Introduction to plants

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  • 1. Introductionto the Plant Kingdom copyright cmassengale 1
  • 2. Early Ancestors Aquatic to Terrestrial Life copyright cmassengale 2
  • 3. Aquatic Ancestor Closest living species to a possible land plant ancestor Group of green algae Called Charyophyceans Chara copyright cmassengale 3
  • 4. Algae & Land Plant Similarities Both contain chlorophylls a and b Have chloroplasts with stacks of thylakoids Store starch in plastids Cellulose in cell walls Go through Alternation of Generations life Cycle copyright cmassengale 4
  • 5. Aquatic HabitatTerrestrial Habitat copyright cmassengale 5
  • 6. Living in Aquatic Environments Plants surrounded by water so don’t dry out Sperm swims to egg Water supports plant Plants stay in upper surface near light Absorb nutrients from the H O 2 copyright cmassengale 6
  • 7. Plant Adaptations to Land Problems: Solutions: Need minerals  Roots absorb H2O & Gravity minerals  Lignin & cellulose in cell Increase in walls Height for Light  Vascular Transport Adaptations for System Drier  Waxy cuticle & environment stomata with guard Reproduction cells copyright cmassengale containing sperm  Pollen 7
  • 8. How Are Plants All Alike? copyright cmassengale 8
  • 9. Plant Characteristics Multicellular Autotrophic (photosynthesis) Chlorophylls a and b in thylakoid membranes Surrounded by cell walls containing cellulose (polysaccharide) Store reserve food as amylose (starch) copyright cmassengale 9
  • 10. Plant Reproduction Alternation of generations life cycle Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage Haploid (1n) gametophyte stage Produce multicellular embryo protected inside multicellular haploid (gametophyte egg sac) tissue copyright cmassengale 10
  • 11. Plant Reproduction Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage produces haploid spores by meiosis Haploid spores undergo mitosis to produce gametophyte stage Gametophyte makes gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis Zygote (2n) produces the new sporophyte copyright cmassengale 11
  • 12. Alternation of Generations Gametophyte2n Sporophyte 2n gametophyte 1n pollen 2n seed with plant embryo Ovary with 1n ovules (eggs) Sporophyte copyright cmassengale 12
  • 13. PlantDivisions copyright cmassengale 13
  • 14. Taxonomy Plants are divided into two groups Based on the presence or Vascular absence of an Bundles internal transport system for water and dissolved materials Called Vascular System copyright cmassengale 14
  • 15. Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used Sap is the fluid carried inside the xylem or phloem copyright cmassengale 15
  • 16. Nonvascular Plants Do not have vascular tissue Sporophyte stage for support or conduction of materials Called Bryophytes Gametophyte Require a Stage constantly moist environment Moss Gametophytes & copyright cmassengale Sporophytes 16
  • 17. Nonvascular Plants Plants can’t grow as tall Cells must be in direct contact with moisture Materials move by diffusion cell-to-cell Sperm must swim to egg through water droplets copyright cmassengale 17
  • 18. Nonvascular Plants Includes mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta), and hornworts (Antherophyta) Liverworts copyright cmassengale Hornworts 18
  • 19. Main Parts of Vascular Plants Shoots -Found above ground -Have leaves attached - Photosynthetic part of plant Roots -Found below ground -Absorb water & minerals -Anchor the plant copyright cmassengale 19
  • 20. Vascular Plants Also called Tracheophytes Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed- bearing vascular plants copyright cmassengale Club Moss 20
  • 21. Seedless Vascular Plants Includes club moss (Lycophyta), horsetails (Sphenophyta), whisk ferns (Psilophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta) Whisk ferns copyright cmassengale Horsetails 21
  • 22. Seed-Producing Vascular Plants Includes two groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms have naked seeds in cones Angiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale 22
  • 23. Gymnosperms Coniferophyta are known as conifers Includes pine, cedar, spruce, and fir Cycadophyta – cycads Cycad Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Ginkgo copyright cmassengale 23
  • 24. Gymnosperms Contains the oldest living plant – Bristle cone pine Contains the tallest living plant – Sequoia or redwood copyright cmassengale 24
  • 25. Angiosperms Flowering plants Seeds are formed when an egg or ovule is fertilized by pollen in the ovary Ovary is within a flower Flower contains the male (stamen) and/or female (ovaries) parts of the plant Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries (help disperse seeds) copyright cmassengale 25
  • 26. Angiosperms Division Anthophyta Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots Monocots have a single seed cotyledon Dicots have two seed cotyledons copyright cmassengale 26
  • 27. Monocots Parallel venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 3 Vascular tissue scattered in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale 27
  • 28. Dicots Net venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular tissue in rings in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale 28
  • 29. Plant Uses copyright cmassengale 29
  • 30. Why We Can’t do Without Plants! Produce oxygen for the atmosphere Produce lumber for building Provide homes and food for many organisms Prevent erosion Used for food copyright cmassengale 30
  • 31. More Reasons We Can’t do Without Plants! Produce wood pulp for paper products Source of many medicines Ornamental and shade for yards Fibers such as cotton for fabric Dyes copyright cmassengale 31
  • 32. copyright cmassengale 32