
    • Consumer Attitudes
      • Learned predispositions to respond toward an object—an individual’s overall feelings toward or evaluation of an object.
      • Consumers may hold attitudes toward:
      • Individuals
      • Brands
      • Companies
      • Organizations
      • Product categories
      • Retailers
      • Advertisements
      • Media
    • Understanding ‘Attitude’
        • Attitude Structure consists of 3 closely interrelated components
        • Cognitive (awareness, comprehension, knowledge)
        • Affective (evaluation, liking, preference)
        • Conative (possibility of action e.g. trial, purchase)
      • Attention is usually focused on the second level as it assumes the ‘Cognitive’ has occurred and the ‘Conative’ will follow
    • Attitude Research
      • Direct Overall Measures – to know the overall market attitude to the brand
        • Questioning or observation of behavior
          • No specific attribute criterion is mentioned
          • Yield no diagnostic information
      • Derived measures – to know the reasons for the attitude
          • Overall attitude is derived from responses to attributes
          • Attitude models are based on these
          • Provides useful diagnostic information
    • ‘Attitude’ in Advertising
        • ‘ Attitude’ as an Advertising Objective
          • Sustain positive Attitude
            • Reinforce the positive attitude
          • Shift Attitude
            • Neutral to positive
            • Negative to positive
        • ‘ Attitude’ Segmentation
          • Segmentation specific to the above mentioned objectives
          • Segment on the basis of - Attribute importance and weightage
    • Benefit Based Attitudes Formation / Change Central Route Motivation & Ability to process information Peripheral Route No motivation & No ability to process information
    • The Importance of Attributes
      • Attributes explains the Attitude composition (the cause of brand’s strengths / weaknesses)
      • 2. Attributes are important in a choice situation
          • Important attributes (set) – category attributes that satisfy needs & wants
          • Determinant attributes – the brand choice attribute
    • Study of Attributes
        • The Study of Attributes is at 2 levels
        • Physical and pseudo-physical characteristics / benefits
        • Means-end chain model:
          • product attributes consumer consequences personal values
    • Multiattribute Attitude Model
      • Attitudes are a function of :
      • A = Σ B i X E i
      • A = Attitude
      • E i = Importance attached to attribute i
      • B i = Beliefs about brands performance on attribute i
      • N = Number of salient attributes considered by the consumer
    • Study of the Brand’s Attributes
          • Identify and determine the important set of attributes by which brands are perceived and evaluated
            • Identify the important attribute (list)
            • Determine importance weightage of each Attribute
            • Identify Determinant and Leverage Attributes – these have greatest impact on attitude structure and are purchase / choice drivers
            • Evaluative beliefs about the Brand’s level of attributes and benefits
    • Attribute Research
          • Derived Multi-attribute Measures –
          • Ranking & Rating – indicates importance of attributes but does not give insights into the trade off customers make - the importance weightage
          • Conjoint analysis – derives the importance weights of attributes and attribute levels
    • Evaluative belief model of cognitive structure
      • Effect of ‘Beliefs’ on Attitude
        • importance weight of Attribute
        • Attitude = +
        • Evaluative beliefs about the Brand’s attribute scores
        • The importance weightage of attributes, combines with the individual’s beliefs about the extent to which the brand has these attributes, which creates brand attitude
    • Integration Processes & Decision Rules
      • Types of decision making rules:
        • Heuristics – simple rule of thumb rules that are easy to use and apply
          • Buy least expensive brand
          • Buy brand on sale or for which I have a coupon
        • Affect referral rule – make decision on basis of overall affective impression or feelings about the brand
        • Compensatory rules – evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each brand
      Integration processes are the way product knowledge, meaning, and beliefs are combined to evaluate alternatives
    • Message Strategy
      • Ways to Influence or Change Attitudes
      • Compensatory Model
      • Increase or change the strength or belief rating of a brand on an important attribute
      • Change consumers’ perceptions of the importance or value of an attribute
      • Add a new attribute to the attitude formation process
      • Change perceptions of belief ratings for a competing brand
    • Message Strategy
        • Ways to Influence or Change Attitudes
        • Non-compensatory models - low involvement products
          • Conjunctive model (acceptable standard rating on all attributes) advertising must mention all important attributes
          • Disjunctive model (one or more attributes rated high) advertising must prominently display those attributes that it scores high
          • Lexicographic model (evaluation on the most salient benefit) salient attribute should be highlighted
        • Non-compensatory models are often used in conjunction with Compensatory models
    • Message Strategy
      • Category evaluation model The established attitude to the category can be recalled and applied to the new stimulus that is placed in the category
        • category attitudes is applied to the object without explicitly mentioning them
        • Advertising based on this model -
          • Positions the object with respect to the category prototype /exemplar
          • Attributes are not explicitly specified
        • E.g. margarine and butter
    • Segmentation Based on Attitude Structure
      • For advertising campaigns and marketing strategy Segmentation Analysis can be done on 2 central constructs of the Attitude Model
        • Evaluative beliefs
        • Importance weights
      • Consumers can be classified by these criteria
        • Benefit segments
    • Advertising and Attitude Formation / Change Central Route Motivation & Ability to process information Peripheral Route No motivation & No ability to process information
    • Associating Feelings with the Brand
    • Associating ‘Feelings’ with the Brand
        • Consumer’s Feeling /‘ Affective Response ’ (‘Emotive bonding’) influences attitude / behavior
          • The ads are execution focused with little or no information
          • Some of the feelings can lead to brand imagery and personality
          • Symbolic and cultural meaning of the brand can be affected
          • Informative ads can also develop affective response
        • Feeling ads also have a cognitive element.
        • Good ads have both an emotional and a rational hook.
    • When are ‘Feelings’ Important?
        • Feelings are important when consumers do not have deeply considered attitudes towards the brand.
          • In low involvement situations / categories
          • Mature brands - when there is little or no new information to be conveyed
          • In socially conspicuous high involvement categories
        • Feeling ads also have a cognitive element.
        • Good ads have both an emotional and a rational hook.
    • Rossiter –Percy Grid
    • Model of Feeling Response to Advertising Ad evoked Affective Response Decreases Thinking Raises ratio of +ve to -ve Thoughts Increases Band Attitude Raises Attribute Valuation Transforms Use Experience Increases Valuation of Ad characteristics Increases Attitude to Ad
    • ‘ Feelings’ Influence Brand Attitude – Positive mood
      • Warm feelings puts people in a positive mood to build Brand Attitude
        • Positive feelings increases positive thoughts
        • It increases the ratio of support to counter arguments
        • And brand attributes are evaluated more positively
        • But total number of thoughts decrease and attitude is formed on peripheral cues rather than central
        • Increases ‘Likeability' by reducing thinking
    • ‘ Feelings’ Influence Attitude - Transforms the Use Experience
      • 2 .Feelings can transform the use experience
      • By showing positive Use Experience & Users the brand experience is transformed to match the one shown in the Ad.
        • Makes the brand experience richer and more enjoyable
        • through recall of past experience associated with similar feelings
      • Creates new brand beliefs - Transformational Advtg
        • Influences perceptions about quality of product
    • Association Process - Transformational Advertising
      • Transformational Advertising – involves 2 types of associations
        • Association of feelings with the use experience
        • The association between the brand and the use experience / user
      • This is done through
        • ‘drama advertising’ – a story with use experience action, music etc.
    • ‘ Feelings’ Influence Attitude - Transforms the Use Experience
        • Conditions necessary for Transformational Advtg
        • The Ad must ring true – empathetic, meaningful
        • Feelings must be connected tightly with the brand
        • Associations must be created and maintained through heavy repetition
        • The same association must be sustained through time
    • Requirements for Successful Transformational Advertising
      • Adequate budget – requires heavy repetition (frequency) and reinforcement to build associations
      • Consistency – the ad must be cohesive, supporting the same associations
      • Links with the brand – must be tight so that one cannot be recalled without the other – make the brand the hero of the story
    • ‘ Feelings’ Influence Attitude – Attitude towards the Ad
      • 3. Feelings can create a positive attitude towards the Ad.
          • Affective – directly through peripheral mechanisms
          • Cognitive – indirectly through evaluation of ad characteristics
        • A positive attitude to the ad gets transferred to brand & brand attributes.
        • Negative attitude to ad may not be transferred to the brand because of
          • Attitudes are not deeply formed before the purchase
          • ‘ sleeper effect’
        • Positive ad attitude is particularly important when the product is new
        • Also important in low involvement categories
        • A positive attitude towards the Ad improves Recall, but so do disliked ads
    • Association Process Classical Conditioning
      • Classical Conditioning - Ad evoked feelings are associated with the brand through repetition
        • The link between the brand (US) with the commercial (CS) must not be broken
        • The strength of the association will depend on the amount of repetition
    • What Affects Intensity of Feeling
        • Believability / realism - suspend disbelief ‘Ring true’ (even if it is not literally true)
        • Gain empathy – with similar characters as the target audience in familiar situations / experience
          • Use drama form of advertising - rather than lecture
    • ‘ Feelings’ that are Associated
        • Warmth
          • Precipitated directly or vicariously
          • Love, family, relationships, animals
          • The key message may be lost
        • Fear
          • Creates emotional response & cognitive awareness of problem
          • An optimal level of fear is necessary
          • A solution must be provided
        • Humour
          • May become irritating with repetition
          • The key message may be lost
          • May upset some
    • Advertising and Attitude Formation / Change Central Route Motivation & Ability to process information Peripheral Route No motivation & No ability to process information
    • Brand Equity
      • A set of assets
      • linked to the Brand’s name and symbols
      • that adds to the value
      • provided by a product or service
      • to a firm and customer
    • Brand name and Symbols Other proprietary Brand assets
    • Recognition and Recall Type of brand associations Association Favourability Attributes Benefits Attitudes Prod related Non-prod related Functional Experiential Symbolic Association uniqueness Association Strength Brand Knowledge Brand Image Brand awareness Price Packaging User imagery Usage imagery Consumer Knowledge about a Brand Kevin Keller
    • Brand Personality
        • What it implies
        • Why it matters
        • When it is more important
        • How to create / enhance it
    • Brand Personality Implies
      • Brand Personality goes beyond attributes and feelings and includes the final consequences -
      • Associated values – self expressive
      • Relationship with brand and the consumer
        • Brand is as comfortable as an old friend
        • Brand alienation is a liability
      • BP is described in terms of
        • Demographics, and more importantly
        • Personality traits, attitudes, lifestyle (extrovertedness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, culture)
    • Why Brand Personality Matters
      • To the Organisation it is important as -
        • It builds Brand Equity which delivers value at 2 levels
          • For marketing efforts (loyalty, price, extensions, leverage with trade, competitive advantage)
          • For financial value (a tradable asset)
        • It differentiates the brand from the competition in a unique and preemptible manner
        • Brand Personality enables customers to make their brand choice and stay loyal
    • Why Brand Personality Matters
      • For consumers
      • It provides a self-defining perspective:
        • identifies brands that match their self-concept
        • defines the groups they belong to and do not belong to
      • It enables
        • Interpretation and processing of information
        • Confidence in the purchase decision
        • Use satisfaction
    • Brand Personality Entails….
      • Desired Personality is associated with the Brand through
        • endorsers
        • type of users
        • life-styles
        • characters – Amul Moppet, Air India Maharaja
        • Symbols – cocoanut, umbrella
        • Ad execution elements – music, colours, fonts etc
      • Personality is also acquired through other factors
        • WOM
        • Press reports
    • What Brand Personality Does
      • Brand Personality gives the brand a unique and defining character -
        • As it includes Attributes, Feelings and Values
          • the relationship with product - peoples’ life-style, needs and values
          • the ultimate consequences of product use - values
    • Brand Personality is important when…..
        • When a category has ‘social signaling value’
          • Purchased or consumed in socially conspicuous situations
          • Expensive and relatively scarce products
        • Helps calibrate quality in otherwise ambiguous situations
        • Target market consists of high ‘self monitors’ (individuals who are are easily swayed by brand personality)
    • Implementing Brand Personality
      • Researching the Brand Personality (Quanti – rating on personality objectives Quali – projection techniques )
        • Seek consistency with the functional and psychological benefits the brand promises
        • Research the symbolic associations that currently exists with the product category
        • Understand the type of personality the TG is most likely to be responsive to - both actual and aspired
        • Check how different brands currently rank on different personality characteristics
    • Implementing Brand Personality cont….
        • Targeting Brand Personality is judgmental
          • Consider the Brand’s use settings and context
          • Use endorsers / spokes-characters / users’ life-style imagery / symbols
          • Use of appropriate ad. elements, actors, music, colour, fonts etc (ad execution)
        • Maintaining the Personality
          • over time - to ensure it remains contemporary across different elements of the marketing mix
    • Group Influence and Word-of-Mouth Advertising
    • Reference Groups
      • RGs can be actual or imaginary institutions / individuals, that have relevance on the individual’s aspirations, evaluation, behavior.
        • RG used as standards for self appraisal – ‘the Joneses’ neighbors, social class
        • RG used as a source of norms , standards and attitudes - icons
        • RG considered to be informative experts / opinion leaders
    • Reference Group Association
      • Advertising can associate a brand with a reference group by making the brand
        • an integral part of group norms through explicit or implicit endorsement of role model
        • link the brand to the successful performance of a certain role
    • Nature of Reference Group Influences
      • External and explicit (social interaction is involved - WOM)
      • or
      • Internal and implicit (affected by a mental process, that involves a person or group)
      • and
      • Informational (low knowledge consumers seek information from those considered to be knowledgeable)
      • or
      • Normative (comply with the group to satisfy ego, gain rewards, avoid punishment)
    • Factors that Influence the Degree of Group Influence
      • The type of decision making unit – larger the unit greater the influence
      • The kind of consumption and purchase situation – more conspicuous the situation greater the influence
      • The nature of product category – riskier, high involvement greater the influence
      • Individual differences in susceptibility
    • Informational Sources Diffusion and the Success of WOM
      • Factors Affecting success of Diffusion / WOM
        • Motivation of Opinion Leaders
        • Motivation of Opinion Seekers
        • And the nature of the innovation
    • Informational Sources Diffusion and the Success of WOM
      • 1. Motivational characteristics for opinion leaders
          • Involvement in the product
          • Self involvement
          • Other involvement
          • Message involvement
    • Factors Affecting Diffusion and the Success of WOM
      • 2. Opinion seekers motivation to listen to opinion leaders is, he believes that -
        • OL is trusted as he is seen as ..
        • Interested in the listener’s well being
        • Knowledgeable, experienced and convincing
      • OL in one category may not work for another
    • Factors Affecting Diffusion and Success of WOM
      • 3. Product characteristics – innovation
        • Relative advantage
        • Compatibility
        • Complexity
        • Divisibility
        • Communicability
      • The degree to which the OL is responsive to advertising will determine the efficacy of the 2 step communication
    • Implementing an Informational Influence Strategy
      • It is not practical to single out the innovator and opinion leader segment and target communication at them Hence -
        • Advertising can simulate - designed to appeal to innovators - Slice-of-life advertising
        • Other promotion tools to stimulate WOM – DM, PR, Sales Promos can be used
    • Normative Influence Become Important….
      • Influence of reference Group is important with -
        • New products – determine nature and extent of risk
        • Established products that are socially visible products (high social risk) – use celebrities , slice of life advtg.
        • Functionally risky products – use experts
        • Culturally significant products – give cultural meaning
    • Normative Influence - Advertising Gives Brands Cultural Meaning
      • In a more inclusive way Advertising can give cultural meaning to Brands
        • Knowing the particular type of cultural meaning associated with the category, and
        • Transferring a desirable cultural meaning to the brand
    • External Influences on Consumers Subculture Culture Social class Reference groups Situations