Media tactics
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Media tactics






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Media tactics Media tactics Presentation Transcript

  • Media Tactics Media Planning and Strategy The Media class, Media vehicles, Media options, Scheduling and timing
  • Media Terminology
    • Media Planning - A series of decisions involving the delivery of messages to audiences.
    • Media Objectives - Goals to be attained by the media strategy and program.
    • Media Strategy - Decisions on how the media objectives can be attained – indicative of the media budget.
    • Media - The various categories of delivery systems , including broadcast and print media.
    • Broadcast Media - Either radio or television network
  • Media Terminology
    • Print Media - Publications such as newspapers and magazines.
    • Media Vehicle - The specific message carrier, such as the Times of India, Femina, KBC, MTV Roadies.
    • Coverage - The potential audience that might receive the message through the vehicle.
    • Reach - The actual number of individual audience members reached at least once by the vehicle in a given period of time.
    • Frequency - The number of times the receiver is exposed to vehicle in a specific time period.
  • Problems in Media Planning
    • Lack of information
    • Inconsistent terms
    • Serious time pressure
    • Measurement problems
  • Developing the Media Plan Situation Analysis Media Use Decision — Print Media Use Decision — Broadcast Media Use Decision — Other Media Advertising Strategy Plan Setting Media Objectives Selecting Media Within Class Selecting Broad Media Classes Determining Media Strategy Marketing Strategy Plan
  • Developing the Media Plan Analyze the Market Establish Media Objectives Develop Media Strategy Implement Media Strategy Evaluate Performance
  • Where to Promote? Brand and Category Analysis Percentage of brand sales to total sales in market Percentage of total population in market Percentage of brand to total U.S. sales in market Percentage of total U.S. population in market BDI = X 100 Brand Development Index
  • Where to Promote? Brand and Category Analysis Percentage of product category total sales in market Percentage of total population in market CDI = X 100 Category Development Index
  • Brand and Category Analysis High market share Good market potential High market share Monitor for sales decline Low market share Good market potential High CDI Low CDI Low market share Poor market potential High BDI Low BDI
  • Brand and Category Analysis The market usually represents good sales potential for both the product and the brand. The category isn’t selling well but the brand is; may be a good market in which to advertise but should be monitored for sales decline . The product category shows high potential but the brand isn’t doing well; the reason should be determined. High CDI Low CDI Both the product category and the brand are doing poorly; not likely to be a good place to advertise. High BDI Low BDI
  • Media Planning Criteria Considerations
    • The media mix
    • Target market coverage
    • Geographic coverage
    • Reach versus frequency
    • Scheduling
    • Creative aspects and mood
    • Flexibility
    • Budget considerations
  • Target Audience Coverage Population excluding target market Target market Media coverage Media overexposure Coverage Exceeding Market Partial Market Coverage Full Market Coverage Target Market Proportion
  • Media Class Decisions
      • Decision is made on quantitative criteria
        • Target Audience number that can be reached through media class – TV, Radio, Press….
      • Decision is made on qualitative criteria
        • Fit between medium and creative execution
        • Production logistics
        • Competition’s use of media
  • Television Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • Mass coverage
    • High reach
    • Impact of sight, sound, and motion
    • High prestige
    • Low cost per exposure
    • Attention getting
    • Favorable image
    • Disadvantages
    • Low selectivity
    • Short message life
    • High absolute cost
    • High production costs
    • Clutter
    • Fleeting message
  • Radio Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • Local coverage
    • Low cost
    • High frequency
    • Flexible
    • Low production costs
    • Well-segmented audiences
    • Disadvantages
    • Audio only
    • Clutter
    • Low attention getting
    • Fleeting message
  • Magazines Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • Segmentation potential
    • Quality reproduction
    • High information content
    • Longevity
    • Multiple readers – pass-on-readership
    • Disadvantages
    • Long lead time for ad placement
    • Visual only
    • Lack of flexibility
  • Newspapers Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • High coverage
    • Low cost
    • Short lead time for placing ads
    • Ads can placed in interest sections
    • Timely (current ads)
    • Reader controls exposure
    • Can be used for coupons
    • Disadvantages
    • Short life
    • Clutter
    • Low attention-getting capabilities
    • Poor reproduction quality
    • Selective reader exposure
  • Outdoor Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • Location specific
    • High resolution
    • Easily noticed
    • Disadvantages
    • Short exposure time requires short ad
    • Poor image
    • Local restrictions
  • Internet / Interactive Media Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • User selects product information
    • User attention and involvement
    • Interactive relationship
    • Direct selling potential
    • Flexible message platform
    • Disadvantages
    • Limited creative capabilities
    • Web snarl (crowded access)
    • Technology limitations
    • Few valid measurement techniques
    • Limited reach
  • Direct Mail Characteristics
    • Advantages
    • High selectivity
    • Reader controls exposure
    • High information content
    • Opportunities for repeat exposures
    • Disadvantages
    • High cost/contact
    • Poor image (junk mail)
    • Clutter
  • Media Vehicle Decision
    • Media vehicle choice is based on -
      • Quantitative considerations of – Cost per exposure
        • TV – unit of measurement
          • TRP x no.of exposures = GRP ( gross rating points) / total no of exposures
          • CPRP unit cost divided by TRP (cost per rating point)
        • Press – unit of measurement
          • Readership - total vehicle audience (higher than circulation)
          • CPT - unit cost divided by readership x 1000= CPT (cost per thousand)
      • Qualitative considerations of media vehicle choice
          • Editorial environment suitability
          • To gather media source effect copy approaches must vary by vehicle
  • Determining Relative Cost of Media Cost of ad space (absolute cost) Circulation / Readership CPM = X 1,000 Cost per thousand (CPM)
  • Determining Relative Cost of Media CPRP = Cost of commercial time Program rating (TRP) Cost per rating point (CPRP)
  • Qualifying Reach
      • Reach –no of people / households exposed to the advertising at least once, over a specified period of time
      • Reach is always Unduplicated Reach – internal and external duplication
      • Cumulative reach - additional readers netted through pass on readership
      • Effective reach / audience - % of target audience reached by the vehicle
      • The audience is usually defined in terms of demographics
  • Graph of Effective Reach
  • Qualifying Frequency
      • Frequency – the number of times someone sees the ad
      • Average Frequency – the average number of times a person or household is exposed
      • (no. of exposures ( OTS) divided by unduplicated reach)
      • Threshold / Effective reach level / effective frequency – level of frequency below which the person would not have been effectively reached - at least 3 exposures
      • Frequency distribution – The exact number of people to be exposed a specified number of times (to avoid over or under exposure)
  • Reach and Frequency Unduplicated Reach of Both Duplicated Reach of Both Reach of Two Programs Reach of One Program Total market audience reached Total market audience reached Total reached with both shows Total reach less duplicate
  • Effects of Reach and Frequency
    • One exposure of an ad to a target group within a purchase cycle has little or no effect in most circumstances.
    • Since one exposure is usually ineffective, the central goal of productive media planning should be to enhance frequency rather than reach.
    • The evidence suggests strongly that an exposure frequency of two within a purchase cycle is an effective level.
    • 4. Beyond three exposures within a brand purchase cycle or over a period of four or even eight weeks, increasing frequency continues to build advertising effectiveness at a decreasing rate but with no evidence of decline.
  • Effects of reach and frequency
    • Although there are general principles with respect to frequency of exposure and its relationship to advertising effectiveness, differential effects by brand are equally important
    • Frequency response principles or generalizations do not vary by medium.
    • 7. The data strongly suggest that wearout is not a function of too much frequency. It is more of a creative or copy problem.
  • Marketing Factors Important to Determining Frequency
    • Brand history
    • Brand share
    • Brand loyalty
    • Purchase cycles
    • Usage cycle
    • Competitive share of voice
    • Target group
  • Message or Creative Factors Important to Determining Frequency
    • Message complexity
    • Message uniqueness
    • New vs. continuing campaigns
    • Image versus product sell
    • Message variation
    • Wearout
    • Advertising units
  • Media Factors Important to Determining Frequency
    • Clutter
    • Editorial environment
    • Attentiveness
    • Scheduling
    • Number of media used
    • Repeat Exposures
  • The Trade off between Reach & Frequency (OTS)
      • Reach is more important when gaining awareness for a new product
      • Frequency is more important when communicating product details or building Brand Attitude (needs more exposures /OTS)
  • Measuring Media Audiences
      • Measuring Print Vehicles - Readership data
        • Research Methods used Recent Reading , Through the book approach
        • ABC –gives circulation figures of press vehicles but neglects pass on readership
        • NRS & IRS – It gives the readership profile of the vehicle & duplication data is also provided (by socio-economic classification)
        • brand & category usage data
      • Measuring Broadcast vehicles – viewership / listnership data
        • People meter & diary system – for TV
  • Media Vehicle Source Effect
      • Exposure impact can vary by media vehicle and media class even when audience is the same
      • The differential impact is caused by –
        • Editorial environment – unbaisedness, expertness, prestige, mood created
        • Audience involvement
        • Physical reproduction
      • Copy approaches must vary by vehicle to gather media source effect
  • Media Option Decisions
      • Media planner decides the unit of advertising
        • Starch scores throw light on unit impact
        • Advertising size – more impact rather than proportionate increase in readership
        • Colour – adds 50% more readership
        • Advertising location – the end or beginning of string of commercial do better on recall
        • Back / inside covers do better than inside mag. pages
        • Copy execution – Ads that resemble editorial are read more
  • Three Scheduling Methods Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Continuity Pulsing Flighting
  • Scheduling and Timing Decisions
      • Media schedule are based on and reflect
        • Advertising Objectives –‘high reach’ or ‘shift in attitude’
        • And how quickly Attitude is likely to decay
      • Scheduling strategies detail the media strategy
        • Flighting – alternating bursts with periods of inactivity
          • Long purchase cycle products
          • when wear-in and wear out is slow
          • high peaks of recall are required
        • Pulsing – continuous base level advtg. augmented by intermittent bursts
          • Frequently purchased products
          • when decay is fast
          • continuous levels of high recall are not needed
        • Continuous or Even – limited advertising spread out evenly
          • Frequently purchased services and products
          • quick decay, high levels of recall are not needed
  • Media Buying
      • Buying media units - space / time can be through
        • The AOR (agency of record)
        • The creative agency
        • In-house
      • Rates are negotiable depending on the supply and demand
        • Upfront buys
        • Scatter buys
      • Rates vary with specificity of the spot / position
        • RODP run of day part - TV
        • ROT run of time - radio
        • ROP run of paper – press - dailies