Lipids opt 1

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  • 1. AS Biology Core PrinciplesLipids 100’s of free ppt’s from library
  • 2. Aimso Elements of lipidso Structure of glycerol & fatty acidso Condensation reactions to form triglycerideso Phospholipids
  • 3. Introduction to lipids
  • 4. Introduction to lipidso Lipids contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.o They have numerous functions, primarily energy stores in animals and plants.o Lipids consist of two types of molecules - glycerol & fatty acids.
  • 5. Glycerolo A molecule of glycerol is made up of three carbon atoms.o Each of these has a hydroxyl group attached to it.o Hydrogen atoms occupy the remaining positions.
  • 6. Fatty Acids
  • 7. Fatty Acidso A single fatty acid molecule contains an acid (COOH) group attached to a hydrocarbon chain.o Hydrocarbon usually denoted by the letter ’R’.o Saturated = If every carbon atom in the chain is joined by a single C-C bond.o Unsaturated = at least one C=C bond.o Polyunsaturated = many double bonds.o Most animal fats are saturated while most plant fats are unsaturated.
  • 8. Triglycerides
  • 9. Triglycerideso A triglyceride molecule is made of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.o The molecules join together through the process of condensation losing a molecule of water each time a link is made.o The link between the glycerol molecule & each fatty acid is an ‘Ester Link’.o The fatty acids in a lipid molecule can differ in length and can be saturated or unsaturated.
  • 10. Triglycerides
  • 11. Phospholipidso In phospholipids one of the fatty acids of a triglyceride is substituted by a phosphate group.
  • 12. Phospholipids
  • 13. Phospholipids
  • 14. Lipids & watero Triglycerides and phospholipids have hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. o What does this mean? o To what use is this feature put in biology?
  • 15. More Infoo To make further notes on Lipids : o Pages 11 & 12 in Collins o Pages 69 - 71 Roberts o o o