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Meaning and nature of resreach

Meaning and nature of resreach






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    Meaning and nature of resreach Meaning and nature of resreach Document Transcript

    • UNIT 1.1 MEANING & NATURE OF RESEARCHWhat is Research?Research is an art of scientific investigation.It is regarded as a systematic efforts to gain new knowledge.The dictionary meaning of research is “a careful investigation or enquiry especially through search for new facts in anybranch of knowledge”.Definition of ResearchResearch comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting,organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusionsto determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.-Clifford WoodyNature of Research  It strives to be objective and logical.  It is based on observable experience or empirical evidence.  It is characterised by patient and unhurried activity.  It demands accurate observations, reservations and descriptions.  It is directed towards the solution of the problem.  It is carefully recorded and reported.  It requires expertise.  It involves gathering new data from primary or firest hand sources or using existing data for new purpose.Objectives of Research  To investigate a subject.  To collect data regarding the problem.  To conduct logical and objective study.  To conduct a systematic enquiry of the subject.  For carefully recording, reporting and presenting the facts. Descriptive Historical Research Research Fundamental Research Applied Research Types of Empirical Research Research Conceptual Research Analytical Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Research BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS - I
    • Flow Chart of Research Process Interpret Define Research & Problem Report Analyze the Review of the Data Literature Formulate Collection of Design Research Hypothesis Data BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS - ISignificance of Research  It provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.  It helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.  It is an aid to decision making.  It establishes the relation between variables.  It is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.  It provides a basis for innovation.  It facilitates the process of thinking, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of various situation.Criteria for Good Research  Purpose should be clearly defined.  Common concepts should be used that can be understood by all.  Research procedure should be explained in detail.  Research design should be carefully planned.  Researcher should declare all the possible errors and their possible impact on finding.  Analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal significance.  The methods of analysis should be appropriate.  The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully.  The researcher have good command over research methodologies and should be intelligent and experience.Limitations of Research  It is based on sample & sampling research lacks the complete accuracy.  Long time is required in the research procedures.  Difficult to evaluate the economic benefits derived from the research.  Trained personnel and a lot of time are required for research.  Lack of adequate knowledge of research. UNIT 1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEMWhat is Research Problem?It refers to some difficulty which the researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or a practical situationand wants to obtain solution for the same.Components of Research Problem  There must be individual or the group which has some difficulty or the problem.
    •  There must be some objective to be attained.  There must be alternative means for obtaining the objectives one wishes to attain.  There must be some doubt in the mind of the researcher with regard to the selection of the alternatives.  There must be some environment to which the difficulty pertains.How Problem is Selected?Should not be: Should be:  The subject which is overdone.  Subject should be familiar and feasible.  Controversial Subject.  Some criteria like: qualification, training,  Too narrow or too vague problem. literature, cost should be considered.  Problem should be selected by preliminary study.What is the need defining Problem?Definition of the problem will enable the researcher to be on track, whereas an ill defined problem will create problems.The further action plan depends upon defining the problem.What is the Technique?It includes following steps: 1. Statement of problem in a general way. 4. Developing the ideas through discussions. 2. Understanding the nature of the problem. 5. Rephrasing the research problem. 3. Surveying the available literature.Points to be kept in mind a) Technical terms and words to be clearly defined. b) Basic assumptions to be clearly stated. c) Straight forward criteria for selecting the problem should be provided. d) Suitability of the time period and sources of the data must also be considered. e) Scope of investigations and limitations should be kept in mind. UNIT 1.3 RESEARCH DESIGNWhat is Research Design?A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combinerelevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.Research Design Constitutes Decisions like: What, Where, When, How, How muchNeed for Research Design: • It facilitates the smooth flow of various research processes. • It would result in more accurate results with minimum usage of time, effort and moneyConcepts: • Dependent variable: relationship between dependent and independent variable is dependent on the result of other variables when affected by extraneous variable.variable. • Independent Variable: • Research Hypothesis: variable that is not dependent on any other Predicted statement that relates an independentvariable. and dependent variable. • Extraneous Variable: • Experimental Hypothesis testing research: are independent variable that are not directly Research in which independent variable islinked, but affect the dependent variable. manipulated. • Control: • Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing devised to minimize the effects of Extraneous research:Variables. Research in which independent variable is not • Confounded Relationship: manipulated. • Experimental Group:
    • when the group is exposed to some novel or different conditions under which experimentalspecial conditions. and control groups are put. • Control Groups: • Experiment: when the research group is exposed to the usual process of examining the truth of a statisticalconditions. hypothesis , relating to some research problem. • Treatments: Different Research Designs: • Exploratory • Diagnostic • Descriptive • ExperimentalExploratory Design: • Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. • Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information. • Exploratory research is used in a number of situations: – To gain background information – To clarify problems and hypotheses – To define terms – To establish research prioritiesA variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research: • Secondary Data Analysis • Case Analysis • Experience Surveys • Focus GroupsDescriptive Design: • Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why. • Two basic classifications: • Cross-sectional studies • Longitudinal studies • Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time. • Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population. • On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed. • Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time. • One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame. • A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically. • On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries.DIAGNOSTIC DESIGNDiagnostic research determines the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.Example: studies concerned with specific prediction, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individuals orgroup or situation.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN • Prof. R.A. Fisher – agricultural research • Also called Hypothesis testing Research. • These are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables. Basic Principles 1. Principle of Replication: • Experiment should be repeated. • Each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one.
    • • Advantage: Increases accuracy and reliability • Disadvantage: difficult to compute. 2. Principle of Randomization: • Research should be designed so that the variations caused by extraneous factor can all be combined under the general heading of “Chance” 3. Principle of Local Control: • The extraneous variable, the source of variability, is made to vary deliberately over a wide range. • Reason: the variability it causes can be measured & eliminated from the experimental error. Important Experimental Designs Informal Experimental Design • Before-and-after without control design: = level of phenomenon after the treatment-level of phenomenon before the treatment. • After-only with control design: value of dependent variable in the test area-value of dependent variable in the controlled area. • Before-and-after with control design: change in dependent variable in the test area-change in dependent variable in the controlled area. Formal Experimental Designs • Completely randomized design • Latin square design • Randomized block design • Factorial designAssignment QuestionsQ.1 Explain the meaning & significance of a research design?Q.2 Short notes on the concepts?Q.3 “Research design in exploratory studies, but in descriptive studies, it must minimize bias and maximize reliability. ”Discuss? UNIT I DATA COLLECTIONPopulation • All the items that fall under the purview of research are called “Universe” or “Population”. • Algebraically represented by “N”.Sample: • It is the small unit of the population, that represents all the characteristics of the population. • The sample is selected by using several techniques; called Sampling Techniques. • Algebraically represented by “n”.Census and SurveyCensus: It is the Enquiry done on the population. i.e. it is the enquiry that covers all the items in the population.  More complicated  Involves great deal of time, money and energy.  Can be done only by government.Example: population census.Survey: it is the study conducted on the selected few items called sample. TOPIC II SAMPLINGConcept of Sampling: • Sampling Method means selection of a limited number of items representing the population or universe for studying the characteristics of the whole population or universe.
    • • Example: to know the IQ of the Students of age between 15-16, suppose in the class of 70 students. We conduct the study on 20 students who represent the class.Population = 70Sample = 20Essentials of Sampling • Sample should posses same characteristics as the population. • Absolute accuracy is not essential. • Regulating conditions should be same for every individual item in the sample.Advantages of Sampling • the result obtained is generally more reliable than that obtained from a complete count. • Total financial burden of a sample survey is generally less than that of complete census. • Possible to collect more detailed information in a sample survey. • Causes less damage and wastage.Disadvantages: • Shortage of experts in the sampling field is a serious hurdle in the way of reliable statistics. • Sampling plan may be complicated that it requires more time, labour and money than a complete count. • Must be carefully planned and executed otherwise the results obtained may be inaccurate and misleading.Reasons for Sampling: 1. Universe Size 4. Time Constraints 2. Financial Constraints 5. Destructive Nature of smapling 3. Sufficiency of an approximation TOPIC III SAMPLING DESIGNSample DesignIt comprises of: 1. Sampling Frame 2. Selection of sampling 3. Sample Size items Types of Sampling Design- • Probability Sampling: • Non-Probability Sampling:  Simple Random  Convenience  Stratified sampling  Judgment  Area or Cluster  Quota  Multi-stage random  Panel  Systematic  PurposiveSimple Random Sampling • Merits: • Demerits:  Represents universe in the better way  May not be true representative if its size  Desired level of precision can be is small. achieved by increasing or decreasing the  Units of population should be sample size. dependent.  More scientific method.  Needs a complete list of finite population, without.Stratified Sampling • Merits:  Assures representativeness • Demerits:  Decreases chances of excluding units of  Requires accurate knowledge of the universe. universe.  representative character can be  If stratified list is not available, it will be achieved with fewer items. costly to prepare the same.  Replacement of units is easily possible.  Bias or error may be made in the sample  Saves time & money through improper stratification
    • Cluster or Area Sampling • Merits: • Demerits:  If clusters are geographically defined,  Larger Errors for comparable size than yield lowest field costs. other probability samples, and  Requires listing only individuals in  Requires ability to assign each member selected clusters. of population uniquely to a cluster;  Characteristics of clusters as well as inability to do so may result in those of population can be estimated. duplication or omission of individuals.Multi-stage Random Sampling: • Merits: • Demerits:  Complete listing of universe is not  Errors are likely to be larger than the required. other types.  If sampling units are geographically  Errors will increase as number of defined, then, it cuts down field costs selected sampling units decrease.Sampling with probability proportional to size: • Merits:  Equivalent to simple random sampling.  It is less cumbersome. • Demerits:  It is less expensive.Sequential Sampling: • It is repetitive and can give more accurate results.Judgment Sampling • Merits:  Reduces the cost of preparing sample and field work, since ultimate units can be selected so that they are close together • Demerits:  Variability and bias of estimates cannot be measured or controlled, and  Requires storing assumptions or considerable knowledge of population and sub-group selected.Quota Sampling: • Merits:  Same as in judgement sampling.  Introduces some stratification effect. • Demerits:  Introduces bias of observer’s classification of subjects and non-random selection within classes. UNIT-1 OBSERVATION & INTERVIEWObservation:  Observation is the process of recognizing and noting people, objects and occurrence rather than asking questions.  Example: this method is applied to study the effectiveness of sales forecasting, movements of customers towards a particular product (brand), advertising medium or channels of distribution.Method:  The information sought by way of investigators own direct observations, without asking from the respondent.  Example: to study consumer behavior.Points of Considerations: 1. What should be observed? 2. How the observation is to recorded? 3. How the accuracy of the observation can be maintained?Types of Observation:  Structured Observation: – Careful definition of units.
    • – A specific style of recording observed information. – Standardized Conditions of the observations. – Used in descriptive studies  Unstructured Observation: – Observation that is done without these characteristics. – Used in exploratory studies.  Participant Observation: – Observer observes himself to the part of the group, he is observing. – Enables to record the natural behavior. – Can verify the truth easily. – But he might also lose the objectivity.  Non-Participant Observation: – Observer observes himself to be detached . – His presence is not known to the people he had been observing  Controlled Observation: – If observation takes place as per the pre-arranged plans, involves experimental procedure. – Use of mechanical instruments. – More accuracy and standardization. – Will supply formalized data.  Uncontrolled Observation: – If observation takes place in the natural surroundings. – No attempt is made to use precision instruments – Aims to get spontaneous responses. – Difficult to interpret. – Used in exploratory researches.Observation:  Merits: – Subjective bias is eliminated. – Deals with current information. – Independent of respondent’s willingness to respond. – Suitable to study those respondents who are unable to give verbal response.  Demerits: – Expensive method. – Information provided is limited. – Unforeseen factors may interfere. – Interpretation might be difficult.< Interview:  In this method, interviewer contacts the respondents as some convenient place and time and initiates the investigation through some pre-designed schedules in the form of questionnaire.  Information is obtained with the help of structured questionnaire through direct and in depth interviews of sample.Merits of Interviews: 1. Greater degree of reliability, validity and confidence in the information due to inter-personal interaction. 2. More co-operation from the respondent can be possible. 3. Ambiguity in questions can be removed by the interviewer. 4. Different types of information can be collected. 5. High response rate. 6. Relatively shorter time period is required.Demerits of Interview: 1. Presence of interviewer can make the respondent conscious. 2. Questions of confidential or personal nature may not be answered. 3. Relatively high cost 4. Needs exhaustive analysis using computers. 5. Limited control over the interviewer, thus creates administrative problems.
    • 6. Time required is more as compared to other methods. 7. Interviewer’s bias or sincerity can affect the quality of the collected information. 8. Some times locating or identifying the respondent is difficult problem for the interviewer.Guidelines for successful interview: 1. Schedule a time in advance. 2. Prepare a list of questions. 3. Reassure them. 4. Bring ample of stationary. 5. Take good notes. 6. Start with the right question or topic. 7. Avoid “yes” or “no” questions. 8. Show interest. 9. Don’t push for the answer. 10. Let them “wander” 11. Don’t interrupt or correct them. 12. Write it up.