1 Lesson: 2 HRM functions Contents: Elements of HRM functions Importance of HRM functions Personnel functions HRM vs. Personnel Functions HRD Instruments HRD Processes HRD Outcomes Appendix: 2 Articles on HRD Learning Objective this UnitBy the end of this Unit, you should be able to: Give concise definition for HRM functions.1. Clearly articulate the difference between HRM and Personnel philosophy and functions.2. Describe the various instruments/functions of HRM.3. Know the processes resulting from the instruments and the final outcomes. MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 2
2Dear students, hope the first lesson gave you a fair idea of what the field of HRM holds for us.Today let us know a little bit more about the same. You all keep hearing about personnelmanagement. You must be wondering what’s the difference between personnel management andHRM and what is HRD?? So in this lesson we are going to tackle the same question. Let usbegin by having a systemic view of HRM .Let us understand this with the help of a slide: Stakeholder Interest •Shareholders •Management •Employees •Government •Community •Unions HRM HR Long-Term Policy Outcomes Consequences •Employee •Commitment •Individual Situational Factors influence well-being •Competence •Workforce •HR flow •Congruence •Org. Characteristics •Reward •Cost- effectiveness •Business strategy systems effectiveness •Societal •Management •Work well-being philosophy systems •Labour market •Unions •Task environment •Laws/social values Systemic View of HRM Can anyone come and explain this slide? Now let us proceed by understanding the following: Elements of HR functions Importance of HR functions Personnel functions HRM versus Personnel functions HRD instruments Processes, and finally Outcomes!!!Functions of HRMAfter the analysis of HRM objectives from the last lesson, it is simple to state the functions of HRM. Thefunctions are performed to realize the objectives of the HRM. Now let us analyze the functions of the HRM toget an greater understanding.
3HRM as you know by now involves the embracing the dimension of people. It involves selection, motivation,and retention of the employees. The functions are a mixture of behavior analysis, policy formulations and maintenance ofgood interpersonal relations. In this lesson, we are going to focus on all of these functions: thestaffing, personnel management, or (as its usually called today) human resource (HR) manage-ment function. These include: Conducting job analyses (determining the nature of each employees job) Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates Selecting job candidates Orienting and training new employees Managing Wages and Salaries (how to compensate employees) Providing incentives and benefits Appraising performance and Communicating (interviewing, counselling, disciplining) Training and developing Building employee commitment Equal opportunity and affirmative action Employee health and safety Grievances and labor relations Thus if we view it closer we find that human resources management is responsible for the following:1.Promotion of organisational needs: This is a very crucial function of HRM. The organizationneeds people human assets. People appreciate day by day with experience and are extremelyvaluable assets in an organization.HRM functions in this regard refer to planning of human resources, recruitment, placement,motivation, training, assessments, appraisals etc., so that there is an effective contribution fromthem to the organization.2.Development of employees:What does an employee brings with himself? He does not come alone. He does bring hisabilities, attitudes, personality, and behaviour with himself. An individual aims for developmentand personal growth in the work sphere. Now what does an organization must do to develop andencourage personal growth? Let us discuss in detail.Firstly, the organization through its HR Department identifies the mechanisms for Growth. Thismechanism is known as assessment centre and is very popular procedure. Evaluation ofemployees is done for manpower purposes and decisions are made .A Variety of techniques isused. The behaviour observation leads to assessment and identification of strengths andweaknesses.
4Apart from functions of Potential discovery , Training and Development of personnelAssessment centres also lead to increase in information about organization and review ofpolicies.Point To Ponder:Is Development a one-time activity or is it an ongoing process?3.Relationship maintenance function: HRM functions include maintenance of effectiveinterpersonal relations. In this context the functions of legal compliance, maintenance andIndustrial relations are done by HRM.4.Empowerment: What do you understand by the term Empowerment? It is the provision ofgreater freedom and discretion to employees. When employees are given freedom they workeffectively as a team and strive for the development and growth of the organization. The functionof empowerment leads to the prosperity of the organization.Activity:Find out the difference between Delegation and Empowerment5.HRMs crucial function also includes Good and effective communication of policies.Communication when streamlined effectively leads to excellent network building and growth.6.Equality: Employees need to be treated with fairness and equality. HRM function of equalpolicies and justice make sure that the employees are protected fully. Equality leads to welltrained and well-motivated employees.7.Functions relating to job: What is a job? It is quite simple to define. It is the duty which one isexpected to do. An employee works well when the job matches with his expectations, abilitiesand talents. Job Satisfaction is vital for all!!!Usually, by Creating Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Job rotation, jobs are madeinteresting. Job enlargement of HRM leads to increase in the jobs at the same level. Job rotation, as you all know, is giving people different jobs and training them. In this way people become multi skilled. This is most common in banks. Job enrichment leads to enriching the job with more responsibilities. Human needs are many. But the most essential need is the need of self-actualization. This need motivates him to work higher and achieve high goals inlife. Job enrichment is done to create involvement, interest and also satisfy the self-actualization motive of the employee.
5Job enrichment can be done by enriching the job in relation to variety of skills, Significance oftasks, Development of autonomy and access to Interpersonal relation.With the changes in the economies and work force the functions of HRM are ever increasing.HRM is coping up with economic reforms, diversified work culture, competition and societalchanges. Its role is becoming important day by day. WHAT ARE THE HRM ACTIVITIES? Organizational, work, and job design Planning Recruitment and selection Training and development Performance management Compensation Occupational health and safety Employee and labour relationsImportance of HRM functions: Why are these concepts and techniques important to all managers? This point will very clear to you if you see this example. As managers none of us would like to make the following: mistake. To hire the wrong person for the job To experience high turnover To find our people not doing their best To waste time with countless and useless interviews To have our company sued for our discriminatory actions. To be quoted under bad example of unsafe practices To have some of your employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization To allow a lack of training to undermine your departments effectiveness To commit any unfair labor practices With the help of our knowledge of HRM practices and philosophy we can avoid making these mistakes. More important, it can help ensure that you get results-through others. Remember!! you could do everything else right as a manager-lay brilliant plans, draw clear organization charts, set up modern assembly lines, and use sophisticated accounting controls- but still fail as a manager (by hiring the wrong people or by not motivating subordinates, for instance).On the other hand, many managers-whether presidents, generals, governors, or supervisors havebeen successful even with inadequate plans, organization, or controls. They were successfulbecause they had the knack for hiring the right people for the right jobs and motivating,
6appraising, and developing them. Remember managers versus leaders! Thus, the functions ofHRM hold an importance for all members of an organisation.Personnel FunctionDefinition of personnel Management: let me narrate below a few standard definitions given byexperts of personnel management, which will give an idea of what it means.“ It is that phase of management which deals with the effective control and use of manpower asdistinguished from other sources of power.”“ The management of human resources is viewed as a system in which participants seek to attainboth individual and group goals”.“ Its objectives is to understand what has happened and is happening and to be prepared for whatwill happen in the area of working relationships between the managers and the managed.”If an analysis is made of these definitions it will be seen that personnel (or manpower)management involves procedures and practices through which human resources are managed(i.e. organized and directed) towards the attainment of the individual, social and organizationalgoals. By controlling and effectively using manpower rescues, management tries to producegoods and services for the society.Prof.Jucius has defined personnel administration as “ The field of management which has to dowith planning, organising, directing and controlling various operative functions of procuring,developing, maintaining and utilising a labour force, such that the: a) Objectives, for which thecompany is established are attained economically and effectively; b) objectives of all levels ofpersonnel are served to the highest possible degree; and c) objectives of the community are dulyconsidered and served.Functions of Personnel ManagementBroadly speaking, experts have generally classified the functions into two major categories, i.e.managerial and operative functions. Others has classified functions as general and specificfunctions, and yet others as ‘personnel Administration functions and Industrial RelationsFunctions’. Functions have also been classified on the basis of the capacities; or on the basis ofauthority.Personnel functionsIt is necessary to identify the major personnel systems and their concepts in brief, for better understandingof the functions required for managing men effectively. The operating functions of personnel management are concerned with the activities specifically dealing with procuring, developing, compensating and maintaining an efficient workforce. For example,
7 1. The procurement function- obtaining of a proper kind and number of personnel necessary to accomplish an organization’s goals 2. The development function- personnel development of employees, training 3. The compensating function- securing adequate and equitable remuneration to personnel 4. The integration function- an “integration” of human resources with organisation through job enlargement, jobevaluation, variable compensation plans, disciplinary action programmes. 5. The maintenance function- maintaining the physical conditions of employees (health and safety measures) and employee service programmes What roles do the HR managers perform? Let us view it in the form of a slide: Role of HRD Manager Personal Role Welfare Role Clerical Role First-Fighting Legal RoleA Advisory: Advising mg. A Research in Personnel A Time Keeping A Grievance handling On effective use of HR. & Organizational Problems.B Manpower Planning: B Managing services: B Salary & wage B Settlement of dispute Recruitment, selection canteen, transport, admin: incentives etc. medical etc. etc.C Trg. & Development C Group Dynamics: C Maintenance of C Discipline Maintenance Group counseling, HR records Motivation, leadership, communications, counseling etc.D Measurement of D Collective branding assessment of individual & group behaviorE Performance & Potential E Workers participations appraisal Joint consultation. Now let us discuss the difference between HRD and Personnel. HR Functions versus Personnel Functions You must have come across these two terms – Human Resource Management and Personnel Management. Some scholars have used them interchangeably.
8But if you go back to our lesson 1, you will understand that it is through the evolution in themanagement philosophy that Personnel Management was transformed into Human ‘resources’management.If we view the term themselves you will understand that the difference does not lie in the scope(that evolved through times and events) only, but the basic orientation has changed. Personnelmanagement which was there before HRM had more of the Management orientation. (Pleaserelate it to the Keith and Davis model of OB); it viewed employees from the owners perspectivewhereas; HRM views and treats employees as an asset.HRM with time has come a long way in promoting mutuality( we will be dealing that too in laterpart.) HRM is more strategic in nature, more integrated with the rest of the sub systems of theorganisation.Remember the above diagram. You must have come across this in your earlier courses. Thefollowing table will help you understand my point.
10HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT“ Human resource development refers to the process whereby the employees are continuouslyhelped in a planned way to Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various tasks associated with their present/future expected roles. Develop their general capabilities as individuals so that they are able to discover and exploit their own inner potential for their own and/or organisational development purpose. Develop an organisational work culture where: superior-subordinate relationships, team work and collaboration among different units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride.” - Udai Pareek and T.V. RaoThus, from this definition it is clear that HRD is all the more evolved field than HRM.Human resource management is the subsystem of the total management system. This is the responsibilityof all managers, irrespective of their functions, disciplines and levels. HRM is primarily concerned withmanagement of people, individuals or groups at work., as also their inter-relationship.It is not the sole responsibility of personnel specialists. Indeed line managers are equally and directlyresponsible for managing human resources working with them. They have to lead , guide and counselpeople working with them and act as engines of motivation.HRD OD and IR are separate aspects of broader concept of HRM. However, in reality, each of theseaspects overlap in practice, into the other and cannot be viewed in isolation. HRM practices, to succeed,must go currently with HRD, OD interventions. Sound IR systems cannot be visualized without goodHRD practices.Human resources development is a process to help people to grow. It is an approach to facilitateindividual growth i.e. to transform a person a total person. HR is an asset and HRD is a means to attainbetter organizational effectiveness. Growth means better skill, better adjustment to the environment,ability to solve problems ,ability to take decisions ,self confidence and broad awareness. HRD is to dealboth- which prevent growth and lead to growth. In an organization there are six units which areconcerned with HRD namely person, role, dyad, team, inter team unity and organization. Theeffectiveness of one contributes, in , turn, to the effectiveness of others.Human resource development is an essential prerequisite for any growth or development effort.Research, experimentation and experience in the field of HRD has grown enormously in the lastdecade. Many organizations have set up new departments known as “HRD Departments” inplace of “HRM departments” which symbolise the recognition of importance of people’scompetency development. These departments have done remarkable work in attempting to findout new ways of developing employee competencies.Thus HRD is needed by every organization that is interested in:
11 Stability o Growth Review and development • Styles o Dynamic activity Effectiveness, and • LeadershipHRM versus HRDIf we view the field carefully, we can easily differentiate the two field in the following manner: HRD HRM/Personnel Management 1. continuous process 1.a routine and administrative function 2. sub-system of a large 2. function more system, more independent with separate organisational oriented roles to play. 3. more proactive; it copes 3. mainly a reactive with the changing needs of function responding to the the people as well as demands which may arise. anticipate these needs. 4.developing the whole 4. concerned with people organisation, e.g. OD. only. 5. involvement of the 5. It is basically the entire work force from top responsibilities of the HR to bottom is more and a department. must in most of the casesThus, the differentiation will give you a feel that again it’s a difference in scope and orientationand nothing else. Thus if we want a composite view we find that they will placed like thefollowing, historically, in scope and in orientation.
12 People Management HRM . MODELS PERSONNEL MGMT. OF MANAGEMENT WELFARE MGMT. 1900 1940 1980 2000 PERIOD Skill and Human Industrial Resources Relations Competency Planning Mapping Setting Safety and Health Recruitment Stndards Job Analysis Selection Compensation Job Description Designing Job Specification Training and Development Performance Appraisal Setting Performance Management Standards(KRA/KPAs) Development Career planning and and Development SuccessionHRM Mechanisms or Sub-systems or Instruments
13Human Resource PlanningManpower planning and human resource planning are synonyms. The basic idea of manpower planningis, we look at the numbers we are likely to need because of growth or contraction, promotion andwastages. In other words, it simply means ensuring availability of right numbers of men , right kinds[types in terms of skill], at the right point of time, at the right places for utilising the most economicallyand effectively and develop their potentials in terms of skills, performance and capacity.Recruitment and SelectionRecruitment is the process of generating of applications or attracting applicants for specific positionsthrough four common sources, viz. Advertisement, state employment exchange agencies , presentemployees and campus recruitment. Having identified the potential applicants the next step is to evaluate their experience and qualificationfor ascertaining their suitability for a job and make selection. Selection refers to the process of offeringjob to one or more applicants from the applications. Selection is thus a means of selecting the ”best-fit”for a job by using multiple hurdles such as screening, short listing based on marks, tests, interviewing,and an equal opportunity dispenser.Performance & Potential AppraisalPerformance appraisal also called “merit rating” or “employee rating is a means of helping supervisorsto evaluate the work of employees. It is the name given to the regular formalised and recorded review ofthe way in which an individual performs in his or her job. This is normally carried out by the job holder’simmediate boss.Performance appraisal focuses of helping the individual to develop his or her present role capabilitiesand to assume more responsibility for that role. Potential appraisal focuses primarily identifying theemployees future likely roles within the organisation.” Potential appraisal is done for placement as wellas for development purposes keeping in mind futuristic requirement of the organisation.Performance appraisals are becoming highly crucial tools of Modern organizations .Performance Appraisal is very much in demand because; 1. It helps employee in self-appraisal 2. It Reviews his performance in relation to the objectives and other behaviors. 3. It Checks reviews done by the superiors. 4. It sends summary information for central storage and use. 5. It analyses the difficulties of the employees and works to remove them. It helps employees to face challenges and accept responsibilities. It plans Potential Development Exercises 1. It make thorough potential appraisal of the employee .. 2. Appraisal the potential of the employee annually.Counselling“Counselling is helping the employee to recognise his own strengths, weaknesses and potential andpotential and helping him to prepare action plans for own development.” Giving feedback in a
14“threatening way” or correcting the undesirable or unsatisfactory behaviour of employees by pointing itout the deficiencies or other malfunctioning and warning them not to repeat these behaviour are allintegral parts of a manager’s role and are not the same as counselling. 1. They give critical and supporting feedback. 2. They discuss with the employee the difference between his self rating and the rating by the immediate superior. 3. They discuss the steps the employee can take for improvement. 4. They provide supportCareer PlanningCareer planning involves identifying the right potential well in time, for development to take over higherresponsibilities. This includes promotion and planned job rotation under various conditions andenvironments of challenge. In this process, attention is focused on individual’s style of working than hiscurrent performance results. Current results can provide reasonable clues of future potential, but they arenot the sole criterion; current results only, could be misleading in judging one’s potential. A personsachievement are invariably affected by the forces outside his control. Similarly, a person may be highlysuccessful in one situation, but he may not continue to be a high achiever when transferred to another jobor situation.Succession PlanningSuccession planning entails in identifying the key jobs in an organisation and ensuring that , if anything,planned or unplanned were to remove the present job holder from his post, there would be some oneready to take the place. This benefits the company by ensuring that there are no expensive gaps, or panicmeasures to fill them. It benefits the individual by providing him with opportunities for advancement.Three broad steps are required in this context (I) to decide which are the key jobs in the organisation; (ii)to identify the potential incumbent who can fit the position; & (iii) to make necessary records in theorganisation chart. Therefore, a succession plan to indicate who can succeed whom in the hierarchy.Training Training comprises an integral part of HRD process. The purpose of training is to improve the capabilities of the human resources in order to increase their efficiency and effectiveness on the job. Training is expected to indicate positive changes in knowledge, skill and attitudes. Training is job oriented and fulfills the current needs of an individual to overcome job difficulties. Training won’t solve all problems, not all problems are training problems. As we all know Training aims at development of the people in an organization. HRD Department analyses and develops various Training programmes. For development of human resources through Training, what does the HR department do? 1. It assesses training needs of different groups of employees. 2. It searches available outside training facilities. 3. It develops in-company training strategy including pre-training and post-training activities. 4. It prepares training packages and modules.
15 5. It organizes specific programmes as well as general development programmes with own and outside resources. 6. It evaluates training efforts.Job EvaluationJob evaluation is concerned with establishing the relative worth of a job compared to other jobs within anorganisation. In job evaluation one attempts to consider and measure the inputs required of employees(know-how, accountability and problem solving etc.) for minimum job performance and to translate suchmeasures into specific monetary returns.Transfer, Promotion & d emotion!!!Transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade, from one job to another. A transfer may result inchanges in duties and responsibilities, supervisory and working conditions, but not necessarily salary.Promotion is the advancement of an employee from one job level to a higher one, with increase in salary.Demotion is the opposite of promotion. It is a downward movement from one job level to another, leadingto a reduction in rank, status, pay and responsibility.Job AnalysisJob analysis is the process of studying and collecting department information relating to operations andresponsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job description and jobspecification. Job description is an organised factual statement of duties and responsibilities of a specificjob, whereas, job specification is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualities necessary to perform ajob properly.Role AnalysisRole analysis is the process of defining a role in the context of its work system., in terms of expectation ofimportant persons, detailing specific tasks under each function, and elaborating the process, standards andcritical attributes namely knowledge, attitude, skill, habits (KASH) required for effective role. Role is aposition or an office a person occupies as defined by expectations from significant persons in theorganisation, including the person himself. Position is the collection of tasks and responsibilitiesperformed by one person.
16 ROLE ROLE KEY GOALS ANALYSIS CONSENSUS PERFORMANCE AREAS APPRAISALS CRITICAL ATTRIBUTES COUNSELLINGCommunication PoliciesHR Department stresses a lot on Communication aspects to be developed. Communicationpolicies do pave way for effective ness and efficiency.RewardsRewards are the positive reinforcements given by the organization . Rewards act as effectivemotivators and help people to increase productivity and efficiency. Rewards include: 1. Promotion 2. Salary Review 3. Salary Administration OD Exercises OD Exercises help in Organisational development and growth with their activities of
17 1. Organisational Diagnosis 2. Team Building 3. Task Force 4. Other structural and process interventions like role development, job enrichment job re-designing etc. You will deal all the mechanisms in the coming lesson in detail one by one.Outcomes/ objectives of the functionsWe have already in our lesson 1 discussed about generating “competitive advantage throughpeople”. HRM functions are the best tools to achieve the same.
18But what are these outcomes we are talking of ?They are: Creation of a Better Image More Profits Higher Productivity More Competent People Better Generation of Internal Resources More Team-work, Synergy and Respect for Each Other More Problem Solving Higher Work-commitment & job Involvement Growth and Diversification More Profits Better Developed Roles Better Utilisation of Human ResourcesWe can understand the relation between the various instruments and the benefitsthrough two means: By seeing the evidence from various researches on the issue. Just one example can help you see this relation. A study by Chris Ryan et.al. evaluated the impact of broad range of HRM practices on shareholders return. They concluded that 15-30 percent of the total value of a company could be attributed to the quality of its HRM practices, especially training, role analysis and talent management (where the poorest of the performers are discharged). Secondly, through a model/ paradigm. We can develop a model where there is a indirect link visible. You all know that it is not only the structure of the certain activity that can directly lead to a desired outcome. It is the processes that are generated from a formation of the structure that can in turn; help us generate a certain kind of climate. These processes, thus helps the above mentioned instruments to generate the desired outcomes.Now we will together tackle the question “How can this be achieved?”HRD and HRM processesBut what are these processes?? The processes include:
191. Generation of Value2. Creation of more Trust3. Clarity and role4. Communications development5. Positive Re-enforcement6. Development of Team work & collaboration7. Employee Development and growth8. Knowledge of skills required for Effective job performance9. Group work encouragement10. Clear norms11. Maintains of Man power inventory
20 HRD HRD Processes & HRD Outcome Organisational Instruments Climate variable Variables Dimensions(Sub Systems) ElectivenessHRD Department • Role clarity • More • Higher • Awareness of competent productivityPerformance competencies people • Growth &Appraisal required for • Better Diversification job developmen performance t rolesReviewdiscussions, • Practice • Cost reductionfeedback orientationcounselling • Trust • Higher work • Higher profits • Collaboration • Better image & Teamwork commitmen t & jobRole Analysis • Authenticity involvemen • Openness t OTHER FACTOPotential • Risk taking • ProblemDevelopment • Value solving generation skillsTraining • Better • Clarification of norms & utilizationCommunication of HRPolicies standards • Environment • Higher job • • Better satisfaction TechnologyJob rotation communicatio • Resource & work availabilityrewards OD n motivation • Nature ofexercises Job • Fair rewards • Generationenrichment other business etc. • Generation of of internalmechanisms unbiased data sources on employees etc. • Better organizatio nal health • Greater team work Other factors • Personnel policies, Top Mgt. Styles, inv. On HRD, top mgt’s commitmen ts, history, power culture etc.
21The main issue here is that the HR mechanisms have to be developed with somuch care that they lead to these intangible processes which can lead to thedesired outcomes. Only then a mechanism fulfills the basic philosophy of HRM.Pre selection Practices Outcomes Outcome AdvantageHRM Practices Employee – Centered Organization – Centered Competitive HR Planning Job analysisSelection Practices Recruitment Selection Competence Output Cost leadership Motivation Retention ProductPost selection Practices Work-related L differentiation Attitudes e Training/development Performance appraisal Compensation Productivity improvement programsPractices Affected byExternal Factors Workplace justice Unions Safely and health InternationalNow, we have already discussed that the various instruments in HRM can havethe right impact only if certain processes accompany it. This shows there is anindirect path through which the influence is carried on. The logic behind thisassumption is that if you observe the two variable you always can’t decipherhow one instrument led to a certain outcome. We can understand the reasonbehind the phenomenon with the help of a model given by Kleiman.
22He states that the influence process follows a path where the mechanisms leadto outcomes (employee-centered and organisational centered), which in turn,can lead to competitive advantage. The path taken is as follows:HRM practices Employee centered outcomes- organisationaloutcomes competitive advantage.Here the employee centered outcomes refer to the competence level of eachemployees, employees willingness, and employees attitudes such as jobsatisfaction level, commitment, and citizenship behavior which result from theright kind and right combinations of the instruments.The organisational outcomes are productivity level (in terms of quantity andquality of the product and the USP of the product), image of the company, legalcompliances etc which are result of the employee level outcomes. Naturally, forexample if the employees of a firm are highly satisfied and committed then theywill communicate a good image of the company. This level outcome will givecompetitive advantage to the company through the generation of its good will inthe market.Thus it the relation among the instruments, processes and the ultimate outcomesare clear to you.Hope the discussion was invigorating and you will have lot of issues to discussin the class. Hope with the help of this material you will be able to do thefollowing.1. Study an Indian organization and 2.analyze the various HRD processes used 3.Write about various types of HRD instruments. 4.Understand the relationship between the three variables: Instruments, processes and outcomes. 5. learn the difference among: o HRM o Personnel o HRDActivities: • Find out the difference between Job Enrichment and job Enlargement • Explain succession planning with the help of an example of any organisation.
23HR Functions: What We’ll BeLooking At Planning Employee and LegalLabor Relations Compliance Training and Staffing Development Reward Systems Management 412 / Lecture #1 / Page 30
24 Personnel and HRM• Traditional “personnel” function – Record keeping – Perceived as a dumping ground• The death of HR?• HR’s rebirth HRM Instruments • HRD Department • Performance Appraisal • Review discussions, • feedback counseling • Role Analysis • Potential Development • Training • Communication Policies • Job rotation rewards OD exercises Job enrichment other ----
25 HRM Instruments• HRD Department• Performance Appraisal• Review discussions,• feedback counseling• Role Analysis• Potential Development• Training• Communication Policies• Job rotation rewards OD exercises Job enrichment other ---- Staffing• Strategic issues – Hire vs. train – The best vs. good enough• Recruitment – Difficult today…..or always difficult – Recruit the the people you’d like to hire• Selection – The interview – Tests• Downsizing
26 Training and Development• Training vs. development – Training = skills – Development = long-term• Training and technology – Technology change makes training even more critical – Technology not the answer to training issues• Choosing a training method – Match method and content – Practical considerations Benefits• Some are legally required – Social Security – Workers’ Comp – Unemployment• Others heavily regulated – Health – Pensions• Currently popular… – Child care / elder care – Employee services
27 Development• Training of Employees• Management Development• Career Development Motivation • Job Design • Performance Appraisal • Rewards and Compensation • Job Evaluation • Discipline
28 Maintenance/Retention• Commitment• Employee safety and Health• Employee Relations• Industrial Relations HRD Processes…. Generation of Value Creation of more Trust Clarity and role Communications development Positive Re-inforcement Development of Team work & collaboration Employee Development and growth
29 HRD Processes…. Knowledge of skills required for Effective job performance Group work encouragement Clear norms , and Maintains of Man power inventory. HRD outcomes…More ProfitsHigher ProductivityMore Competent PeopleBetter Generation of InternalResourcesMore Team-work, Synergy andRespect for Each OtherCreation of a Better Image
30 HRD outcomes…More Problem SolvingHigher Work-commitment & job InvolvementGrowth and DiversificationMore ProfitsBetter Developed RolesBetter Utilisation of Human Resources
34 HR Functions Planning and Job Analysis Legal and EEO Staffing Training and Development Compensation and Benefits Employee and Labor Relations Lecture #15 CBU / MGMT 337 / Summer 2003 Page 3 Staffing Strategic issues Hire vs. train The best vs. good enough Recruitment Difficult today…..or always difficult Recruit the the people you’d like to hire Selection The interview Tests Downsizing Lecture #15CBU / MGMT 337 / Summer 2003 Page 7
35 Training and Development Training vs. development Training = skills Development = long-term Training and technology Technology change makes training even more critical Technology not the answer to training issues Choosing a training method Match method and content Practical considerations Lecture #15CBU / MGMT 337 / Summer 2003 Page 8 Benefits Some are legally required Social Security Workers’ Comp Unemployment Others heavily regulated Health Pensions Currently popular… Child care / elder care Employee services Lecture #15CBU / MGMT 337 / Summer 2003 Page 10
36The Death of HR ?• Traditional “personnel” function • Recordkeeping • Perceived as a dumping ground• The death of HR?• HR’s rebirth Sources: Caudron (2003); Schuler (1990); Schuler & Walker (1990); Stewart (1996); Sunoo & Laabs (1999); Ulrich (2000); Wells (2003) Management 412 / Lecture #1 / Page 4HR Functions: What We’ll BeLooking At Planning Employee and LegalLabor Relations Compliance Training and Staffing Development Reward Systems Management 412 / Lecture #1 / Page 30
37Distinguishing HRM fromPersonnel Management MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 27 DevelopmentTraining of EmployeesManagement DevelopmentCareer Development MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 19
38 Motivation• Job Design• Performance Appraisal• Rewards and Compensation• Job Evaluation• Discipline MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 20 Maintenance/Retention Commitment Employee safety and Health Employee Relations Industrial Relations MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 21
39 Map of the HRM Territory Stakeholder Interest •Shareholders •Management •Employees HRM Policy HR Outcomes Long-Term •Government •Employee •Commitment Consequences •Community influence •Competence •Individual •Unions •HR flow •Congruence well-being •Reward •Cost- •Org. systems effectiveness effectiveness Situational •Work •Societal Factors systems well-being•WorkforceCharacteristics•Business strategy•Managementphilosophy•Labour market•Unions Beer et al.•Task environment•Laws/social values MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 25 David Guest HRM Process Strategy Integration High Commitment ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS High Quality Flexibility MS 22B - Eddie Corbin, Lecturer 26 RELEVANCE OF HRD & ITS INTERVENTIONS By Dr. Aloke K Sen*
40With increasing global competition, organisations are under tremendous pressure toimprove their performance through reduction of cost and in quality up-gradation.Indian business organisations too have realised that they are now in a more open,highly competitive, and market-oriented environment. The three challenges for Indianbusiness organisations are - First, how to maximise return on investments. Second, howto be more innovative and customer driven. Third, how to renew and revitalise anorganisation? In this context, the most important steps are - effective management;holistic development; and optimum utilisation of human resources (Jha 1987; Sarathi1987; Maheshwari & Sinha 1991)(1). In the past decade something quite different was happening in many Indianorganisations, calling for a second look at traditional personnel functions and theirintegration with - organisational objectives (Athalai 1987; Singh 1989; Nair & Rao1990; Silvera 1990)(2). According to Singh & Sen (1992)(3) several steps were taken,such as, conceptualisation of employees as resources; strategic role of personnelfunctions; greater partnership to line managers in managing human resources;dovetailing of training with other personnel functions; synthesis of different personnelfunctions, etc. It is difficult to categorise these activities under a single label. Rather,they can be brought under the umbrella of Human Resource Development (HRD). Human resource development in India is of recent origin, and the term gainedcurrency only in the early seventies. In the opinion of Nadler the term "HRD" was firstapplied in 1968 in George Washington University. It was used in Miami at theconference of American Society for Training and Development in 1969. According toNadler, the term was gaining more acceptances during the mid-1970s, but many used itas a more alternative term than "Training & Development" (4). In the opinion of somemanagement professionals, Japan is the first country to begin with HRD practices."Better People", not merely better technology, is the surest way to a "Better Society", isthe most popular belief in Japan (5). In the opinion of Prof. Udai Pareek, the term wasfirst used in India in 1972 by the State Bank of India (6). By the late seventies and earlyeighties this professional outlook on HRD caught on to a few PSUs, namely BHEL,MUL, SAIL, IA, AI & IOC. Larsen & Toubro and TISCO are the first twoorganisations in the private sector to begin with HRD.Organisations need to be dynamic and growth-oriented to grow in the competitiveenvironment. This is possible only through the competence of human resources. Tocope with the fast changing environment, organisations need to review their HRDapproaches continuously. HRD is neither a concept nor a tool, but is an approach usingdifferent personnel systems, depending upon the needs and priorities of theorganisation. The basic assumption is the belief in human potential and itsdevelopment by providing a suitable and congenial environment._________________________________________________________________* Dean - MBA Programme & Professor (HRM), EIILM, Kolkata According to Dayal and others (7), concern for development of people, havebecome important for two compelling business reasons. Firstly, competitions in thebusiness have forced attention of organisations on cost of operations and sensitivity tomarket demands. These aspects of business cannot be served without full and
41sympathetic involvement of people at work. Secondly, consideration arises from theimpressive developments in science, engineering and technology. The new productiontechnology, automation and application of electronic control systems have changed theratio of skilled and unskilled jobs. New systems require new skills and certainminimum educational qualifications. They need continuous up-gradation of skills.Thus, development of people, decentralisation of decision making, flatter and differentmanagement practices than those followed in the past has become necessary forsurvival of business. HRD initiatives meet the need of these business imperatives.In the opinion of Nadler and Wiggs (8) the ultimate purpose of HRD activities is "tomake a difference" in the real world of costs, quality, quantity, accuracy and timeliness.HRD activities, as such, do not reduce costs, improve quality or quantity, or benefit theenterprise in any way. It is the on-the job applications of learning that ultimately canreduce costs, improve quality, and so forth. It has been rightly observed by Billimoria& Singh (9) that "each human being is born as something new, something that neverexisted before. Each is born with the capacity to win in life, each has his own uniquepotentials, capabilities and limitations." In the opinion, of Prof. Ishwar Dayal (10), HRD is an approach founded on thebelief that people are capable of growth - given an environment that facilitatesindividual growth. Growth is, therefore, important for organisation. According toDayal, HRD is to make a person, a total person in terms of skill, maturity, competence,self-awareness, adjustment to the environment, and confidence. In the view of Dayal,HRD can be seen as a philosophy rather than as a programme. HRD is concerned withtwo sets of extreme factors - which prevents growth and which leads to growth. In thiscontext, Khan (11) also remarks: "HRD is the process of increasing knowledge, skills,capabilities and positive work attitude and value of all people working at all levels in abusiness undertaking". According to Rao, Verma, Khandelwal and Abraham (12), HRD is a processby which people in various groups are helped to acquire new competence continuouslyso as to make them more self-reliant and simultaneously developing a sense of pride inthem. HRD is an approach to the systematic expansion of peoples work - relatedabilities, focussed on the attainment of both organisational and personal goals. Nadlerobserved, "HRD means an organised learning experience, within a time frame, with anobjective of producing the possibility of performance change". According to Rao (14),in the organisational context, HRD is a process in which the employees of anorganisation are continuously helped in a planned manner to:- Acquire or sharpen their capabilities that are required to perform various functionsassociated with their present or expected future roles;- Develop their general capabilities as individuals, so as to discover and exploit theirinner potentials for their own or organisational development purposes- Develop organisation culture in which superior-subordinate relationships, teamwork and, collaboration among sub-units are strong & contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride of employees.Further, Rao (15) defines human resource development (HRD) as essentially consistingof these three Cs: competencies, commitment, and culture. All three are needed tomake an organisation function well. Without competencies many tasks of theorganisation may not be completed cost effectively or with maximum efficiency.Without commitment, they may not be done at all or are done at such a slow pace that
42they lose relevance. Without an appropriate culture, organisations cannot last long.Culture provides the sustaining force and spirit and spirit for organisations to live. Itprovides the oxygen needed for them to survive. Its utility comes to the force speciallywhen organisations are in trouble. Many people are not very clear as to the difference between HRD andpersonnel functions. As a result, personnel managers are automatically beingdesignated as HRD managers performing personnel and industrial relations function.Indian Oil Corp. (IOC), one of the leading public sector undertakings, has successfullyimplemented its HRD programme and has achieved worthwhile results. The basicprinciple of HRD philosophy is the belief in - (i) human potential & its development;(ii) Optimum utilisation of human resources; & (iii) a harmonious balance betweenbusiness strategy and HRD strategy i.e., strategic planning and HRD should go hand inhand. IOC adapted the leading consultant Dr. M.B. Athreyas model (16) of strategicmanagement and organisation development. According to this model, OD & HRDefforts may tend to be wasteful exercise, if there are no opportunities to utilise thedevelopment of human capability. Similarly, all strategic options in terms of businessplans will remain unfulfilled, if human resources are not made available to implementthem. The SM-OD Model, can be shown diagrammatically as follows: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT [SM] AND ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT [OD] MODEL OD ADEQUATE INADEQUATESM OD ODADEQUATE STRATEGIC BALANCED WEAKOPTION ORGANISATION (VULNERABLE)INADEQUATE WASTEFUL DECLININGSTRATEGIC OPTIONAligning HRD strategy with the organisational strategy becomes essential. The strategyof an organisation flows from its vision. Strategy is the responsibility of a company’sexecutive team of which HR is a member. To be full-fledged strategic partners, HRexecutive should impel and guide serious discussion of how the company should beorganised to carryout its strategy. However, the primary responsibility for transformingthe role of HR belongs to the CEO and every line manager who is answerable toshareholders for creating economic value, to customers for creating product or servicevalues and to employees for creating work place values. The line managers should leadthe way in fully integrating HR into the company’s real work. HRD is thus the responsibility of both: line managers and HRD /Personnelspecialists. It is a co-operative and massive effort in the organisation. Pareek & Rao(17) have identified four basic partners of development viz.: (i) the self (the individual);(ii) the immediate superior (boss); (iii) HRD department and (iv) the organisation.Rao & Pareek observed that there are six units in an organisation which are concernedwith HRD. These are: - (i) person; (ii) role; (iii) dyad; (iv) team; (v) inter-team & (vi)
43organisation. The effectiveness of one unit (foci) will contribute to the effectiveness ofothers. HRD is an integrated process and cannot be thought of in isolation. Accordingto Rao, major interventions of HRD are: (i) Performance and potential appraisal; (ii)Career Planning; (iii) Training; (iv) Organisation development; & (v) reinforcement.HRD interventions may vary from one organisation to another depending upon theirneeds, based on diagnostic studies. For example, role analysis was the core of its HRDprogramme in IOC, whereas SBI started with performance appraisal as the firstintervention of HRD. Since the future is going to be much more demanding, the HRD function willhave to develop new strategies and technologies to enable their organisations tosurvive, cope and adapt in the turbulent environment. It is, therefore, essential to graspthe promises that a good HRD philosophy of an organisation must achieve theobjectives i.e. more satisfied customers, more empowered employees, more ableemployees, more unified culture, greater creativity, greater flexibility and betterquality. If these are fulfilled, the expectations of employees as well as organisationswill be met. However, these are easier said than done.References:1.J.N. Jha: Quality is directly proportional to human resource development, PersonnelToday, 8(2), 1987, p. 28-36 -P. Sarathi: Human Resource OIptimization: An integrated approach. PersonnelTo-day, 8(2), 1987, p.5-13. -Maheshwari& T.V.. Rao: Eds. Excellence through human resource development:improving productivity and competitiveness. Tata McGraw Hill PublishingCompany Ltd., New Delhi, 19902. B.N. Athalai: HRD: The state of the art in Indian Telephone Industries Ltd.,Indian Jr. Of Training & Development, 17(1), 1987, P. 23-28 -A.K. Singh: Human Resource Development Retrospects and Prospects: In AL Dalal& A K Singh (Eds) Research in Human Development, Gurgaon, Academic Press,1989 -M.R.R. Nair & T.V. Rao, (Eds): Excellence through Human ResourceDevelopment. Improving productivity and competitiveness, New Delhi, TataMcGraw Hill publishing Company Ltd. -D.M. Silvera: Human Resource Development: The Indian Experience (2nd Ed), NewDelhi, News India Publications, 19903. A K Singh & A K Sen: HRD Culture - A Model, MDI Management Journal, Vol.5, IstJanuary, 1992, New Delhi, p. 1134. L. Nadler: "Defining the Field - Is it HRD or OD or" Training & DevelopmentJournal, Published by ASTD, 34, No.12 (December 1980), p. 66 Fransisco, 1986, p. 8.5. C.R. Basu: Human Resource Development, Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol. XI(Jan-June 1987), P. 150-1516. T.V. Rao & D.F. Pereira: Recent Experiences in Human Resources Development,Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi 1986.
447. Ishwar Dayal and others : Successful Applications of HRD : Case studies of IndianOrganisations, New Concepts, New Delhi, 1996, p 9-10.8. Nadler (Leonard) & Wiggs (Garland). Managing Human Resource Development :A practical Guide. Jossey -Bass Publishers, San9. R.P. Billimoria & N.K. Singh: Human Resource Development, Vikas PublishingHouse Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 1985, p.3 .pa10. Ishwar Dayal: HRD in Indian Organisations: "Current Perspectives and FutureIssues". Vikalpa, Vol.14, October-December 1989, P. 9-15Ishwar Dayal, DesigningHRD Systems, New Delhi, Concept, 199311. M.N. Khan: HRD in Model Technological Structure Indian Journal of Commerce,XL No:150-51, Jan-June, 1987, p. 8312. T.V. Rao, K.K. Verma, A.K. Khandelwal and S.J. Abraham: Alternative Approaches and Strategies of Human Resource Development ed, Rawat Publication 1988, Jaipur, P. 6- 12. ibid 13. Ibid13.Op.cit 14.Op.cit15. T. V. Rao : HRD Audit : Evaluating the Human Resource Function for BusinessEnvironment, Response Books, New Delhi, 1999, p 17-1816. M.B. Athreya: Integrating the Human Resource Profession with Business - Thechallenges Ahead) HRM 2000: Indian Perspective ed. by K.B. Akhilesh and D.R.Nagaraj. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi; 1990, P-73.17. Udai Pareek & T.V. Rao: Designing & Managing Human Resources systems,Oxford & IBH publishing company, New Delhi, 1981, p. 6-7
45 Integrated HRD System ModelSelection, counselling Self appraisal developmentinduction,placement Man Role Data analysis Training power bank forecast career RotationCorporate Succession &planning planning planning transfer
46 PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS•General Administration•Manpower Planning (Recruitment only)•Implementation of Transfer, Posting &Promotion•Establishment matters•Implementation of HRM Subsystems•Industrial Relations, Welfare•Maintenance of all personnel records. HRD IN IOC: A CASE STUDY by Dr. Aloke K. SenThe Process of EvolutionIndian Oil Corporation Ltd.(IOC) is the largest commercial enterprise in India,and the only Indian presence in the Fortune’s “Global 500” listing of the world’slargest corporation with a ranking of 226 for fiscal 2001 and in the “ForbesInternational 500” list of the largest companies outside US IOC’S rank is 112. IndianRefineries Ltd. and Indian Oil Company Ltd. were set up in 1958 and 1959respectively, to build national competence in the oil refining and marketing business.On 1st September 1964, these two companies were merged to form Indian OilCorporation Ltd. Thus, the corporate entity of IOC came in 1964.About IOCIOC has a large , divisionalised, multi-locational structure, dispersed throughout thecountry, with its corporate office at New Delhi. It has two major divisions-“Marketing” with its head office at Mumbai and “Refineries and Pipelines” with thehead office at New Delhi. The R & D division is located at Faridabad (Haryana). Thereare seven refineries namely: Guwahati, Barauni, Gujarat, Haldia, Mathura, Assam OilDivision and Panipat. The Pipelines set-up functions have two major regions- EasternRegion and Western Region. Similarly Marketing Division operates through its fourregions i.e. North, South, East and West. IOC has 359 establishments ( terminals,depots, AFS, LPG bottling plants including refineries) and 1550 retail outlets, 31,675employees (including officers & staff ), the annual turn over and market share areRs.1,14,864 crores and 53% respectively as on March 31, 2002.
47The Concept of HRDThe concept of HRD in IOC emerged in 1983 for sustaining excellence and not forsolving short-term crisis or problem. IOC believes that.- HR is an important resource and has tremendous potential;- It is necessary to provide people with an environment where their potential could be developed;- Development of people’s potential is important to develop the organisation;- Help people to do their self -development.The basic principle of HRD Philosophy is the belief in:- human potential- its development- optimum utilisation HR &- to have a dynamic balance between business and HRD strategy.Objectives of HRD- to gear up people to achieve corporate mission- to prepare people for succession- to get satisfaction and best use of people.Purpose to have HRD in IOCPeople came from divergent sources in IOC during 60’s. Top management realised in1966-77 that people inducted in the age group of 30-40 years have no future due to:1) Many roles got eroded and divided with abrupt induction on project requirement;2) Lack of career path and advancement opportunities;3) Size of the organisation grew fast leading to less personal touch amongst the people joined in 60’s;4) Lack of role clarity;5) Lack of motivation and commitment;6) Dissatisfaction on transfer policy;7) Performance appraisal(adhocism);8) Sense of alienation with the recruitment of the youngsters;9) Lack of mission and zeal;10) Lack of team-work;11) Many levels of hierarchy;12) Market share declined from 64% to 57% in 1977To sustain the growth a need was felt that whatever potentials available within, IOCmust harness it and bring improvements.Sub-systems of HRDHRD covers all HRM functions ,that is, recruitment to retirement ( R to R ). Thesubsystems are :- manpower planning and budgeting;- role analysis- recruitment , selection, induction and placement;
48- performance appraisal and counselling;- promotion;- training;- career and succession planning; &- human resource data bank.HRD StrategyIOC’S HRD initiative and strategy to achieve corporation’s goal have twodimensions:1) Examine the existing HRM system and bringing in appropriate changes;2) Examine the human processes in the organisation andprovide appropriate interventions.The HRD activities in IOC were taken up in seven phases, as follows: Phase I 1983-84 Formation of HR Strategy Phase II 1984-85 Action Research Project at Selected Locations Phase III 1985-86 Role Analysis (RA) & Extension Phase IV 1986-87 Implementation of HRD sub-systems Phase V 1987-88 HRD for Collectives Phase VI 1988-90 HRD Innovation & Consolidation Phase VII 1990-91 Integration of HRD & Personnel into a unified HRMstructureThe StudyThis study was undertaken at IOC as part of a larger study on “HRD in Indianorganisations”. Basically the study was done to assess evolution, purpose,organisational strategies and effectiveness of HRD programme in IOC. The studywould help us to understand: 1. What are the reasons for the particular HRD approach in the organisation, the corporate policies and the way HRD fits into the totality; 2. How has the programme evolved; 3. What are the factors that have contributed to its success; 4. What role have different functionaries played in initiating and operating the programme; 5. What is the impact of the programme on the target population.
49MethodologyThe study of HRD interventions in IOC had two phases:Phase IInvolved in-depth and extensive interviews and discussions with senior management in the department of HRD, personnel, management services, technical services, co- ordination and training , and the people involved in the initiation of HRD efforts in IOC.Phase IIA sample size of 123+99 i.e. 222 was drawn based onstratified random sampling method, out of which 118+93i.e. 211 officers were contacted. The first questionnairewas designed to assess the effectiveness of HRD activitiesin IOC and also the HRD climate ( A to I Grade ) and thesecond one for E to G Grade (on new performanceappraisal ).The sample was drawn keeping in view the followingfactors: 1. Representation of officers from a cross section of grades , departments, functions; 2. Coverage of the HRD programme of IOC; & 3. Representation of Operational Units like Aviation Depot, LPG Bottling Plant, Terminal and Refinery.The total number of persons involved, fell slightly short ofthe number identified due to non- availability ofrespondents.Levels ( Grades)A: OfficerB: Sr. OfficerC: Dy. ManagerD: ManagerE: Sr. ManagerF: Dy.General Manager
50G: General ManagerH: Chief General ManagerI: Executive DirectorScale ( 5- point Likert type )5 Almost always true] Always4 Mostly true ] true3 Sometimes true ] Partially true2 Rarely true ] Seldom1 Not at all true ] trueFor purpose of analysing percentage variation in responses, the 5- point scale has beencompressed as aboveTarget PopulationA. Northern Region Marketing Nos. LPG 36 Terminal Bijwasan) 18 Refinery Co-ordination Office 22 Aviation Fueling Station 31 Remaining NRM 1025B. Chairman’s Office 73C. Refineries HQ 253D. Mathura Refinery 482E. Pipelines Bijwasan 52 Head Office 179 ___________ Total 2171 ___________Critical Evaluation of HRD Efforts in IOCThe HRD programme in IOC was not an outcome of any grave crisis or turbulence. Onthe contrary it emerged out of a strong need felt by the top management to sustain highgrowth and to improve the motivation level of employees. Thus it was more of arenewal process rather than a fire-fighting one.Strengths of the Programme
51* A need-based programme* Participation is built into the system* Climate creation – an essential pre-requisite* A scientific approach* Top management vision & commitment* HRD as a corporate philosophy* Bringing objectivity in the system* A well-monitored programme* Development of internal change agents* Having an expert (outside consultant) throughout for acceptability in the initial stageWeaknesses of the Programme* The programme has not spread to lower levels of managerial hierarchy. 20% respondents were not aware of role analysis exercise, same percentage of respondents had not been exposed to HRD workshop.* The programme emphasized on the mechanism more than the process.* Certain personnel policies like potential appraisal, manpower planning etc. have been initiated but need to mature.* For a programme that has been in operation for 5-7 years, the lower category of officers remain relatively less involved.* HRD for workers has been taken up in recent past, it appears that considerable work has to be done to conceptualize and translate HRD interventions for workers.References:Ishwar Dayal , Sen & Others (1996) : SuccessfulApplications of HRD: Case Studies of IndianOrganisations, New Concepts, New DelhiMDI Management Journal (Focus on HRD), Vol.5 No. 1 ,January 1992, GurgaonAnnual Reports of IOC 1991-92, 1997-98 & 2001-02