RESEARCH DESIGN Exploratory Research Conclusive Research Focus Group In-depth Interview Projective Technique Descriptive Research Causal Research Word Association Test Sentence Completion Test Cartoon Completion TAT Cross Sectional Longitudinal
A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which sources by what procedures.
TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1) EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
To gather preliminary data to shed light on the real nature of the problem and to suggest possible solutions or new ideas.
i) discovery of ideas
ii) it is generally based on secondary data that are readily available iii) it does not have a formal and rigid design as the researcher may have to focus depending on the availability of new ideas and relationships among variables iv) exploratory study is in the nature of a preliminary investigation wherein the researcher himself is not sufficiently knowledgeable and therefore unable to frame detailed research questions a) FOCUS GROUP- sometimes a group of respondents is brought together and a focus group interview is held.
b) INDEPTH INTERVIEW- it reveals some fresh ideas on the subject of inquiry. c) PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES- it provides either verbal or visual stimuli with the objective to encourage the respondents to reveal his hidden feelings and attitudes without his being aware of doing so. The basic concept behind projective techniques is that in certain situations it is impossible to obtain correct information about what a person thinks or feels by asking him to describe his feelings but this information can be obtained by making the respondent to project his feelings on to some other person or object.
i) Word Association Test- the respondent is presented with a list of stimulus words and for each word is asked to respondent with what he thinks about the word. The idea is that the “first thought” responses are likely to reveal the true feelings of the respondents about the stimulus. ii) Sentence Completion Test- The respondent is asked to finish an incomplete sentence with the first thought that comes to his mind. The idea is that the respondent projects his own feelings into the sentence. iii) Cartoon Completion- 2 people are shown talking to each other about a particular product/service, but only one balloon contains the speech. The respondent has to fill the other balloon with his answer to what the other person is saying.
iv) Thematic Apperception Test- The test involves showing one or more pictures to the respondent and asking him to describe the situation or to assume the role of one of the person shown in the picture. Usually the picture shows one or more person in an ambiguous situation and it is expected that the respondent will decipher the situation in accordance with his own personality.
2) DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
It seeks to ascertain certain magnitude/ how many people think in a certain way. Descriptive studies are undertaken in many circumstances.
a)(i) When the researcher is interested in knowing the characteristics of certain groups such as age, sex, education, occupation or income, a descriptive study may be necessary.
(ii) When the company is interested in knowing the proportion of people in a given population who have behaved in a particular manner. The objective of this study is to answer who, what, when, where and how. b) It is rigid and its approach can not be changed. A) CROSS SECTIONAL STUDIES It is concerned with a sample of elements from a given population. It may deal with households, dealers, retail stores. Data on a number of characteristics from the sample elements are collected and analyzed.
B) LONGITUDINAL STUDIES
They are based on panel data. A panel is sample of respondents who are interviewed and re-interviewed from time to time. Panel data relate to the repeated measurements of the sample of same variable. Each family included in the panel records its purchases of a number of products at regular intervals say weekly, monthly, quarterly. Over a period of time such data will reflect changes in the buying behaviour of families.
3) CAUSAL RESEARCH
When two or more cases of a given phenomenon have one and only condition in common, then that condition my be regarded as the cause (or effect) of the phenomenon.
Experimental research is the only type of research that can truly test hypotheses concerning "cause and effect" relationships.
In an experimental study, the researcher manipulates at least one independent variable and observes its effects on one or more dependent variables .
The researcher determines what is being investigated and which group of "subjects" will get which treatment (i.e., the independent variable ).
The essence of experimentation is the concepts of "prediction" and "control“.
A researcher strives to ensure that the experiences of all the groups of subjects in the study are as equal as possible on all the important variables except the independent variable .
Usefulness : Ideal for establishing cause of effect
Word Association Test
Stimulus Word Response
Sentence Completion Test
When I think of shopping in a departmental store,
I ____________ .
A person who shops at Shoppers Stop is ___________ .
TYPES OF RESEARCH
1) Quantitative Research
2) Qualitative Research
Open –ended questionnaires
In –depth interviews
Focus group discussions
Similarities and Contrasts
focuses on a holistic view of what is being studied (via documents, case histories, observations and interviews).
Emphasis on observation and interpretation.
Data are collected within the context of their natural occurrence.
Measure and Evaluate
Generalize to population, reproduction
strive to identify and isolate specific variables within the context (seeking correlation, relationships, causality) of the study.
Emphasis on numerical data, measurable variables
Data is collected under controlled conditions in order to rule out the possibility that variables other than the one under study can account for the relationships identified