Marketing research3
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Marketing research3 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PRIMARY SCALES OF MEASUREMENT 10 5 4 5 Walmart 100 7 5 4 Sears 50 3 1 3 Target 20 1 2 2 JC Penny 30 2 3 1 Kmart Ratio Scale $ spent in last1month Interval Scale (Preference Rating 1-7) Ordinal Scale (Preference Ranking) Nominal Scale Store
  • 2. MEASUREMENT
    • The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre specified rules. There must be one to one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being measured.
    • PRIMARY SCALES OF MEASUREMENT
    • 1) Nominal Scale
    • A nominal scale is a figurative labeling scheme in which the numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. Each number is assigned to only one object and each object has only one number assigned to it. In research
  • 3. methodology, nominal scales are used for identifying respondents, brands, attributes, stores. However a nominal scale need not involve assignment of numbers, alphabets or symbols could be assigned as well. The numbers in a nominal scale do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the objects. 2) Ordinal Scale An ordinal scale is ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects possesses some
  • 4.
    • characteristic. An ordinal scale allows us to determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object but not how much more or less. Thus an ordinal scale indicates relative position, not the magnitude of differences between objects. The object ranked first has more of the characteristic as compared to the object ranked second. Ordinal scales are used to measure relative attitudes, opinions, perceptions and preferences.
    • 3) Interval Scale
    • In an interval scale, numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal values in the characteristic being measured. An interval scale contains all the information of an ordinal scale but
  • 5. it also us to compare the differences between objects. The difference between any two scale values is identical to the difference between any other two adjacent values in an interval scale. 4) Ratio Scale A ration scale possesses all the properties of nominal, ordinal and interval scale and in addition, an absolute zero point. Thus in ratio scale we can identify or classify objects, rank the objects and compare intervals or differences. It is also meaningful to compute ratios of scale values.
  • 6. Distinction between Questionnaire & Schedule
    • Questionnaire
    • The term questionnaire usually refers to a self administered process whereby the respondent himself reads the questions and records answers without the assistance of an interviewer.
    • It is highly structured and standardized.
    • It lacks flexibility in wording and sequencing the questions and hence in answering the questions.
    • There is no scope of rewording, rephrasing or rearranging the questions which are fixed on the questionnaire.
    • There is choice of the respondent to apply his own judgment and answer questions as he thinks right.
    • Cover letter carrying request and instructions to the respondents is an essential characteristic of a questionnaire.
    • Interview Schedule
    • The term interview schedule refers to a list of questions that will be discussed with the respondent in person by an interviewer who will also record the answers given by the respondent.
    • It is mostly unstructured and questions are not standardized.
    • Flexibility is there.
    • 4. An interview schedule may contain definite questions to be asked but the interviewer is allowed to reword, rephrase or rearrange the questions according to his own judgment and situation.
    • There is lesser freedom to the respondent in answering.
    • 6. Interview schedule does not a cover letter because interviewer performs the requesting and instructing tasks.
  • 7. SCALING TECHNIQUES Comparative Scale Non Comparative Scale Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Continuous Rating Scale Itemized Rating Scale Semantic Differential Stapel Q Sort Likert
  • 8. Continuous Rating Scale
    • How would you rate Walmart as a departmental store ?
    • Version 1
    • Probably the best _ _ _ _I _ _ _ _ _ _ Probably the worst
    • Version 2
    • Probably the best _ _ _ _I _ _ _ _ _ _ Probably the worst
    • 01020 100
    • Version 3
    • Probably the best _ _ _ _I _ _ _ _ _ _ Probably the worst
  • 9. Structured Questionnaire
    • A structured questionnaire is a formal list of question framed so as to get the facts. The interviewer asks the questions strictly in accordance with the prearranged order. If the researcher appoints some interviewers to collect information on his behalf, the interviewers are expected to adhere to the same order in asking question as contained in the questionnaire.
  • 10.
    • Structured non disguised
    • Structured disguised
    • Non-Structured non disguised
    • On- Structured disguised
  • 11.
    • Structured- non disguised questionnaire - is one where the listing of questions is in a in a pre-arranged order and where the object of inquiry is related to the respondent. Most research studies use this type of questionnaire.
    • Structured- disguised questionnaire - The researcher does not disclose the object of the survey. He feels that if the respondent comes to know the object of the survey, he may not be objective in giving the necessary information and its purpose may be defeated.
  • 12.
    • Non- Structured Questionnaire
    • Non-Structured questionnaire is one in which the question are not structured and the order in which they are to be asked from the respondent is left entirely to the researcher. He asks the questions in the manner in which he seems fit in a particular manner. Unstructured questionnaire are used in exploratory research when some respondents are contacted. It is only subsequently, on the basis of answers received, that a well structured questionnaire is developed.
    • Where the purpose of the enquiry is disclosed to the respondents, the questionnaires are known as non- structured non disguised while in other cases, the questionnaires are classified as non-structured disguised questionnaire.
  • 13. Designing a Questionnaire
    • Type of Information to be collected
    • Facts
    • Quasi facts
    • Awareness
    • d) Opinions
    • e) Attitudes
    • f) Future action plans
    • g) Reasons
  • 14.
    • 2) Types of Questions
    • Open ended questions
    • Dichotomous questions
    • Multiple choice questions
    • 3) Phrasing of the questions
    • The way in which a question is drafted is very important as a slight suggestive wording would elicit a very different answer from the respondents.
    • Don’t you think that this is a substandard product?
    • Do you think that this is a substandard product?
  • 15.
    • Question % of respondents saying “YES”
    • Do you think anything should be 82%
    • done to make it easier for people
    • to pay doctor’s or hospital bills?
    • Do you think anything could be done 77%
    • to make it easier for people to pay
    • doctor’s or hospital bills?
    • Do you think anything might be done 63%
    • to make it easier for people to pay
    • doctor’s or hospital bills?
  • 16.
    • One should be particular about the following factors:
    • a) Difficult words should be avoided as far as possible. Likewise, technical or special terms which an average respondent may not understand should be excluded.
    • b) Vague words such as “many’, “often”, “generally”, “on the whole” and reasonably should not be used.
    • c) Lengthy questions should be avoided. Too much verbosity makes questions lengthy and is likely to confuse the respondent.
  • 17.
    • d) One should avoid combining two questions into one
    • for example: - Which of the following modes of transport is cheaper and more convenient?
    • i. Train ii. Bus
    • Questions lacking specificity should be avoided or modified suitably so that they become more precise.
    • Order of Questions
    • 5) Layout of the Questionnaire
  • 18. Secondary data Internal data External data Various internal reports prepared by the firm Indexes, directories, guides, abstracts, etc Government Source Commercial Sources Industry Sources Miscellaneous sources Department of Census reports Central Govt. records State and Local govt. records Commercial agencies Such as advertising Agencies & marketing Research agencies Reports from Institute, Academic Areas, etc. Trade publications Professional and Trade associations publications Individual firm’s publications
  • 19. EXTERNAL SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA
    • The Office of the Economic Advisor, Government of India is the originating source for the data on wholesale prices.
    • Registrar General of India conducts a Population Census throughout the country every ten years and brings out demographic data such as the break up of population by gender, rural, urban residence, age, education, occupation. These publications provide the basic sources of information useful to the researcher.
  • 20. 3.The Central Statistical Organization brings out statistics of National Income. Its major publication “National Accounts Statistics” is brought out once a year and contains estimates of National Income. The figures are given separately for major economic activities such as agriculture, industry, trade, transport. Besides this, the estimates of saving, capital formation and consumption expenditure together with national and public accounts are given. 4. “Annual Survey of Industries” has detailed data on the performance of industrial sector.
  • 21. 5. The Director General of Commercial Intelligence, GOI, brings out monthly statistics of foreign trade. These statistics cover a large number of products and are extremely useful in understanding region wise, country wise or product wise studies on the prospects of foreign trade. 6. Basic statistics relating to the India’ economy, which is an annual publication of planning commission, contains data on various aspects of economy for several years.
  • 22. 7. RBI Bulletin deals with all aspects of economy in general and currency and finance in particular. 8. “Agricultural Situation in India” contains current statistics and articles on the assessment of agricultural situation in the country and the states. 9. The India Labour Year book contains details on wages and earnings, cost of living, industrial relations, labour welfare and industrial housing.
  • 23. Sources of Secondary Data
    • Internal sources
      • Sales reports
      • Customer purchase records
      • Charge accounts, checks
      • Employee surveys
      • Inventory records
      • Accounting and finance reports
  • 24. Sources of Secondary Data
    • External sources
      • Census data
      • Government publications
      • Trade publications
      • Professional journals
      • Published industry data
      • Customer surveys
      • Test markets
      • Commercial research
      • Competitors