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International marketing
 

International marketing

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  • 5. If the relationship is along vertical lines, both parties to the relationship must understand their core strengths and be able to defend their competitive position against the possibility of either a forward or backward integration move by their vertical partner, and they must work together to create a unique value for the customers of the downstream partner in the value chain.

International marketing International marketing Presentation Transcript

  • MARKETING: A UNIVERSAL DISCIPLINE Marketing is a set of concepts, tools, theories, practices and procedures, and experience. Together, these elements constitute a teachable and learnable body of knowledge.
  • THE MARKETING CONCEPT The New Concept of Marketing and the Four Ps Shifted the focus of marketing from the product to the customer. The objective was still profit, but the means of achieving the objective expanded to include the entire marketing mix, or the “four Ps”.
  • The Strategic Concept of Marketing
      • Shifted the focus of marketing from the customer or the product to the customer in the context of the broader external environment.
      • Shift to the strategic concept of marketing is in the marketing objective-from profit to stakeholder benefits.
      • Marketing must focus on the customer in context and deliver value by creating stakeholder benefits for both customers and employees.
      • Finally, the strategic concept of marketing has shifted the focus of marketing form a microeconomics maximization paradigm to a focus of managing strategic partnerships and positioning the firm between vendors and customers in the value chain with the aim and purpose of creating value for customers. This expanded concept of marketing was termed boundary less marketing by Jack Welch, chairperson and chief executive officer.
     
  • THE THREE PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING
    • CUSTOMER VALUE AND THE VALUE EQUATION
    • COMPETITIVE OR DIFFERENTIAL ADVANTAGE
    • FOCUS
  • TABLE 1-1 Examples of Global Marketing Toyota (Japan), Honda (Japan), Gap (U.S.) Sourcing Caterpillar (U.S.) Customer service Benetton (Italy) Distribution Gillette (U.S.) Packaging Unilever (Great Britain/Netherlands), Harley-Davidson (U.S.) Product positioning (U.S.) McDonalds’s (U.S.), Toyota (Japan), Ford (U.S.), Cisco Systems Product Design (Germany) Coca-Cola (U.S.), Philip Morris (U.S.), DaimlerChrysler Brand Name
    • Markets and Customers are quite different
    • Marketing Practices vary from country to country
    • Each person is unique, each country is unique.
    • Cannot always directly apply experience from one
    • country to another.
    • U’hv to change Marketing plans if customers, competitors, channels of distribution and available media are different.
    • Prof Lewitt’s – 1983 – HOMOGENIOUS GLOBAL VILLAGE.— Develop standardized high quality world products and market them around globally using standard standard advertising pricing & distribution .
  • “ THE BORDERLESS WORLD” Kenichi “ GLOBAL LOCALISATION ” Coke Success in Japan, Malboro, Diamler-Chrysler (Merceded), BMW.
  • MANAGEMENT ORIENTATIONS Ethnocentric Home country is superior: sees similarities in foreign countries Polycentric Each host country is unique; sees differences in foreign countries Regiocentric Sees similarities and differences in a world region; is ethnocentric or polycentric in its view of the rest of the world Geocentric Worldview; sees similarities and differences in home and host countries
  • BENEFITS OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
    • Survival
    • Growth of Overseas Markets
    • Sales and Profits
    • Diversification
    • Inflation and Price Moderation
    • Employment
    • Standards of Living
    • Understanding of Marketing Process
  • DRIVING AND RESTRAINING FORCES AFFECTING GLOBAL INTEGRATION AND GLOBAL MARKETING FIGURE 1 - 4 Driving and Restraining Forces Affecting Global Integration GLOBAL INTEGRATION Driving Forces Restraining Forces Technology Culture Culture Market Differences Market Needs Costs Cost National Controls Free Markets Nationalism Economic Integration War Peace Managemen t Myopia Management Vision Organization History Strategic Intent Domestic Focus Global Strategy and Action
  • Ethnocentric-Domestic Domestic expansion only S H A Y I don’t care Junior. We are staying at home.
  • You see…our way works best around the world. Ethnocentric-International Foreign expansion viewed as an appendage to domestic operations; same strategies are utilized in all countries.
  • Polycentrism Activities and functions are planned and managed, often by local nationals, on a country-by-country basis (e.g., HRM is decentralized by country) Would you look at this? The GMs do understand the local markets HQ
  • Regiocentrism Operations are geared towards a particular continental region with similar economies and cultures HQ Alphaland Betaland
  • Geocentrism Products are functional, reliable, and standardized low-cost products (e.g., HRM managed on a global basis) I can see the whole world from here. HQ
  • SOME NOTES National Economies Self Contained Entities National Economies Self Contained Entities National Economies Self Contained Entities BARRIERS Cross country trade & investment by time, Zones, language, National differences In Govt. regulations, Culture & business Systems.
  • BARRIERS FALLING = Cross Border trade & Investment increasing distances shrinking due to telecommunication and transportation technology, material, culture is starting to look similar world over, national economies are merging into interdependent global economic system G L O B A L I Z A T I O N SOME NOTES National Economies Self Contained Entities National Economies Self Contained Entities National Economies Self Contained Entities BARRIERS Cross country trade & investment by time, Zones, language, National differences In Govt. regulations , Culture & business Systems.
  • Definition of International mktg. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines IM as “ ‘ The multinational process of planning and executing, the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services, to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.” Essential Characteristics:- concepts and services, it applies to International nonprofit marketing – Govt, religious bodies, from product making to selling to finding out customer needs and then design a product, places means that not only exports, not using identical strategies abroad.
  • Domestic vs Intl Mktg
    • SIMILARITIES:
    • SUCCESS DEPENDS ON SATISFYING THE BASIC DEMANDS OF
    • CONSUMER.
    • CAVEAT EMPTOR TO CAVEAT VENDOR. (GOODWILL)
    • R & D FOR PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT AND ADAPTION FOR BOTH
  • Domestic vs Intl Mktg Differences
    • Sovereign Political Entities –
      • = Tariffs or customs duty
      • = Quantitative restrictions
      • = Exchange controls.
      • = Local Taxes.
    • Different Legal systems –
    • = UNCITRAL
    3. Different Monetary Systems. 4. Lower mobility of Factors of Production.
  • Domestic vs Intl Mktg
    • Differences:-
    • 5. Differences in Market Characteristics.
    • 6. Differences in Procedures and Documentation.
    • 7. Greater Degree of Risk.
  • HOW TO MANAGE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ? Tasks & Challenges of IM. Countries are different --- PEST Factors Many marketing practices --- requires different skills and or approach Greater complexicity of managing than domestic marketing Foreign Currency dealings. Where to produce = cost value, globally dispersed production co-ordination / control Appropriate mode of entry into foreign markets, i.e. exports, partnerships ,jv etc Rules governing international trade and business, Govt restrictions etc, development strats / policies.
  • Market Strategy  Where?  How?  With whom? Strategy = Choice
  •  
  • Controllable and Uncontrollable Factors. Political / Legal Forces. Economic Climate. Competitive structure Political / Legal Forces, Cultural forces, Geography & Infrastructure, Structure of Distribution, Level of Technology, Competitive Forces, Economic Forces. Environmental Uncontrollable Elements Country Market A,B,C. Foreign Environment ( Uncontrollable Domestic Environment (Uncontrollable) Controllable ( 4 P’s)
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY .
    • OVERVIEW:
    • CAPITAL MOVEMENTS RATHER THAN TRADE HAVE BECOME THE DRIVING FORCE OF THE WORLD ECONOMY.
    • PRODUCTION HAS BECOME “UNCOUPLED ‘ FROM PRODUCTION.
    • THE WORLD ECONOYMY DOMINATES THE SCENE.---- MACROECONOMICS OF INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES NO LONGER CONTROL ECONOMIC OUTCOMES
    • THE GROWTH OF COMMERCE IS VIA INTERNET.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY . THE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS . CAPITALIST SOCIALIST MIXED. THE CLASSIFICATION IS BASED ON THE DOMINENT METHOD OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION MARKET ALLOCATION, COMMAND OR CENTRAL PLAN ALLOCATION AND MIXED PLAN ALLOCATION .
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY
    • a) MARKET ALLOCATION
    •  
    • Relies on consumers to allocate resources.
    • Consumers "write" the economic plan by deciding what will be
    • produced by whom.
    • Economic democracy--citizens have the right to vote with their
    • pocketbooks for the goods of their choice.
    • The role of the state in a market economy is to promote competition
    • and ensure consumer protection.
    • The United States, most Western European countries, and Japan-the
    • triad countries that account for three quarters of gross world
    • product-are examples of predominantly market economies.
    • The clear superiority of the market allocation system in delivering the
    • goods and services that people need and want has led to its
    • adoption in many formerly social.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY
    • b) COMMAND ALLOCATION
    • The state has broad powers to serve the public inter­est. These
    • include deciding which products to make and how to make them. Consumers are free to spend their money on what is available, but decisions about what is produced and, therefore, what is available are made' by state planners.
    • Because demand exceeds supply, the elements of the marketing
    • mix are not used as strategic variables. There is little reliance on product differentiation, advertising, and promotion; distribution is handled by the government to cut out "exploitation" by intermediaries.
    • Three of the most populous countries in the world-China, the
    • former USSR, and India-relied on command allocation systems for decades. All three countries are now engaged in economic reforms directed at shifting to market allocation system. By contrast, Cuba stands as one of the last bastions of the command allocation approach.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY
    • c) MIXED SYSTEM
    • There are, in reality, no pure market or command allocation systems
    • among the world's economies.
    • All market systems have a command sector, 'and all command systems
    • have a market sector; in other words, they are "mixed."
    • In a market economy, the command allocation sector is the proportion
    • of gross domestic product (GDP) that is taxed and spent by government. For the 24 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), this proportion ranges from 32.percent of GDP in the United States to 64 percent in Sweden. In Sweden, therefore, where 64 per­cent of all expenditures are controlled by government, the economic system is more "command" than "market." The reverse is true in the United States.
    • Similarly, farmers in most socialist countries were traditionally
    • permitted to offer part of their production in a free market. China has given considerable freedom to businesses and individuals in the Guangdong province to operate within a market system. Still, China's private sector constitutes only 1 to 2 percent of national output.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY STAGES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INCOME & P.P.P. AROUND THE GLOBE. LOCATION OF POPULATION MARKETING & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC RISK BALANCE OF PAYMENTS. TRADE PATTERNS. MERCHANDISE TRADE SERVICE TRADE.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY STAGES OF MARKET DEVELOPMENT . Based on GNP per Capita. LOW INCOME COUNTRIES. LOWER-MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES. UPPER-MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES. HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES. BASKET CASES.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY   Low Income   Pre industrialized ---- agriculture and subsistence farming. < $ 785 37% world pop, <3 % world GDP High Birth Rates Low Literary Rates High Reliance on foreign aid Political instability and unrest Conc-In Africa, south of Sahara Exceptions, Bangladesh GNP / Capita is $366, export of garments. Middle income     LDC’s early stages of industrialization >$786 39% world pop 11% of world GDP Location for the production of standard or mature products like clothing for export Market. Atheletics Shoes ( Indonesia) Cheap and highly motivated labour to serve target markets. Upper Middle income   Industrializing countries $3.165 – 9.600 7% world pop 7% WGNP greater degree of urbanization eg. Malayasia, rapidly industrilysing Rising wages and higher rater of literacy and advanced education but still have lower wage cost, become formidable competitors, export driven economic growth High Income     Advanced industrialized post industrialized Sources of Innovation and New Product development, information process & exchange, importance of service sector,ascendancy of knowledge, orientation towards future,interpersonal relationship SWP $ 9.658 16 % world pop 82 of world GDP  
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY DEGREES OF ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION .
    • FREE TRADE AREA. NAFTA, LAFTA
    • CUSTOMS UNION EUROPEAN UNION
    • COMMON MARKET
    • ECONOMIC UNION.
  • ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT THE WORLD ECONOMY W.T.O. AND GATT. REGIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS. EUROPEAN TRADE GROUPS. NORTH AMERICA TRADE GROUP. ASIAN TRADE GROUP. SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICAN TRADE GROUPS. AFRICA AND MIDDLE EASTERN TRADE GROUPS.
  • POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT. HOME TARGET COUNTRY BUSINESS ANALYSE THE SALIENT ISSUES OF POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT SOVERIEGNTY POLITICAL RISK THREAT OF EQUITY DILUTION. EXPORTATION.,
  • POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
    • SOVEREINGNTY
    • Supreme and independent authority.
    • Free and independent.
    • Regulates trade
    • managed the flow of people into and out of its boundaries
    • Exercised individual jurisdiction over all persons and
    • property within its territory.
    EXERCISE CONTROL BY PASSING PROTECTIONIST LAWS AND REGULATIONS. POLITICAL RISK IS INVERSLY PROPORTIONAL TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY. TAXES TAXES
  • POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT DILUTION OF EQUITY CONTROL . NATIONAL CONTROL OF FOREIGN OWNED COMPANIES HOW TO AVOID LOOK AT ITSELF & COUNTRY SITUATION AND DECIDE STRATEGY. FOLLOW THE LAW OF THE LAND. ANTICIPATE GOVT POLICY CHANGES. LISTEN TO COUNTRY MANAGERS . EXPORTATION. GOVT ACTION TO DISPOSE OFF COMPANY OR INVESTORS .
  • POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT TYPES OF GOVT: POLITICAL SYSTEM . MONARCHES AND DICTATORSHIPS. ABOVE + PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS ( SAUDI ARBIA & North korea) NUMBER OF POLITICAL PARTIES. 2 party UK & USA) Multiparty Germany, France Israel. Single party Egypt. Dominated one party system. Former Soviet Union, Cuba, Libya . INDICATORS OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY. SOCIAL UNREST ATTITUDES OF THE NATIONALS. POLICIES OF THE HOST GOVT.
  • POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT MEASURES TO MINIMIZE POLITICAL RISKS. STIMULATE OF LOCAL ECONOMY EMPLOYMENT OF NATIONALS. SHARING OWNERSHIP BEING CIVIC MINDED. POLITICAL NUETRALITY. BEHIND THE SCENES LOBBY..
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT . INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMON Vs CODE LAW Today majority of countries have legal systems based on civil code traditions – blending concepts & hybrid system Statutory law – codified at National / State level Administrative law – regulatory bodies and local communities. Case law – product of court system. Civil or code law – civil, commercial & criminal laws. Uses codified, written norms which are complemented by court decision.
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • Act of god – unavoidable interference with performance
    • Intellectual property register
    • Common Law – Tradition & precedents which are
    • rulings from previous cases.
    • -trademarks (but not patents) are
    • establishes by prior use.
    • Act of god – floods, storms, add on in contracts
    • Host country’s legal system i.e. common or civil law directly effects the form a legal business entity will take.
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • Common Law – Companies are granted the ability to operate by public authority.
    • Civil Law – Companies are formed by contract between two or more parties who are fully liable for the actions of the company
    • Countries
    • Common Law – India, Pakistan, Malayasia, Singapore, UK, USA, Canada, Africa.
    • Civil Law – Japan, Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Taiwan, China.
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: PATENTS & TRADEMARKS (P&T)
    • P&T registered in each country where business is conducted.
    • Exploit loop holes or unique opportunities offered by P&T Laws in individual nature eg. Champange-perfume
    • Infringement – critical problem
    • counterfeiting – unauthorized copying &
    • production of a product
    • Imitation – close enough
    • Piracy – Unauthorized publication or reproduction
    • of copyright work.
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • ANTITRUST
    • Designed to combat restrictive business practices and to encourage competition.
    • Sherman Act 1890 – Prohibits certain restrictive business practices including fixing prices, limiting production, allocating marks & any other scheme designed to avoid competition.
    • LICENSING & TRADE SECRETS
    • Licensing is a contractual agreement in which a license or allows a licenses to use patents, trademarks, trade secrets, technology, or other in tangible assets in return for royalty payment or other form of compensation.
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • Durations amount of royalties = commercial negotiation
    • Many countries – licensing are regulated by Govt. Agencies.
    • Important consideration = price of assets, right to ‘make’, ‘use’ & to ‘sell’
    • Includes competition : need to be careful.
    • Licensing of trade secrets – use confidentiality clauses / contacts e.g. Uniform Trade Secrets Act (UTSA)
    • NAFTA (1994) first tool, TRIP’S (Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • BRIBERY & CORRUPTION : Legal & ethical issues
    • Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) – legacy of watergate
    • Normal implications
    • Difficult position vis-à-vis foreign competitors
    • CONFLICT RESOLUTION, DISPUTE SETTLEMENT & RITIGATION
    • US lawyers highest ratio per 1000 pop.
    • Home court advantage
    • Foreign court complex – diff. In language, legal systems, currencies and traditional business practices & patterns, difference in procedures + complexity
    • Generally resort to arbitration
    • Extra judicial alternative approaches-faster, easier + less expensive
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • Chambers of Comm & Trade – Arbitrator – third mentor
    • Courts of arbitration – London & Zurich
    • International Chambers of Comm. – slow process
    • New York convention
    • American Arbitration Association (AAA)
    • Swedish AA
    • ACAS (Advising Conciliation & Arbitration Service)
    • UNCITRAL (United Nations Conference on Intt. Trade Law)
  • LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
    • REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
    • Govt. & Non Govt. agencies & Trade groups, Intt Economic Orgn (IEO’s)
    • Wide range of mktg issues – price control, valuation of imports & exports trade practices labeling, food & drug regulations, employment conditions, collective bargaining, advertising contents & competitive practices
    • EU – EGC (European Economic Community – various contacts
    • WTO - GATT
  • Key Questions Transcend Boundaries  Where? Where?  In which markets are we competing?  Key Questions Transcend Boundaries Technology, Customer Groups, Geographic Markets, etc.  How does the international expansion impact your business definition?  How?  How are we competing in these markets (value proposition)?  Competitive Advantage, Corporate Posture  How does the international expansion impact the way you compete?  With whom?  Which relationships do we have to develop or do we need to nurture?  Selection of Channel Members, Logistic Partners, Sourcing Decisions  How does the international expansion impact the choice of business partners?
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  • BASIC ASPECTS OF SOCIETY AND CULTURE
    • Define culture as “ways of living,” built up by a group of human beings, which are transmitted from one generation to another.
    • Culture includes both conscious and unconscious values, ideas, attitudes, and symbols that shape human behavior and that are transmitted from one generation to the next.
    • Culture is “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one category of people from those of another.
    • Culture is learned
    • First, all facets of culture are interrelated: Influence or change one aspect of a culture and everything else is affected.
    • Second, because it is shared by the members of a group, culture defines and boundaries between different groups.
    • Culture consists of learned responses to recurring situations.
    • Taste and preferences for food and drink
    • Preference for color is culturally influenced as well.
    • Attitudes toward whole classes of products can also be a function of culture.
    • Income levels also influence consumer behavior and attitudes around the world.
    • Consumer products have broad, almost universal, appeal.
  • THE SEARCH FOR CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
    • Discover cultural universals. A universal is a mode of behavior existing in all cultures.
    • Eg.: Athletic sports, body adornment, cooking, courtship, dancing, decorative art, education, ethics, etiquette, family feasting, food taboos, language, marriage, mealtime, medicine, mourning, music, property rights, religious rituals, residence rules, status differentiation, and trade.
    • Apparent cultural diversity in the world turns out to be different ways of accomplishing the same thing.
    • Music provides one example of how these universals apply to marketing.
    • Increasing travel and improving communications mean that many national attitudes toward style in clothing, color, music, food, and drink are converging.
    • Use of credit are providing huge global opportunities for financial service providers.
    • HIGH AND LOW-CONTEXT CULTURES
    • Words carry most of the information in communication.
    • In general, high-context cultures function with much less legal paperwork than is deemed essential in low-context cultures.
    • Main obstacle is attitude.
  • High and Low-Context Cultures United States, Northern Europe Japan, Middle East Country/regional examples Common Infrequent Competitive bidding Proceed quickly Are lengthy – a major purpose is to allow the parties to get to know each other Negotiations Monochronic – time is money. Linear – one thing at a time Polychronic – everything in life must be dealt with in its own time Time People maintain a bubble of private space and resent intrusions People breathe on each other Space organizational error Pushed to lowest level Taken by highest level Responsibility for Is not to be relied on; “get it in writing” Is his or her bond A person’s word Very important Less important Lawyers Low Context High Context Factors / Dimensions
    • COMMUNICATION AND NEGOTIATION
    • A MATTER OF CULTURE: GETTING LOST IN TRANSLATION
    • British Version American Version
    • chemist pharmacist
    • lorry truck
    • nappies diapers
    • loo bathroom
    • biscuits cookies
    • crisps potato chips
    • shandy beer with lemonade
    • English: Paris: “Please leave your values at the front desk”; Japan: “You are invited to take advantage of the chamber-maid”;
    • Romania: “The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret that you will be unbearable.”
    • Japan English, French, or German on the labels to suggest a stylish image.
  • ANALYTICAL APPROACHES TO CULTURAL FACTORS
    • MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy: The Asian Equivalent
  • ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY FIGURE 3-3 Environmental Sensitivity Product Adaptation Matrix
  • Social Behavior
    • Social Behavior documents that have different meaning under different cultures.
    • Eg. American – Impolite – would food, make noises and belch
    •  
    • Chinese – Polite – take a portion of every food served – belch (evidence of satisfaction)
    •  
    • Saudi Arabia – insult to ? health of spouse, Show the soles of one’s shoes or touch or deliver goods with left hand.
  • Korea – both hands are used, impolite to discuss politics, communism or japan. Formal introduction very imp, rank and files are imp (in Japan also) used in addressing hosts. (in USA – no clear rule)   Indonesia – rude to point finger (thumb or chin)   Greetings shake hands ++   Japan – bow as low as senior   Brazil, Korea, Indonesia, China & Taiwan – Slight bow   Venezuela – full embrace + hearty pat   Indonesia – social kiss is in vogue, touching firstthe right cheek and left check as one shakes hand.   Malaysia friends grasp with hands
  • South Africa black shake hands followed by clench of each others thumbs and another handshake.   Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Madame, Mensieur, Madamciselle, Sener, Senora, Sanonta,   “ Goddag” (Switzerland).   Netherlands- Pleased to meet you   How do you do? (UK)   Jumbo (Tanzania)   Shalom (Israel)
    • SOCIAL & CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT ON MKTG. CONSUMER PRODUCTS
    •  
    • Consumer products are more sensitive to culture differences.
    •  
    • -          CPC – Knorr (Swiss) dehydrated soup – failed in USA
    • -          it has major share in Europe 80%.
    • BUT
    • achieved success in Sauce and gravy product in USA
    • sales outside USA = 63% of food revenues.
    •  
    • Campbell – 63% generated in USA, 27% global Mkts.
    Campbell canned soups – 90% in USA
    • Cooking habits and customs vary from country to country
    •  
    • -           Italian housewife 4.5 hrs / day in kitchen (80% men have not meal at home)
    • USA housewife 1 hr / day
    •  
    • Beverages influenced by culture
    •  
    • -           UK – Instant Coffee – 90% of total coffee mkt (not beverage (tea), more milk, masked)
    • -          Sweden – Instant Coffee – 15% (Not beverage of choice, w/o milk, not masked and brewed)
    • SSoft drink
    •  
    • -          Coco-Cola – 376 ounces servings in USA per capita in USA
    • - 203 servings in Germany
    • - 95 servings in Italy
    • - 88 servings in France
    •  
    • -         
    • - H 2 O – (in France)
    •  
    Europe – Wine 30 to 40 x
    • C = f ( A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
    •  
    • C = Consumption of soft drinks
    • f = function of
    • A = Influences of other beverages related price, quality and taste.
    • B = Adv. Expenditure and effectiveness, all beverages categories
    • C = availability of products in distribution channels
    • D = Culture habit, elements, tradition, custom
    • E = availability of raw materials (particularly H 2 O)
    • F = Climate conditions, temperatures and RIA
    • G = Income level.
    •  
    • Culture is an influencing rather than a determining factor.
    • Indian society is at least as ethnically and culturally diverse as that in Europe and business practices are probably can more varied than in Europe.
    • Training in cross culture competency --Samsung.
    • Penetration of the US beverage market by bottled H 2 O producers = effective creative strategy an a firmly entrenched culture tradition, (Change in price ( ), promotion and place (to soft drink section) Result 80% of US bottled H 2 O Mkt.) (restraining force of culture changed by creative Mktg Strategy)
  • Barriers to IM TRADE BARRIERS:- “ : government laws, regulations, policies, or proactive that either protect domestic producers from foreign competition or artificially stimulate exports of particular domestic products. Restrictive businesses practices and government regulations designed to protect public health and national security are not considered as trade barriers . The report classifies the trade barriers into eight categories. (1) Import policies (e.g., tariffs, quotas, licensing, and customs barriers); (2) standards, testing, labeling, and certification; (3) government procurement; (4) export subsidies; (5) lack of intellectual property protection; (6) services barriers (e.g., restrictions on the use of foreign data processing); (7) investment barriers; and (8) other barriers.
  • Barriers to IM Why ?
    • PROTECTION OF LOCAL INDUSTRIES
    • (1) keeping money at home,
    • (2) reducing unemployment,
    • (3) equalizing cost and price,
    • (4) enhancing national security,
    • (5) protecting infant industry.
  • Barriers to IM
    • MARKETING BARRIERS: TARIFFS.
    • Tariff, derived from a French word-meaning rate, price, or list of charges, is a customs duty or a tax on products that move across borders.
    • 1. Direction: import and Export Tariffs
    • 2. Purpose: protective and Revenue Tariffs
    • 3. Length: Tariff Surcharge versus Countervailing Duty.
    • 4. Rates: specific, ad Valorem, and Combined.
    5. Distribution point: Distribution and consumption taxes
  • Barriers to IM MARKETING BARRIERS: NONTARIFF BARRIERS
    • 1. Government participation in trade
    • Administrative Guidance .
    • Government procurement and state trading
    • Subsidies .
    • Customs and Entry Procedures
    • Classification
    • Valuation- Regardless
    • Documentation
    • License or permit
    • Inspection
    • Health & Safety Regulations
  • Barriers to IM Product Requirements 1. Product standards 2. Packaging, Labeling, and marking 3. Product Testing 4. Product specifications Quotas
    • Quotas
    • Absolute Quotas-
    • Tariff Quotas
    • Voluntary Quotas
  • Barriers to IM Financial control
    • Exchange control
    • Multiple exchange Rates multiple rates
    • Prior import Deposits and credit Restrictions
    • Profit Remittance Restrictions
  •  
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING . Business customs are as much a cultural element of a society as is the language.   Not &quot;just like us.&quot;   Knowledge of the business culture, management attitudes, and business methods existing in a country and a willingness to accommodate the differences are important to success in an international market 94
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING . REQUIRED ADAPTATION   Adaptation is a key concept   willingness to adapt is a crucial attitude.   Ten basic criteria   They are: (1) open tolerance, (2) flexibility, (3) humility, (4) justice/fairness, (5) ability to adjust to varying tempos, (6) curiosity/interest, (7) knowledge of the country, (8) liking for others, (9) ability to command respect, and (10) ability to integrate oneself into the environment. 95
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING . Degree of Adaptation   Adaptation require business executives be aware of local customs and be willing to accommodate those differences that can cause misunderstanding.   The self-reference criterion (SRC) is especially operative in business customs.   Imperatives, Adiaphora, and Exclusives   Business customs can be grouped into   imperatives, customs that must be recognized and accommodated;   adiaphora, customs to which adaptation is optional; and   exclusives, customs in which an outsider must not participate. 96
  • METHODS OF DOING BUSINESS Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) and Power Distance (PDI) are especially relevant in examining methods of doing business among countries . Sources and Level of Authority Business size, ownership, public accountability, and cultural values that determine the prominence of status and position (PDI) Combine to influence the authority structure of business . HIGH PDI countries like Mexico and Malaysia, understanding the rank and status is more important subordinates are not likely to contradict bosses, LOW PDI societies like Denmark and Israel not necessary In few countries they are likely to contradict 97
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING .
    • The authority patterns, most are a variation of three typical patterns:
        • top-level management decisions;
        •  
        • decentralized decisions; and
        •  
        • committee or group decisions
    • Management Objectives and Aspirations .
    •  
    • 1.     Personal Goals.
    •  
    • Security and Mobility
    •  
    • Personal Life.
    •  
    • Social Acceptance
    •  
    • Power
    98
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING . Communications Emphasis HIGH CONTEXT Communication depends heavily on the context or nonverbal aspects of communication culture it takes considerably longer to conduct business because of the need to know more about a businessperson before a relationship develops . LOW CONTEXT Communication depends more on explicit, verbally expressed Communications.   one-gets down to business quickly 99
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING . Formality and Tempo P-Time versus M-Time   &quot;they are always late,&quot; &quot;you are always prompt.&quot;   we are a very time-oriented society-time is money to us-whereas in other cultures time is to be savoured, not spent. Edward Hall defines two time systems in the world : monochromic and polyphonic time 100
  • BUSINESS CUSTOMS IN GLOBAL MARKETING . m-time North Americans, Swiss, Germans, and Scandinavians.-- tend to concentrate on one thing at a time. They divide time into small units and are concerned with promptness. M-time is used in a linear way and it is experienced as being almost tangible in that we save time, waste time, bide time, spend time, and lose time. Most low-context cultures operate on M-­time The American desire to get straight to the point, to get down to business, and other indications of directness are all manifestations of M-time cultures. p-time P-time, or polychronic time, is more dominant in high-context cultures where the completion of a human transaction is emphasized more than holding to schedules. P­-time is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of many things and by &quot;a great involvement with people.&quot; P-time allows for relationships to build and context to be absorbed as parts of high-context cultures.   The P-time system gives rise to looser time schedules, deeper involvement with individuals, and a wait-and­ see-what-develops attitude Gender Bias in International Business 101
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH IMP TOPICS : MIS & IT ARE STRATEGIC ASSETS. FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION SCANNING AND OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION FORMAL MKT RESEARCH PROCESS. MANAGE THE MIS & EFFORTS.
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH INFORMATION SUBJECT AGENDA SIX SUBJECT AGENDA CATEGORIES FOR A GLOBAL BUSINESS CATEGORY / COVERAGE 1. Markets Demand estimates, consumer behavior, products, channels, communication media availability and cost, and market responsiveness. 2. Competition Corporate, business, and functional strategies and plans 3. Foreign Exchange Balance of payments, interest rates, attractiveness of country currency, expectations of analysts. 4. Prescriptive Information Laws, regulations, rulings concerning taxes, earnings, dividends in both host countries and home country. 5. Resource Information Availability of human, financial, information, and physical resources. 6. General conditions Overall review of socio-cultural, political, technological environments.
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH In the surveillance mode, the marketer engages in informal information gathering. lookout for information about potential opportunities and threats in various parts of the world. They want to know every­thing about the industry, the business, the marketplace, and consumers. they keep their ears and eyes tuned for clues, rumors, nuggets of information, and insights from other people's experiences. Browsing through news­papers and magazines and surfing the Internet. Global marketers may also develop a habit of watching news programs and commercials from around the world via satellite. This type of general ex­posure to information is known a_ viewing. If a particular news story has special rele­vance for a company-for example, entry of a new player into a global industry, say, Samsung into automobiles-marketers in the automobile and related industries and all competitors of Samsung will pay special attention, tracking the story as it develops. This is known as monitoring . SCANNING MODES: SURVEILLANCE AND SEARCH 104
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH The search mode is characterized by more formal activity. Search is characterized by the deliberate seeking out of specific information. Search often involves investigation, a relatively limited arid informal type of search. Investigation often involves seek­ing out books or articles in trade publications or searching the Internet on a particular topic or issue. Search may also consist of research, a formally organized effort to acquire specific information for a specific purpose. 105
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH SOURCES OF MARKET INFORMATION   1. HUMAN SOURCES Internal, Friends, Acquaintances, Professional colleagues, Consultants, & perspective new employees. 2. DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCES. Are published information and unpublished private documents. 3. INTERNET SOURCES. 4. DIRECT PERCEPTION HLL Percil Pwdr 6wks in Indian Village, Toyato –LEXUS Car. 106
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH FORMAL MARKETING RESEARCH STEP 1: IDENTIFYING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM STEP 2: DEVELOPING A RESEARCH PLAN STEP 3: COLLECTING DATA Secondary Data,Primary Data and Survey Research,Sampling. STEP 4: ANALYZING RESEARCH DATA 1. Demand Analysis Patterns 2. Income Elasticity Measurements. 3. Market Estimation by Analogy. 4. Cluster Analysis 5. Analysing Results. STEP 5: PRESENTING THE FINDINGS 107
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH CERTAIN ISSUES Analyse many National Markets. Marketing Res Expenditure modest in in low profile markets. Data— inflated or deflated either inadvertently or for political expediency. 108
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH M I S Must be carefully designed and developed. Development = 3 steps:- system analysis,design, and implementation Investigation of All users info Transforms the various info reqr into one or more plans that clearly specify the procedures and programs in obtaining, recording and analysing market data. Installation & Checking 109
  • GLOBAL MKTG INFO SYSTEM & RESEARCH MIS Characteristics == user-oriented, expandable Comprehensive, flexible, integrated, efficient, cost effectivr, reliable, timely, controllable, systematic, and self perpetuating. Intl MIS === Above ++ time independence, location independence, cultural & linguistic capabilities, legal compatibility, standerisation/uniformity,flexibility and integration. Benetton’s info sys, Nestle-Maggi,Chicory flavoured Coffee ‘ Sunrise’ in India, Gerber (France) database mgt natural instant cerials 110
  • INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTELLIGENCE. WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED.? .
    • Which markets to enter
    • Ranking them @ attractiveness
    • Investigation into their mkt potential & local
    • competitive situation
    • Decide how to serve those market – by exporting, licensing, or local prodn.
    111
  • INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTELLIGENCE 112 INFORMATION FOR MARKETING DECISIONS MARKETING DECISION INTELLIGENCE NEEDED 1.Go international or remain a domestic marketer Assessment of global market demand and firm’s potential share in it, in view of local and international competition and compared to domestic opportunities. 2. Which markets to enter ? A ranking of world markets according to market potential, local competition, and the political situation . 3. How to enter target markets ? Size of market, international trade barriers, transport costs, local competition, government requirements, and political stability. 4. How to market in target markets ? For each market: buyer behavior, competitive practice, distribution channels, promotional media and practice, company experience there and in other markets.
  • INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTELLIGENCE 113 THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY MARKETING RESEARCH Marketing Environment Political structure and ideol ogy, National objectives , t he economic dimension of information gathering is more familiar , Government regulation Competition. Users of the Product Marketing Mix Distribution Channels, Comparitive Pricing Strategies ,A & P, Media Res, Service Q issues,logistics of network capabilities.
  • SEGMENTATION, TARGETING AND POSITIONING . Market segmentation is the process of subdividing a market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs. Each subset may conceivably be chosen as a market target to be reached with a distinctive marketing strategy. Global market segmentation is the process of dividing the world market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs, or, as one author put it, it is the process of identifying specific segments-whether they be country groups or individual consumer groups-of potential customers with homogeneous attributes who are likely to exhibit similar buying behavior.&quot; 114
  • STP Prof Lewit- “ Pluralization of consumption ” and “ Segment simultaniety .” e.g. consumers seek Variety and that same new segments show up in Multiple national markets. Like ethenic food like sushi or Greek salad 115 Another e.g. desire to be beautiful, desire to be healthy and free of pain, the love of Mother & Child. All the above is Universal = advt around the globe.
  • STP 116 The criteria for global market segmentation is: 1. GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION 2. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION. 3. PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION. 4. BEHAVIOR SEGMENTATION. 5. BENEFIT SEGMENTATION. 6. VERTICAL vs HORIZONTAL SEGMENTATION.
  • STP GLOBAL TARGETING. Targeting is the act of evaluating and comparing the identified groups and then selecting one or more of them as the prospect(s) with the highest potential. (based on R on Sales + Max value to Cust  Mktg Mix devised. 1. CRITERIA FOR TARGETING The three basic criteria for assessing opportunity in global target markets 1. Current size of the segment and anticipated growth potential; 2. Competition; and 3. Compatibility with the company's overall objectives and the feasibility of successfully reaching a designated target. 115
  • STP Current Mkt size large enough to make a profit? OR does it have a Growth potential . Narrow segment  served profitably with std Production in a single country & across many countries. “MTv Gen” China-attractive opportunities in many indust eg Fin Services 3 mn Credit Cards in Circulation, PC /1250 people (USA 1/2people)automobile 1.2 mn passenger cars, 1 car per 20.000 growth at 33%-  enormous potential. Competition= Utilize a diff Strat, Inca Cola in Peru is as popular as Coke, India Thums Up, Siberia Crazy Cola 48%. Compatibility= require considerable exp for dist & travel by co: personal. Pepsi  Russia Mkt 1972. waited 15 yrs first move, 20 yrs to decide to make investments Coke got 50% share.
  • STP GLOBAL TARGETING. 118 SELECTING A GLOBAL TARGET MARKET STRATEGY . a) Standardized Global Marketing. analogous to mass mktg in a single country strategy call for extensive distribution in the max. number of retail outlets. Coco-cola  youthful fun global advert b) Concentrated Global Marketing. strategy involves devising a mktg mix to reach a single segment of the Gl.Mkt Channel  Upper Segment prestige. Walter Halter (Ger)-hidden Champion  dishwashers for Hotels and Restraunts.
  • STP c) Differentiated Global Marketing. entails targeting two or more distinct market segments with different market mixes. strategy allows a company to achieve wider market coverage. SUV (Sports Utility Vehicle)=Rover-Range Rover for High End (50K), Discovery low end 35 k;In competition with Jeep Grand Cherokee. SMH(Swiss) Watches; Unilever NV & Cosmair Inc--Perfume Mkt- high end (Calvin Klien,E.T Passion Lower End Wind Sun/ Brut.; PG does the same. 119
  • STP GLOBAL PRODUCT POSITIONING POSTIONING IS THE LOCATION OF YOUR PRODUCT IN THE MIND OF YOUR CUSTOMER ( depends on many variables but controlled by the marketer) HOW? = UNIFIED GLOBAL POSTIONING STRAT For e.g. Chase Manhattan Bank-$75 Mn Global Ad Campaign “ Profit from experience” TYPES:- a) HIGH-TECH POSITIONING 1) Technical Products .=specialized needs+great deal of product info + common language. computers, tires, chemicals fin services 120
  • STP b) Special Interest Products. Shared experience+high involvement amongst users+common lang+symbols. Fuji Bicycles,Adidas Sports Equip, Cannon Cameras 2.HIGH TOUCH POSITIONING High involvement for consumers,share a common lang+ set of symbols relating to themes of wealth, materialism & romance= more emphasis on Image. 121
  • STP a) Products that solve a Common Problem “ life’s little moments”  friends talking over a cup of Coffee or quenching thirst with a soft drink. b) Global Village Products. Cosmopolitan in nature. Channel Fragrances, designer fashions,mineral H2O Americanness=Levis, Malboro, H-D Bikes Japan Q = Sony ++ German =Benz, Mercedes embodiment of legendary German Engg c) Products that use Universal themes. Transnational, materialism, heroism, play,procreation (Courtship/romance) 121
  • Entry and Expansion Strategies: Marketing and Sourcing Going International-  Host of Decisions like:- Which country & sequence?criteria to select Entry markets:- proximity, stage of development, Geographic region, cultural & linguistic criteria, the competitive situation, etc. How to enter New Markets  via Green fields Expansion, directly thru acquisition, agents,. Should mkt be supplied with Imported Products From the home or 3 rd country or locally manf prod BEM  Auto makers VW,Fiat,GM ++ in Brazil L14 108
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing DECISION CRITERIA FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS POLITICAL RISK:- IS 1/ COUNTRY’S ECO DEV McDonald’s in war torn Belgrade-change in mktg Strat (since Anti American)-Serbian Cap on Golden Arch’s+free hamburgers to anti NATO Demonstrators + basement converted to air raid shelter. MARKET ACCESS:- Limitations are laws,b-o-p,etc E.G. Japan Auto Co: investing in US. FACTOR COSTS AND CONDITIONS: land, labor,capital costs 123
  • LABOR COST LOW IN ldc, MORE IN hdc Ger compensation costs are 150% USA Mexico 10% USA Ger built Golf & Jetta Models in Mexico SMH did all his manf in Switzerland FACTOR COST 1.Industrialized Countries=tend to equalize. 2.Industralizing Countries Singapore& pacific rim counties =savings developed infrastructure +political stability. 3.Russia + other countries less developed infra- structure + political instability + wages may be low. Arrow Shirts in 1980 sourced 15% dress material from Far East Saving $15/doz,then automation hence independent-sourcing at home-laid off 400 workers and closed 4 plants.As F.costs Production shifted to China Indonesia,Thailand Malaysia, Bangladesh and now to Costa Rica.
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing SHIPPING CONSIDERATIONS Time, Cost & delivery Imp Factors. For e.g. Acer Computer Co of Thailand- Non-Perishable Items -Housing, keyboards,floppy discs manf in Taiwan +Shipped to 40 RBU’s. Perishable Items- like drives(upgradeable) are manf as needed and air shipped to the RBU’s where it is assembled. ADV=eliminates the shipping time + inventory + latest products to the customers.. COUNTRIES INFRASTRUCTURE FOREX. 125
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing CREATING A PRODUCT MARKET MIX. The basic questions summarized as the nine Ws: 1. Who buys our product? 2. Who does not buy our product? 3. What need or function does our product serve? 4. What problem does our product solve? 5. What are customers currently buying to satisfy the need and/or solve the problem for which our product is targeted? 6. What price are they paying for the products they are currently buying? 7. When is our product purchased? 8. Where is our product purchased? 9. Why is our product purchased? 126
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing
    • MARKET SELECTION CRITERIA
    • Six criteria should be assessed:
    • market potential,
    • market access,
    • shipping costs,
    • potential competition,
    • service requirements,
    • product fit.
    Market access depends on restrictions by Home Country like export license,import duties,quotes,forex regulations,preference arrangements. 127
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing International Market Entry and Expansion Decision Model 1. Sourcing: Home, third, or host country? Cost, market access, country of origin factors 2. In country or in-region marketing organization? Cost, market impact assessment. If choice is to establish own organization, must decide whom to appoint to key positions 3. Selection, training, and motivation of local distributors and agents 4. Marketing mix strategy: Goals and objectives in sales, earnings, and share of market positioning; marketing mix strategy 5. Strategy implementation 128
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing EXPORTING. DECISION CRITERIA Requires.   1. An understanding of the target market environment 2. The use of marketing research and the identification of market potential 3. Decisions concerning product design, pricing, distribution and channels, advertising, and communications-the marketing mix 129
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing 130 Exporting has the following distinct stages. 1. The firm is unwilling to export; it will not even fill an unsolicited export order. This may be due to perceived lack of time (&quot;too busy to fill the order&quot;) or to apathy or ignorance. 2. The firm fills unsolicited export orders but does not pursue unsolicited orders. Such a firm would be an export seller. 3. The firm explores the feasibility of exporting (this stage may bypass stage
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing 4. The firm exports to one or more markets on a trial basis. 5. The firm is an experienced exporter to one or more markets. 6. After this success, the firm pursues country- or region-focused marketing based on certain criteria (e.g., all countries where English is spoken, all countries where it is not necessary to transport by water). 7. The firm evaluates global market potential before screening for the best target markets to include in its marketing strategy and plan. 131
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing Equity Jt Venture Licensing Franchising Management Contract Ownership & Strategic Alliances 0 CONTROL 100% 100% 0 OWNERSHIP 132 Agents/Distributors Co: owned Subsidiary
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing Logistics 1. Arranging transportation 2. Transport rate determination 3. Handling documentation 4. Obtaining financial information 5. Distribution coordination 6. Packaging 7. Obtaining insurance Legal Procedure 8. Government red tape 9. Product liability 10. Licensing 11. Customer/duty Servicing Exports 12. Providing parts availability 13. Providing repair service 14. Providing technical advice 15. Providing warehousing Sales Promotion 16. Advertising 17. Sales effort 18. Marketing information Foreign Market Intelligence 19. Locating markets 20. Trade restrictions 21. Competition overseas 133
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing ORGANISING FOR EXPORTING
    • Organizing in the Manufacturer’s Country
      • In-House Export Organization
        • The possible arrangements for handling exports include the following:
        • As a part-time activity performed by domestic employees
        • Through an export partner affiliated with the domestic marketing structure that takes possession of the goods before they leave the country
        • Through an export department that is independent of the domestic marketing structure
        • Through anexport department within an international division
        • 5. For multidivisional companies, each of the foregoing possibilities exists within each division
    134
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing 135 2. External independent Export Organizations export trading companies (ETCs), export management companies, (EMCs), export merchants, export brokers, combination export managers, manufacturers' export representatives or commission agents, and ‘ export distributors. 2. Organizing in the Market Country 1. Direct Representation:- involves selling to wholesalers or retailers . ADV= market control and communications, feedback and information from the market are much greater
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing 136 2. Independent Representation 3. Piggyback Marketing :- This is an arrangement whereby one manufacturer obtains distribution of products through another's distribution channels . ADDITIONAL INTERNATIONAL ALTERNATIVES
    • SOURCING:- e.g. Nike.
    • SOURCING DECISION FACTORS
    • Factor costs and conditions
    • Logistics
    • Country Infrastructure
    • Political Risk
    • Market Access
    • Exchange rate, availability, and convertibility of local money.
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing 2. LICENSING Licensing can be defined as a contractual arrangement whereby one company (the licensor) makes an asset available to another company (the licensee) In exchange for royalties; license fees, or some other form of compensation. The licensed assume may be a patent, trade secret, or company name. Licensing is a form of global market entry and an expansion strategy with considerable appeal. ADV= bottom line up for co: with good tech know how & strong brand image+ attractive ROI. DISADV= ltd: form of participation, becomes competitor. 137
  • E and E Strat: Mktg &Sourcing 138 Sony – Masura Ibuka 1950 transistor from AT & T Bell Lab---worldwide success. Apple famed Optr System  Power Computing Corp then to IBM & Motorola.—lost mkt share. Pre-Windows era to Microsoft. Pokeman- Japan success licensed to 4kids Entertainment Inc of N.Y.  Great Success. Coco-cola, Disneyland, Pierre Cardin license their Trade mark-  business is booming. Franchising is a form of licensing. It is the practice whereby a company permits its name, logo, cultural design, and operations to be used in establishing a new firm or store.
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing 139 3. INVESTMENT: JOINT VENTURES A joint venture with a local partner represents a more extensive form of participation in foreign markets than either exporting or licensing
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing ADVANTAGES sharing of risk and the ability to combine different value chain strengths for, eg,intl mktg capability and manf. Companies that lack sufficient capital resources might seek 'partners to jointly finance a project. A joint venture may be the only way to enter a country or region if government bid award practices routinely favour local companies or if laws prohibit foreign control but permit joint ventures.   A joint venture as a source of supply for third-country markets   DISADVANTAGES Joint venture partners must share rewards as well as risks. A company incurs very significant costs associated with control and coordination issues that arise when working with a partner.   A dynamic joint venture partner can evolve into a stronger competitor.   In some instances, country-specific restrictions limit the share of capital help by foreign companies.   Cross-cultural differences in managerial attitudes and behaviour can present formidable challenges as well. 140
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing 4. INVESTMENT: OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL   Another key variable in the location decision is the vision and values of company lead­ership. Some chief executives are obsessed with manufacturing in their home country.   Swiss Corporation for Microelectronics and Watch making (SMH), the company best known for its line of inexpensive Swatch watches-pop Culture phenomenon  sales 1 bn watches, high end Omega. SWATCH- triumph of Engg + triumph of Imagination 141
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing The sourcing decision highlights three roles for marketing in a global competitive strategy   1.     configuration of marketing 2.     the coordination of marketing activities across countries to leverage a company's know-how. 3.     tapping opportunities in product development and R&D.   As for the form of cooperation and control, there are many, ranging from the management contract to wholly owned subsidiaries and global strategic partnerships? 142
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing 5. OWNERSHIP/INVESTMENT The desire for control and ownership of operations outside the home country drives the decision to invest. Foreign direct investment (FDI) figures record investment flows as companies invest in or acquire plant, equipment, or other assets outside the home country. The operational definition of direct investment is ownership of 20 percent or more of the equity of a company.   The most extensive form of participation in global markets is 100 percent owner­ship, which may be achieved by start-up or acquisition. 143
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing Market Entry and Expansion by Acquisition   PRODUCT CATEGORY/ INDUSTRY ACQUIRING COMPANY TARGET 1. Automotive Daimler Benz Chrysler 2. Pharmaceutical Rhone-Poulenc Hoechst 3. Tobacco British American Tobacco Zurich 4. Oil BP Amoco Arco 5. Communications Vodafone Mannesmann Air Touch The alternatives discussed earlier licensing, joint ventures, and ownership-are in fact points along a continuum of alternative strategies or tools for global market entry and expansion. 144
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing 6. INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Foreign investments may take the form of minority or majority shares in joint ventures, minority or majority equity stakes in another company, or, as in the case of Sandoz and Gerber, outright acquisition. 7. AGENTS / DISTRIBUTOR. Requires little investment, pay-as-you-go, No presence of Co: in mkt,no co: control, In many companies combine the company-owned marketing subsidiary with agents and distributors. This option gives the company local presence- and control of the marketing effort and, where cost-effective, takes advantage of distributor and agent capabilities.   provide a much better communications link with the regional and world headquarters. 155
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing With a local subsidiary presence, a company can focus on formulating and executing marketing strategies and plans that work In China, Procter & Gamble (P&G) operates with a combination of joint venture-s and its own company presence, Head & Shoulders, P&G's brand, is China's fastest growing hair care brand. P&G has invested heavily in market research, advertising, and distribution, and in creating its own command presence in the market. 156
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing FIVE MARKET EXPANSION STRATEGIES MARKET Concentration Diversification   Concentration 1. Narrow Focus 2. Country Focus Few segments in COUNTRY few countries        3. Country 4. Global Diversification Diversification     Segment diversif Many mkts in few countries. World Mkt for A product Matshushita 1,2 majority American’s Follow. 157 Reminder OHP Slide 114
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing Stages of Development I Stage & Company 1 Domestic 2 I nternationa l 3 Multinational 4 Global 5 Transnational Strategy Domestic International Multidomestic Global Global Model NA Coordinated Federation Decentralized Federation Centralized Hub Integrated Network View of World Home Country Extension Markets National Markets Global Markets or Resources Global markets and resources Orientation Ethnocentric Ethnocentric Polycentric Mixed Geocentric
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing Ethnocentric Polycentric Regiocentric Geocentric Home country is superior; sees similarities in foreign countries Each host country is unique; sees differences in foreign countries Sees similarities and differences in a world region; is ethnocentric or polycentric in its view of the rest of the world Worldview; sees similarities and differences in home and host countries.
  • E and E Strat: Mktg & Sourcing Stages of Development II Stage & Company 1 Domestic 2 International 3 Multinational 4 Global 5 Transnational Key Assets Located in home country Core centralized others dispersed Decentralized and self-sufficient All in home country except marketing or sourcing Dispersed interdependent and specialized Role of country units Single country Adapting and leveraging competencies Exploiting local opportunities Marketing or sourcing Contributions to company worldwide Knowledge Home Country Created at center and transferred Retained within operating units Marketing or sourcing developed jointly and shared All functions developed jointly and shared
  • CO-OPERATIVE STRATEGIES AND GLOBAL STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS. Mkt Alliance  Brand Name  “WILL” Toyata(car) +Matsushita(PC) +Asahi(Beer)+Kao (Travel & Deo). THE NATURE OF GLOBAL STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS Exhibit three characteristics 1.     The participants remain independent subsequent to the formation of the alliance. 2.     The participants share the benefits of the alliance as well as control over the performance of assigned tasks. 33.     The participants make ongoing contributions in technology, products, and other key strategic areas.
  • CS & GSP GSP:&quot;A partnership is one of the quickest and cheapest ways to develop a global strategy. ADVANTAGES high product development costs may force a company to seek partners; this was part of the rationale for Boeing's part­nership with a Japanese consortium to develop a new jet aircraft the technology requirements of many contemporary products mean that an individual com­pany may lack the skills, capital, or know-how to go it alone. partnerships may be the best means of securing access to national and regional markets. partnerships provide important learning opportunities; in fact, one expert regards GSPs as a &quot;race to learn.&quot; DISADVANTAGES Each partner must be willing to sacrifice some control, there are potential risks associated with strengthening a competitor from another country.     159
  • CS & GSP GSP is distinguished by the following six attributes:   1. Two or more companies develop a joint long-term strategy aimed at achieving world leadership by pursuing cost leadership, differentiation, or a combination of the two and by creating a variety, needs, or access-based position or a combina­tion of the three.   2. The relationship is reciprocal. Each partner possesses specific strengths that it shares with the others; learning must take place on all sides.   160
  • CS & GSP 161 3. The partners' vision and efforts are truly global, extending beyond home countries and home regions to the rest of the world.   4. If the relationship is organized along horizontal lines, continual transfer of resources laterally between partners is required, with technology sharing and resource pooling representing norms. 5. When competing in markets excluded from the partnership, the participants retain their national and ideological identities .
  • CS & GSP Iridium program(Anywhere Anytime, Irid+ium+Motorola-alliance based on skills,know-how,& tech  does not offer unique value,overcome by cellular + satellite project. Nike, the largest producer of athletic footwear in the world, does not manufacture a single shoe; Gallo, the largest wine company on earth, does not grow a single grape; and Boeing, the pre-eminent aircraft manufacturer, makes little more than cockpits and wings. university that contracts with a hos­pitality company to provide management services for lodging and meal service at a training centre . 5. If the relationship is along vertical lines, both parties to the relationship must understand their core strengths and be able to defend their competitive position against the possibility of either a forward or backward integration move by their vertical partner, and they must work together to create a unique value for the customers of the downstream partner in the value chain. 162
  • CS & GSP 163 SUCCESS FACTORS   1. Mission. Successful GSPs create win-win situations, in which participants pursue objectives on the basis of mutual need or advantage.   2. Strategy. A company may establish separate GSPs with different partners strategy must be thought out up front to avoid conflicts. 3. Governance. Discussion and consensus must be the norms. Partners must be viewed as equals. 4.Organization. Innovative structures and designs may be needed to offset the complexity of multi country management.
  • CS & GSP 5.Culture. Personal chemistry is important, as is the successful development of a shared set of values. The failure of a partnership between Britain's General Electric Company and Siemens A. G. was blamed in part on the fact that the former was run by finance-oriented executives and the latter by engineers. 6.Management GSPs invariably involve a different type of decision-making. Potentially divisive issues must be identified in advance and clear, unitary lines of authority established that would result in commitment by all partners. 164
  • CS & GSP ALLIANCES BETWEEN MANUFACTURERS AND MARKETERS Many companies contract out the manufacturing or service activities in the value chain to companies that can supply product at a lower cost than is possible with manufacturing in-house. Dis=supplier good quality co: suffers. Report by McKinsy & Co: Alliances between Western & Japanese Firms: 165
  • CS & GSP 166 Diff in Mngt Philosophies , expectations and approaches and HR allocation. Attractive partner in short run already competent and established with a need to master certain skills. The best long run partner, is less likely to be competent or even from outside the industry Balance between Partners. Emerging from the alliance as a leader. Relatively Quick and risk free returns Diff Dreams Japan Western Criteria
  • CS & GSP CORPORATE STRATEGIES IN JAPAN; KEIRETSU Japan's keiretsu represent a special category of cooperative strategy. A keiretsu is an inter business alliance or enterprise group that, in the words of one observer, &quot;resembles a fighting clan in which business families join together to vie for market share. Keiretsu exist in a broad spectrum of markets, including the capital market primary goods markets, and component parts markets.   Keiretsu are essentially cartels that have the government's blessing Global competition in the era of keiretsu means competition exists not only among products but also between different systems of corporate governance and industrial organization. Mitsui Group and Mitsubishi Group are organized around big trading companies. These two, together with the I Sumitomo, FuYo, Sanwa, and DKB groups, make up the &quot;big six&quot; keiretsu. accounted for an astonishing 78 percent of the market valuation of shares on the Tokyo Stock Ex­change, a third of Japan's business capital, and approximately one quarter of its sales. 167
  • CS & GSP several other keiretsu have formed, bringing new configurations to the basic forms. Vertical supply and distribution keiretsu are alliances between manufacturers and retailers . Matsushita controls a chain of 25,000 National stores in Japan, through which it sells its Panasonic, Techniques, and Quasar brands. Toshiba and Hitachi, have similar alliances (Sony's chain of stores is much smaller and weaker by comparison). vertical hierarchical alliances between assembly companies and suppliers and component manufacturers Toyota, for example, has a network of about 175 primary and 4,000 secondary suppliers. One supplier is Koit’s Toyota owns about one fifth of Koito's shares and buys about half of its production. The net result of this arrangement is that Toyota produces about 25 percent of the sales value of its cars, compared with 50 percent for GM. The practices described here lead to the question of whether or not keiretsu violate antitrust laws.   Today, Japan's Fair Trade Com­mission appears to favor harmony rather than pursuing anticompetitive behaviour As result, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission has launched several investigations of price fixing, price discrimination, and exclusive supply arrangements. Hitachi, Canon, and other Japanese companies have also been accused of restricting the availability of high-tech products in the U.S. market. 168
  • CS & GSP BEYOND STRATEGIC ALLIANCES   The relationship enterprise is said to be the next stage of evolution of the strategic al­liance. Groupings of firms in different industries and countries will be held together by common goals that encourage them to act almost as a single firm. 169
  • COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY The essence of global marketing strategy is in successfully relating the strengths of an organization to its environment .. 170 Threat of new entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Rivalry among existing competitors Bargaining power of Buyers Threat of substitute products or services
  • CA & S THREATS OF NEW ENTRANTS THEY bring new capacity, a desire to gain market share and position, and, very often, new approaches to serving customer needs, major commitment of resources. New players push prices downward and squeeze margins, = reduced industry profitability. Porter describes eight major sources of barriers to entry, the presence or absence of which determines the extent of the threat of new industry entrants.     economies of scale, refers to the decline in per unit product costs as the absolute volume of production per period increases. e .g Honda Engine R&D. also to R&D, general admin, mktg .1. 171
  • CA & S 12.    product differentiation, is the extent of a product's perceived uniqueness-in other words, whether or not it is a commodity.---high product differentiation “raises the bar”= difficult to enter. Monsanto’s GD Swearle—subs—achieved differentiation & erected a barrier in the artificial sweet industry by insisting that Nutrosweet logo & brand mark– a red & white swirl-appear on the diet soft drinks & bottles. 3. Capital requirements:- fixed, fin r&d,adv,field,sales & service,customer credit, & wc. 4.   one-time switching costs caused by the need to change suppliers and products. Microsoft PC Opt Systems  entry barriers. 5. access to distribution channels:- If channels are full,expensive to enter, unavailable,the cost of entry will be high because new entrant must create and establish new channels. 172
  • CA & S 6. expected competitor response can be a major entry barrier. Brinkmanship  GDSwearle cuts price to deter competitors entering the low calorie artificial sweetner mkt (>Nutrasweet patent expires) 7. Govt Policy is frequently a major entry barrier. e.g.Japan Govt protection post war industrialization 8. Established Firms:- cost adv independent of scale of Eco access to r.m.,favorable locations,& subsides. 173 2. THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS e.g. Amazon  a new product on-line bookstore vs Barnes & Noble Traditional Bookstore.(1995-169% growth vs 16%
  • CA & S 3. BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS opec Several factors influence supplier bargaining power: 1. Suppliers will have the advantage if they are large and relatively few in number. 2. When the suppliers' products or services are important inputs to user firms, are highly differentiated, or carry switching costs, the suppliers will have considerable leverage over buyers. 3. Suppliers will also enjoy bargaining power if their business is not threatened by alternative products. 4. The willingness and ability of suppliers to develop their own products and brand names if they are unable to get satisfactory terms from industry buyers will influence their power. 174
  • CA & S 175 4. BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS   The following are conditions under which buyers can exert power over suppliers: 1.       When they purchase in such large quantities that supplier firms depend on the buyers' business for survival. 2.    When the supplier's products are viewed as commodities that is, as standard or undifferentiated-buyers are likely to bargain hard for low prices because many supplier firms can meet their needs. 3.      When the supplier industry's products or services represent a significant portion of the buying firms' costs. When the buyer is willing to achieve backward vertical integration.
  • CA & S 176 5.RIVALRY AMONG COMPETITORS Rivalry forces=Co: to innovate/and or rationalize cost=+ve Prices Profitability instability= -ve Actions taken by firm in the industry to improve their position & gain advantage over each other, Price competition,adv battles, product positioning,attempts at differentiation. Several factors can create intense rivalry:   1. Once an industry becomes mature, firms focus on market share and how it can be gained at the expense of others. 2. Industries characterized by high fixed costs are always under pressure to keep production at full capacity to cover the fixed costs. Once the industry accumulates excess capacity, the drive to fill capacity will push prices-and profitability-down.
  • CA & S 175 3. A lack of differentiation or an absence of switching costs encourages buyers to treat the products or services as commodities and shop for the best prices. Again, there is downward pressure on prices and profitability. 4. Firms with high strategic stakes in achieving success in an industry generally are destabilizing because they may be willing to accept unreasonably low profit margins to establish themselves, hold position, or expand.
  • CA & S GLOBAL COMPETITION AND NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Expansion of Global mktg activity is the growth of competition on a global basis. In some industries, global co: have virtually excluded all other co: from their market. e.g. Detergent Industry= Colgate, Unilever, P & G dominate all over the world.=Q detergent global brand name muscle and mktg skills=global comp adv that overwhelm local competition in mkt after mkt. Automobile Industry: fierce competition on a global basis US – reluctant to design and manf high ‘Q’, inexpensive small cars(bigger the car , higher list price small car=small profit = ethnocentrism and mktg myopia. European / Jap Manf =small car ( less space, high taxes on engine displacement & on fuel & greater mkt interest in func design& engg innovations(air bag,radial tires,antilock brakes,fueling ) 176
  • CA & S Volkswagen,Nissan,Toyota= Increased demand in USA. Toyota=replaced mass production (replaced craft)+ lean manf systems== Cost & ‘Q’. Global competition adv to consumers around the world In two e.g. Prices down, ‘Q’ up, auto co: provided with products,performances that customers wanted. Disadv=impact on producers of goods & services. When a company offers consumers in other countries a better product at a lower price, this company takes customers away from domestic suppliers. Unless the domestic supplier can create new values and find new customers, the jobs and livelihoods of the domestic supplier's employees are threatened. The social effects of these influences often prompt political responses that destabilize the business environment. 177
  • CA & S 178 According to Michael E. Porter, the presence or absence of particular attributes in individual countries influences industry development. Porter describes these attributes ­factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industry, and firm structure and rivalry-in terms of a national diamond. The diamond shapes the environment in which firms compete in their global industries .
  • CA & S 179 DETERMINANTS OF NATIONAL ADV Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry Demand Conditions Factor conditions Related and Supporting Industries
  • CA & S 180 FACTOR CONDITIONS:- Human Res:- Quantity,Skills, Wage level,Work ethic. Physical Res:- Qnty,Qlty,,cost of land, water, minerals other natural res Knowledge Res:- Scientific, technical & inter-related knowl Capital Res:- Infrastructure Res:-banking system, healthcare,transport, communication. BASIC FACTORS:-nat res & lab=do not lead to sustainable international competitive advantage. ADVANCED:- highly educated personnel,+modern data comm system= lead to sustainable competitive advantage. GENERAL:- highway systems=precedents of comp adv. SPECIALISED:- focused educational system=sustainable comp adv, reqn is development e.g. Japan Robotronics_> auto Indus requires Robots Tech courses in Univ, scarcity of r.m= other res = tiles ceramics
  • CA & S 181 DEMAND CONDITIONS   The nature of home-market demand conditions for the firm's or industry's products and services is important because it determines the rate and nature of improvement and innovation by the firms in the nation. These are the factors that either train firms for world-class competition or fail to adequately prepare them to compete in the global marketplace. Three characteristics of home demand are particularly important to the creation of competitive advantage: (1) the composition of home demand, (2) the size and pattern of growth of home demand, and (3) the means by which a nation’s home demand pulls the nation's products and services into foreign markets.
  • CA & S The composition of home demand determines how firms perceive, interpret, and respond to buyer needs. Competitive advantage can be achieved when the home demand sets the quality standard and gives local firms a better picture of buyer needs, at an earlier time, than is available to foreign rivals . If the growth pattern is good, then foreign demand can be good, hence investment in R & D,economics of scale is possible+adopt new tech faster+ built larger efficient facilities e.g. Japan. The means by which a nation's products and services are pushed or pulled into foreign countries is the third aspect of demand conditions. The issue here is whether a nation's people and businesses go abroad and then demand the nation's products and services in those second countries. 182
  • CA & S For example, when the U.S. auto companies set up operations in foreign countries, the U.S. auto parts industry followed. The same is true for the Japanese auto industry. When the Japanese auto companies set up operations in the United States, Japanese parts suppliers followed their customers. Similarly, when overseas demand for the services of U.S. engineering firms skyrocketed after World War II, those firms in turn established demand for U.S. heavy construction equipment. This provided an impetus for Caterpillar to establish foreign operations . 183
  • CA & S RELATED AND SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES A nation has an advantage when it is home to internationally competitive industries in fields that are related to, or in direct support of, other industries. Internationally competitive supplier industries provide inputs to downstream industries that are likely to be internationally competitive in terms of technological innovation, price, and quality. CLUSTERS=geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and institutions in a particular field, which constitute a critical mass, are internationally competitive and related industries in a nation that coordinate and share value chain activities EXAMPLE:- Computer hardware + software developers US Comp sales abroad have created demand from Microsoft & other US co: Dev of Swiss Pharma Industry =Swiss large Dye Industry ( discovery of therapeutic effects of dye );leather fashion in Italy, Wood products in Portugal & Flower growing in Netherlands.Nestle moved bottled water plant to France,Rowntree Mackintosh Confectionaery div to York, UK. 184
  • CA & S FIRM STRATEGY, STRUCTURE, AND RIVALRY Differences in management styles, organizational skills, and strategic perspectives create advantages and disadvantages for firms competing in different types of industries, as do differences in the intensity of domestic rivalry. In Germany, for example, company structure and management style tend to be hierarchical. Managers tend to come from technical backgrounds and to be most successful when dealing with industries that demand highly disciplined structures, such as chemicals and precision machinery. Italian firms, however, tend to look like, and be run like, small family businesses that stress customized rather than standardized products, niche markets, and substantial flexibility in meeting market demands.   182
  • CA & S Capital markets and attitudes toward investments are important components of national environments. For example, the majority of shares of U.S. publicly held companies are owned by institutional investors such as mutual funds and pension plans. These investors will buy and sell shares to reduce risk and increase return rather than get involved in an individual company's operations. These very mobile investors drive managers to operate with a short-term focus on quarterly and annual results . For example, in Japan, banks are allowed to take equity stakes in the companies to which they loan money and provide other profitable banking services. These banks take a longer-term view than stock markets and are less concerned about short-term results. Domestic Rivalry  good for improvement and innovation, develops new products,improve existing ones, brings down cost/price,develop new tech & improve “Q” & service. 183
  • CA & S 184 OTHER FORCES ACTING ON THE DIAMOND CHANCE:- Chance events are occurrences that are beyond the control of firms, industries, and usually governments. Included in this category are such things as wars and their aftermath, major technological breakthroughs, sudden dramatic shifts in factor or input cost (e.g the oil crises), dramatic swings in exchange rates,and so on. Chance events are important because they create major discontinuities in technologies that allow nations and firms that were not competitive to leapfrog over old competitors and become competitive--even leaders-in the changed industry. For example, the development of microelectronics allowed many Japanese firms to overtake American and German firms in industries that had been based on electromechanical technologies-areas traditionally dominated by the Americans and Germans .
  • CA & S 185 The nation with the most favorable diamond, however, will be the one most likely to take advantage of these events and con­vert them into competitive advantage. For example, Canadian researchers were the first to isolate insulin, but they could not convert this breakthrough into an internationally competitive product. Firms in the United States and Denmark were able to do that because of their respective national diamonds. GOVERNMENT:- Government influences determinants by virtue of its role as a buyer of products and services and by its role as a maker of policies on labor, education, capital formation, natural resources, and product standards. It also influences determinants by its role as a regulator of commerce, for example, by telling banks and telephone companies what they can and cannot do.
  • CA & S 186 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND STRATEGIC MODELS Two different models of competitive advantage have received considerable attention:   The first offers generic strategies, which are four alternative positions that organizations can seek in order to offer superior value and achieve competitive advantage.   The second model, the generic strategies alone do not explain the astonishing success of many Japanese companies in recent years. A more recent model, based on the concept of strategic intent, proposes four different sources of competitive advantage.
  • CA & S 187 Porter developed a frame­work of so-called generic business strategies based on two sources of competitive ad­vantage: low cost and differentiation. COMPETITIVE SCOPE Broad Target Narrow Target Lower Cost Differentiation COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. GENERIC COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES. Learned curve experience Japan 35mm Cameras,Consumer electronics,entertainment equip, motorcycles automobiles. Unique Value,may tag in home appl Nike’s Athletic Shoes, H-D. More Cust. Value Germany— Mittlestand FOCUSED DIFFERENTIATION COST FOCUS DIFFERENTIATION COST LEADERSHIP
  • STRATEGIC POSITIONING AND INTENT   Strategic positions that provide competitive advantage are based on the activities that a firm chooses to perform and on where it chooses to perform them . Porter has identified three classifications for strategic positions .   1.VARIETY-BASED POSITIONING. 2. NEEDS-BASED POSITIONING 3. ACCESS-BASED POSITIONING . 188
  • S. P & I 1. VARIETY-BASED POSITIONING. (COST LDRSHP) is based on a firm's decision to carry out a limited number of activities related to delivering a limited product or service . For e.g.Southwest Airlines--  pt 2 pt service, no luggage transfer service,, no seat reservation, no meals etc. GIVI Italian-  luggage for motorcycles only,premium price, unique design & Q” . 2. NEEDS -BASED POSITIONING ( DIFFERENTIATION) Needs-based positioning occurs when a company attempts to deliver value to a specific customer segment by carrying out activities to satisfy a comparatively broad set of needs. For e.g. IKEA Furniture for young at heart,budget conscious, apartment or home. Pordue Pharma=need to alleviate pain, narcotic analgesic for severe pain,best trained field salesman,tested on formulatory in Hospitals. 189
  • S. P & I 3.ACCESS-BASED POSITIONING. (SEGMENTATION) The ability of a firm to uniquely or preferentially reach a specific market is an access based position. For e.g. Korn Perry International=Intl Mngt Recruitment Firm-  establishes relationship with customer/executives & track them throughout their careers.They know their location, help clients get to them. Firms must develop ability to carry out activities that deal with barriers to access(often created by Govt Policies). For e.g. Renault tried to enter US mkt but failed & retreated to Europe (regional player in a global industry). FedEx regrouped restrategized & entered Europe successfully. 190
  • S. P & I WHICH POSITION TO TAKE?   All real strategies are a combination of all three positions: Every winning strategy is based on a combination of doing the right thing (activity based), meeting a need (needs based), and on access. 191 COMPETITIVE INNOVATION AND STRATEGIC INTENT An alternate framework focuses on competitiveness as a function of the pace at which a company implants new advantages deep within its organization. This framework identifies strategic intent, growing out of ambi­tion and obsession with winning, the means for achieving competitive advantage .
  • S. P & I This approach is founded on the principles of W. E. Deming, who stressed that a company must commit itself to continuing improvement in order to be a winner in a competitive struggle.   The significance of this framework becomes evident when com­paring Caterpillar and Komatsu. CATERPILLAR a classic example of differentiation ecame the largest manufacturer of earth-moving equipment in the world fanatic about quality and service. KOMATSU   Komatsu was the world's number-two construction equipment company and had been competing with Caterpillar in the Japanese market for years. a lower level of quality 192
  • S. P & I achieve a 35 percent share of the worldwide market for earth-moving equipment, more than half of which represents sales to developing countries The differentiation advantage was achieved with product durability, global spare parts service (including guaranteed parts delivery anywhere in the world within 48 hours), and a strong network of loyal dealers. adopted the slogan Maru-c, meaning, &quot;encircle Caterpillar.&quot; Emphasizing quality and taking advantage of low labour costs and the strong dollar, Komatsu surpassed Caterpillar in earth-moving equipment sales in Japan and made serious inroads in the United States and other markets. faced a very challenging set of environmental forces Many of Cater­pillar's plants were closed by a lengthy strike in the early 1980s; a worldwide recession at the same time caused a downturn in the construction industry. company continued to develop new sources of competitive advantage even after it achieved world-class quality. For example, new-product development cycles were shortened, and manufacturing was rationalized. 193
  • S. P & I 194
    • Hamel and Prahalad identified FOUR successful approaches utilized by Japanese competitors:
    •  
    • Building layers of advantage,
    •  
    • 2. Searching for loose bricks,
    •  
    • 3. Changing the rules of engagement, and
    •  
    • 4. Collaborating .
    • Building layers of advantage.
    • Is wide portfolio of adv e.g. Komatsu. TV industry in Japan  1970 B&W World largest producer + started color sets=why=lower labor costs ( not permanent) so added “Q” & Reliability. Build larger plants,no brand name (sold other products like Matsushita sold RCA products(USA) ‘A product sold is a product sold no matter whose label it carried’
  • S. P & I 195 Next layer of Advantage  Mktg Channel + Branding (late 1970, then New Products like VCR’s & Photocopying M/c’s.then Regional Manf, differentiation & better adopted to customer needs. MOVING ALONG THE VALUE CHAIN TO STRENGHTEN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. [Upstream, Downstream, back to R & D.]
    • Searching for loose bricks,
    • In the defense wall of competitors whose attention is narrowly focused or a geographic area.
    • For e.g. Caterpillar’s attention was focused else where when Kamatsu made its 1 st entry into Eastern European Mkt.
    • For e.g. H-D Focused on large motorcycles. Honda entered USA with 50cc engines(1 st gained experience in large displacement engines then designed & tech), H-D offguard, 1983 Honda 50% share with 700cc or >,then restrictions by US Govt on Imports, Honda used its expertise on large engines & made “Honda Civic”. Today it has, lawn-movers,outboard marine boards,welders, generators.
    • H-D Improved Product “Q” & slightly increased Mkt Share.
  • S. P & I
    • Changing the rules of engagement,
    • i.e refuse to play by the rules set by industry leaders
    • For e.g. IBM & Kodak imitated Mktg strategy set by Xerox, Canon set new rules.
    196 Secretaries, Dept Mngrs Full color copiers + connectivity with video camcorder& computers,64 % share,+US Pat Heads of Corporate, duplicating opts. Sell Lease Dealer network  also deals with serviceability+ reliability Hugh direct sales force Std M/cs & Components =low cost. Wide range of copiers CANON XEROX
  • S. P & I 197
    • Collaborating .:-
    • i.e. know how developed by other co: like licensing, JV, partnership
    HYPERCOMPETITION   Professor Richard D’Aveni suggests that the Porter strategy frameworks fail to adequately address the dynamics of competition in the 21 st century. D’Aveni notes that, in today’s business environment, market stability is undermined by short product life cycles, short product design cycles, new technologies, and globalisation. The result is an escalation and acceleration of competitive forces. In light of these changes. D’Aveni believes the goal of strategy has shifted from sustaining to disrupting advantages.
  • S. P & I 198 The limitation of the Porter models , D’Aveni argues, is that they provide a snapshot of competition at a given point in time. In other words, they are static models .   D’Aveni aims to build on the work of Hamel and Prahalad to shape “ a truly dynamic approach to the creation and destruction of traditional advantages.” D’Aveni uses the term hypercompetition to describe a dynamic, competitive world in which no action or advantage can be sustained for long.   According to D’Aveni’s model, competition unfolds in a series of dynamic strategic interactions in four arenas: cost versus quality, timing and know-how, entry barriers, and deep pockets .
  • S. P & I 199 Each of these arenas is “continuously destroyed and recreated by the dynamic manoeuvring of hypercompetitive firms   D’Aveni is in agreement with Peter Drucker, who has long counselled that the role of marketing is innovation and the creation of new markets. Innovation begins with abandonment of the old and obsolete.
  • PRODUCT DECISIONS DEFINITIONS:- A product, the, can be defined as a collection of physical, psychological, service, and symbolic attributes that collectively yield satisfaction. or benefits, to a buyer or user. consumer and industrial goods .   can be further classified on the basis of other criteria, such as how they are purchased (convenience, preference, shopping, and specialty goods) and their life span (durable, non durable, and disposable). These and other classification frameworks developed for domestic marketing are fully applicable to global marketing. 200
  • P.D. 201 PRODUCTS: LOCAL, NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL, AND GLOBAL   Many companies find that, as a result of expanding existing businesses or acquiring a new business, they have products for sale in a single national market. The four product categories in the local-to-global continuum:-   1.   LOCAL PRODUCTS A local product is available in a portion of a national market For e.g In US local product is synonymous with local product. Cape Cod Potato Chips (local mkt in New England purchased by Frito-Lay and distrubution was expanded to other regions of USA.
  • P.D. 202 NATIONAL PRODUCTS A national product is one that, in the context of a particular company, is offered in a single national market. For example, Coca-Cola developed a no carbonated, ginseng-flavored beverage for sale only in Japan and a yellow, carbonated flavored drink called Pasturing to compete with Peru’s favorite soft drink, Inca Cola. After years of failing to dislodge Inca Cola, Coke followed the old strategic maxim. “ If you can’t beat them, buy them,” and acquired Inca Cola. Similarly, Sony and other Japanese consumer electronics companies produce a variety of products that are not sold outside of Japan. The reason: Japanese consumers have a seemingly insatiable appetite for electronic gadgets.
  • P.D. 203 3. INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTS International products are offered in multinational, regional markets . The classic inter­national product is the Euro product, offered throughout Europe but not in the rest of the world. Renault was for many years a Euro product When Renault entered the Brazilian market, it became a multiregional company. Most recently, Renault invested, in Nissan and has taken control of the company. The combination of Renault in Europe: and Latin America, and Nissan in Asia, the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and! Africa, has catapulted Renault from a multiregional to a global position. Renault is an example of how a company can move overnight through investment or acquisition from an international to a global position.
  • P.D. 204 4. GLOBAL PRODUCTS AND GLOBAL BRANDS Global products are offered in global markets. A truly global product is offered in the Triad, in every world region, and in counties at every stage of development. A global brand like a National or International Brand is a symbol about which customers have belief or perceptions. Note that a product is not a brand. For example, portable personal sound systems or personal stereos are a category of global product; Sony is a global brand. Although Sony, as noted previously, markets a number of local products, the company also has a stellar track record both as a global brand and &quot;a manufacturer of global products .
  • P.D. 205 A global brand has a similar image, similar positioning, and is guided by the same strategic principles. However, the marketing mix for a global brand may vary from country to country. That means that ­the product, price, promotion, and place (channels of distribution) may vary from coun­try to country . E.g. Malboro, Coke, Sony, Mercedes(Luxury car—USA, Taxi Mkt in Europe), Avon-1 (Premium Price & PKg in Japan, popularly priced rest of world)-  Mkt mix varies from country to country. Global Product does not carry the same name and image from one country to another like global brand are guided by same strategic principles, is similarly positioned and may have a mkt mix that varies from one country to another country. G.PRODUCT  G.BRAND HOW?= STANDERISATION
  • P.D 206 For e.g. shift from Standard Oils many different local brands to EXXON and Nissan’s decision to drop the Datsun marque in USA and adopt various model names from Nissan’s world wide product line. Coke– a g.product and global brand. Positioning and strategy are the same all the countries, it projects a global image of Fun, Good Times & Enjoyment “ the real thing” unique product differentiation. Positioning = low/no tech product, flavored,carbonated, sweetened water in plastic bottles, glass or metallic container—product is within arm’s reach. ( more sweetened in Middle East)
  • P.D PRODUCT POSITIONING (“ MENTAL SPACE”   positioning refers to the act of locating a brand in customers' minds over and against other products in terms of product attributes and benefits that the brand does and does not offer
    • Several general strategies have been suggested for positioning products:
    •  
    • ATTRIBUTE OR BENEFIT.
    • QUALITY/PRICE
    • USE/USER
    • HIGH-TECH POSITIONING .
    • HIGH-TOUCH POSITIONING
    207
  • P.D 208 Attribute / Benefit:- Volvo car—Safety,VISA card worldwide merchandise acceptance ‘ Q” / Price:- American Express Card– Upscale Card with higher Annual fee VS Discover Card with no annual fee.+ cash rebate Use/User:- Positioning can also be achieved by describing how a product is used or associating a product with a user or class of users the same way in every market. For example, Benetton user s the same positioning for it’s clothing when it targets the global youth market. Marlboro’s extraordinary success as a global brand is due in part to the product’s association with cowboys—the archetypal symbol of rugged independence, freedom, space, and Americana—and transformation advertising that targets urban smokers. 4. High-tech positioning Personal computers, video and stereo equipment, and automobiles are product categories for which high-tech positioning has proven effective.
  • P.D 209 Such products are frequently purchased on the basis of physical product features, although image may also be important. Buyers typically already possess--- or wish to acquire--- considerable technical information. Computers, chemicals, tires, and financial services are technical products in the sense that buyers have specialized needs, require a great deal of product information, and share a common language Special-interest products also are characterized by a shared experience and high involvement among users, although they are less technical and mote leisure or recreation oriented. Again, the common language and symbols associated with such products can transcend language and cultural barriers . Fuji bicycles, Adidas and Nike sports equip­ment, Canon cameras, and Sega video game players are examples of successful global special-interest products.
  • P.D 210 Marketing of high-touch products requires less emphasis on specialized information and more emphasis on image.--involving for consumers share a common language and set of symbols relating to themes of wealth, materialism, and romance. There are three categories of high-touch products: products that solve a common problem, 'global village products, and products with a universal theme.--provide benefits linked to &quot;life's little moments.&quot; Fragrances and fashions have traveled as a result of growing worldwide interest in high-quality, highly visible, high-priced products that often 'enhance social status. 5. HIGH-TOUCH POSITIONING Products may have a global appeal by virtue of their country of origin. The Americanness of Levi's, Marlboro, McDonald's, and Harley-Davidson enhances their appeal to cosmopolitans around the world and offers opportunities for benefit positioning. In consumer electronics, Sony is a name synonymous with Japanese quality; in automobiles, Mercedes is the embodiment of legendary German engineering.
  • P.D 211
    • PRODUCT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    •  
    • Product design is a key factor in determining success in global marketing. Should a company adapt product design for various national markets or offer a single design to the global market?
    •  
    • Global marketers need to consider four factors: 
    • 1. PREFERENCES
    • 2. COST
    • 3. LAWS AND REGULATION
    • 4. COMPATIBILITY
    • 5.  LABELING AND INSTRUCTIONS
  • P.D 212 Preference :- Color & Taste. E.g. Italy’s Olivetti Corp gained considerable distinction in Europe for its award winning winning modern consumer typewriter designs; Olivetti typewriters had been displayed at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Although critically acclaimed, Olivetti's designs did not enjoy commercial success in the United States. The U.S. consumer wanted a heavy, bulky typewriter that was ugly by modern European design standards. American consumers considered bulk and weight prima facie evidence of quality, and Olivetti was, therefore, forced to adapt its award-winning design in the United States. Sometimes, a product design that is successful in one world region does meet with success in the rest of the world. BMW and Mercedes dominate the luxury car market in Europe and are strong competitors in the rest of the world, with exactly the same design. In effect, these companies have a world design. The other global luxury car manufacturers are Japanese, and they have expressed their flattery and appreciation for the appeal of the BMW and Mercedes look by styling cars that are influenced by the BMW and Mercedes line and design philosophy. If imitation is the most sincere form of flattery, BMW and Mercedes have been honored by their competition.
  • P.D 213 4. COMPATIBILITY :- product compatibility with the environment in which it is used E.g Users Manual in various languages,Electtric Systems 50 –230 V, 50~60 cycles,US---NSTC, French---SECAM, Germany----PAL. 5. LABELING AND INSTRUCTIONS :- Precise labeling required for Drugs & Poisons, Valuable consumer info, products optrs & Labeling instructions,Multiple languages (helps inventory control) GEOGRAPHIC EXPANSION – STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES   Companies can grow in three different ways The traditional methods of market expansion -further penetration of existing markets to increase market share and extension of the product line into new-product market areas in a single national market are both available in domestic operations. In addition, a company can expand by extending its existing operations into new countries and areas of the world. The latter method, geographic expansion , is one of the major opportunities of global marketing.
  • P.D 214 Same Different PRODUCT Different Same GLOBAL PRODUCT PLANNING STRATEGY ALTERNATIVES COMMUNICATION Strategy 3 :-Product Adaptation Comm Extension e.g.Electrical Products. Strategy 1 Dual extension e.g. Appliances, Software. Strategy 4 Dual Adaptation e.g. Greeting Cards. Strategy 2 :-Product extension Comm Adaptation e.g. Bicycles & Motorcycles
  • P.D STRATEGY 1. PRODUCT/COMMUNICATION EXTENSION (DUAL EXTENSION)   Companies pursuing this strategy sell exactly the same product, with the same advertising and promotional appeals as used in the home country, in some or all world-market countries or segments.   The critical difference is one of execution and mind-set cost savings associated with this approach -- are manufacturing economies of scale and elimination of duplicate product R&D costs. STRATEGY 2. . Bi­cycles and motor scooters are examples of products that have been marketed with this approach. They satisfy recreational needs in the United States but serve as basic or urban transportation in many other countries. Similarly, outboard marine motors are usually sold to a recreation market in the high-income countries, whereas the same motors in lower-income countries are mainly sold to fishing and transportation fleets. 215
  • P.D 216 its relative y low cost of implementation. Because the product in this strategy is unchanged&quot; R&D, tooling, manufacturing setup, and inventory costs associated with additions to the product line are avoided. The only costs of this approach are hi identifying different product functions and revising marketing communications (including advertising, sales promotion, and point of-sale material) around the newly identified function. STRATEGY 3: PRODUCT ADAPTATION/COMMUNICATION EXTN Exxon adheres to this third strategy: It adapts its gasoline formulations to meet the weather conditions prevailing in different markets while extending the basic communications appeal, &quot;Put a tiger in your tank,&quot; without change. Soap and detergent manufacturers have adjusted their product formulations to meet local water and washing equipment conditions with no change in their basic communications approach. Household appliances have been scaled to sizes appropriate to different use environments, and clothing has been adapted to meet fashion criteria. Also, food products , by virtue of their potentially high degree of environmental sensitivity, are often adapted.
  • P.D 217 STRATEGY 4: DUAL ADAPTATION Sometimes, when comparing a new geographic market to the home market, marketers discover that environmental conditions or consumer preferences differ; the same may be true of the function a product serves or consumer receptivity to advertising appeals Unilever’s experience with fabric softener in Europe exemplifies the classic multinational road to adaptation. For years, the product was sold in 10 countries under seven different brand names, with different bottles and marketing strategies. Unilever's de­centralized structure meant that product and marketing decisions were left to country managers. They chose names that had local-language appeal and selected 'package designs to fit local tastes. Today, rival Procter & Gamble is introducing competitive prod­ucts with a pan-European strategy of standardized product$ with single names, suggesting that the European market is more similar than Unilever assumed. In response, Unilever’s European brand managers are attempting to move gradually toward standardization
  • P.D 218 Sometimes, a company will draw on all four of these strategies simultaneously when marketing a given product in different parts of the world. For example, Heinz utilizes a mix of strategies in its ketchup marketing. Whereas a dual extension strategy works in England, spicier, hotter formulations are also popular in Central Europe and Sweden. Recent ads in France featured a cowboy lassoing a bottle of ketchup and, thus, reminded consumers of 'the product's American heritage. Swedish ads conveyed a more cosmopolitan message; by promoting Heinz as &quot;the taste of the big world&quot; and featuring well­ known landmarks such as the Eiffel Tower, the ads disguised the product's origin.
  • INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT STRATEGIES The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory, developed and verified by economists to explain trade in a context of comparative advantage, describes the diffusion process of an innovation across national boundaries . The life cycle begins when a developed country, having a new product to satisfy consumer needs, wants to exploit its technological breakthrough by selling abroad. Other advanced nations soon start up their own production facilities, and before long LDCs do the same Efficiency/comparative advantage shifts from developed countries to developing nations. Finally, advanced nations, no longer cost-effective, import products from their former customers. The moral of this process could be that an advanced nation becomes a victim of its own creation. 219
  • I.P.S 220 STAGES AND CHARACTERISTICS ( for the initiating country) Stage Import/Export Target Market Competitors Production Costs (0) Local Innovation None USA Few: Local Firms Initially High (1) Overseas Innovation Increasing Export USA & advanced nations Few: Local firms Decline owing to economies of scale stable (2) Maturity Stable Export Advanced nations & LDCs Advanced Nations Stable (3) Worldwide Imitation Declining Export LDCs Advanced Nations Increase owing to lower economies of scale (4) Reversal Increasing Import USA Advanced nations & LDCs Increase owing to comparative disadvantage
  • I.P.S. 221 Importing Time USA (Initiating Country) Other Advanced Countries Exporting
  • I.P.S. VALIDITY OF IPLC Curves:- Several products have conformed to the characteristics described by the IPLC . Semiconductors started in USA diffused to UK, France, Germany, & Japan. H.K. & Taiwan have set up Prodn facilities. Typewriters, adding m/c’s & cash registers– all manual now imported by USA but sophisticated electronic m/c’s are exported. Synthetic Fibers,petrochemicals,leather goods, rubber products & paper completed IPLC Curve. Electronic & Communication sector in USA turned from +ve trade balance to –ve trade balance. IPLC applicable for products related thru an emerging technology= provide more functional utility (to satisfy basic needs) rather than aesthetic value.Washers rather than dyers will fit this theory, but Dishwashers will not fit, because of cheap and plenty labor and the diffusion of this kind of innovation as described in IPLC is not likely to occur. 222
  • I.P.S. 223 MARKETING STRATEGIES Product Policy:   Pricing Policy   Promotion Policy   Place (Distribution) Policy Product Policy: IPLC emphasis on Cost advantage for e.g it is difficult for USA to match labor costs say with Japan 8 cents/min, S.Korea 2c/min, 0.5c/min in China. SOLn= Still keep innovating + product cost competitive .
  • I.P.S. HOW? {1} Automation + Robotronics e.g IBM, Japan VCR to beat S.Korea competition I.e. eliminate non-value added work critical for low end price products. -  std product & std package with options(increases inefficiency and complexity) included. e.g. Chrysler Neon(small car) = no power windows, 4speed  3speed saved 300mn. {2}Use local manf in other countries as an entry strat. ADV=Lower tranp costs, avoid entry barriers, slow down potential local competition, springboard for further expansion in the region {3}sourcing to bring labor costs down e.g Ford Tracer  built in Taiwan for Canadian Mkt,in Mexico for USA mkt,Stereo from Japan, Taiwan & S.Korea . {4}Outsourcing = practice of buying parts or whole products from other manf while allowing buyer to maintain its own brand name.g Ford Festiva from Kao Motors, Mitshubshi Precis by Hyundai,Pontiac Lemans by Suzuki. 224
  • I.P.S. 225 {5} Outsourcing Modification:- procuring various components or having them produced under contract in diff countries.= adv of prodn before assembling for worldwide distribution. E.g. IBM PC System=components made in low cost countries like monochrome monitors in S.Korea,floppy disc drive in Singapore, graphic printers, keyboard, power supply and semiconductors in Japan, semiconductor case & final assembly in USA. Once in Maturity Stage, the innovators comparative advantage is gone, and the firm should switch from low/simple versions to produce sophisticated models or new techno to remove itself from cut throat competition. Japan VCR (99% sold in USA and 75% worldwide cannot compete with cheap labor S.Korean products, made 8mm camcorders to retain mkt share. Worst scenario  another system supplants the innovators product altogether to become industry standard. Sony's strategic blunder in guarding its Betamax video system is a good case to study. Matshushita & Victor co took the world leadership position from Sony by licensing VHS to competitors. Philips & Grundig made Video 2000– did not introduce until VHS became Standard, Vidio 2000 failed.Philips own N.America subsidy failed to buy its parents system. Ultimately Sony made VHS.
  • I.P.S. 226 Recent case DVD (store audio+comp data & software). Toshiba 5 mn bytes /side, Sony & Philips 3.7 giga bytes/each side, Toshiba contacted with moviemakers + open licensing Matsushita, Thompson & Pioneer allied with Toshiba.Sony also fell in line almost similar to Toshiba. PRICING POLICY:- Initially Premium prize to charge for innovation. In the 2/3 stage of IPLC  bring down price to discourage new comers to maintain mkt share. E.g. Japan brought down the prices of VCR’s by 25% to thrawt S.Korean Brands in USA. IBM computer DID NOT DO suffered  Pvt brands + it got copied by Asians. Commodity price dominate the Mkt. Last stage IPLC = top ‘Q’ or sophisticated product & high standards of excellence.
  • I.P.S 227 PROMOTION POLICY:- Promotion and pricing in the IPLC are highly related. The innovating firm's initial competitive edge is its unique product, which allows it to command a premium price. To maintain this price in the face of subsequent challenges from imitators, uniqueness can only be retained in the form of superior quality, style, or services. The innovating marketer must plan for a non price promotional policy at the out­set of production diffusion.For e.g. Timken is able to compete effectively against the Japanese by offering more services and meeting customers' needs at all times. For instance, it offers technological support by sending engineers to help customers design bearings in gearboxes. Implication = New product promotion as Premium Product + high “Q” Image starting with high ’Q’ reputation latter on tone down to simpler version still maintaining in high priced most profitable segment NEVER ALLOW TO BECOME A COMMODITY PRODUCT, otherwise duplication will result.
  • I.P.S e.g APRICA created status symbol for stroller ( using top artists + designer for mothers who are concerned with style rather price) Stroller promo = “anatomically correct” for babies to avoid hip dislocation, snob appeal + comfort to distinguish from Taiwanese & Korean imitators I.e. PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION. 228 PLACE ( DISTRIBUTION) POLICY :- A strong dealer network can provide the U.S. innovating firm with a good defensive strategy. Initial Monopoly situation able to select good/qualified/dealers/agents and then expand when production is diffused. For e.g Caterpillar network of loyal dealers causd difficulty to Kamatsu to line their own dealers. GM’s old policy to limiting its dealing to carry GM brands inadvertently encouraged those dealers to start carrying imports. Watch for new Channel that may threaten old channel “When it is too late or futile to keep the enemy out, the enemy should be invited” so US firm manf’s+ agents/distributors can survive by becoming agents for their former competitors.
  • I.P.S The tactic involves providing a distribution network and marketing expertise at a profit to competitors who in all likelihood would welcome an easier entry into the marketplace. American automakers and their deal­ers seem to have accepted. The reality of the marketplace and have become partners with their Japanese and foreign competitors, as evidenced by General Motors' ventures with Toyota, Suzuki, and Isuzu (to produce Nova, Sprint, and Spectrum, respectively), American Motors' with France's Renault (before the subsequent sale to Chrysler), Chrysler's with Mitsubishi and Maserati, and Ford's with Mazda and the Korean Kia Motors Once a product is in the final stage of its life cycle, the innovating firm should strive to become a specialist, not a generalist, HOW? by concentrating its efforts in carefully selected market segments, where it can distinguish itself from foreign competitors  add features and / or services. THERE ARE WARNING SIGNALS 1. It may become STD product manf in many LDC’c 2. Declining exports due to loss of narrowing of Tech gap.=DO MKT SEGMENTATION & PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION IS RECOMMENDED. E.g Consumer electronics  Maraantz + Scott (both US->good sound + top’Q’) got gobbled up by Japs & Europeans still US bominate high end sterio system( precision req+ short prodn runs + hand made) 229
  • I.P.S 230 PRODUCT, STANDARDIZATION VS ADAPTATION Product standardization means that a product originally designed for a local market is exported to other countries with virtually no change, except perhaps for the translation of words and other cosmetic changes. Revlon, e.g., used to ship successful products abroad without changes in product formulation, packaging (without any translation, in some cases), and advertising ARGUMENTS FOR STANDARDIZATION   1. The strength of standardization in the production and distribution of products and ser­vices is in its simplicity and cost, easy process for executives to understand and implement, and it also is cost-effective . (economies of scale can operate to reduce production costs) Cost reductions do not automatically lead to profit improvements, but b y trying to control production costs through standardization, the product involved may become unsuitable for a1temtive market.
  • I.P.S 231
    • 2. Appropriate standardization is good approach e.gMcDonald’s=std“Q”
    • Some products cannot be modified. E.g. Music, Art, Books,Motion pictures( some films do well in US fail in Japan also in France (Jerry Lewis films failed US but hit in France SO IN SUCH CASES THEY RISE AND FALL ACCORDING TO THEIR MERIT.
    • High-tech products= users & manf use industrial specs leading to Std Jap P.T asked to use Value added Network VAN in X.75 band( used in Europe and approved by Intl Commn Union ) but Pvt parties in US do not comply but lamely excuse Japan of utilizing the std to hurt the sales of their products.
    • 5. Association with Cultural Universals  Consumers from different countries share similar need characteristics want identical products. E.g. Watch’s tell time=std, Diamond, Levi Strauss's attempt to penetrate the European market with lighter-weight jeans failed because European consumers wanted the standard heavy-duty American type after all.
  • I.P.S 232 6. One study confirms that the degree of strategic standardization is low. Three factors corporate orientation, nature of ownership, and consumer characteristics and behavior -underlie the degree of strategic standardization. 7. another study finds that the majority (81 percent) of the U.S. respondents exported their products without any modifications because it focused on industrial products, which are less likely to be affected by users' tastes. 8. A study of U.S. multinationals operating in Latin America reveals that their standardization and adaptation practices differed from those of U.S. multinationals operating in Europe. In terms of the type of product, consumer non-durable goods demonstrated the greatest degree of adaptation to local conditions. Understandably, such products are most subject to differences in consumer preference. Consumer durables and industrial goods, on the other hand, were situated at the less-adapted end of the spectrum .
  • I.P.S 233 ARGUMENTS FOR ADAPTATION Best explained by means of example known as “Big car” & “Left Hand Drive” Syndromes. Base being that US firms are reluctant or unwilling to modify their products to suit customer needs. According to the big-car syndrome, U.S. marketers assume that products de­signed for Americans are superior and will be preferred by foreign consumers. U.S. automakers believe (or used to believe) that the American desire for big cars means that only big cars should be exported to overseas markets. The left-hand drive syndrome is a corollary to the big-car syndrome. US  Strg Wheel on LHS of Automobile & drive on RHS of Road. Asia/Europe  Strg Wheel on RHS and drive on LHS of Road. US will not modify because they feel that small volume of exports does not justify change sales ,they do not follow the maxim that “be a Roman while in Rome” Japs follow it and adapted to US customs.However there are exceptions because they (US) understand the maxim DuPont  Customized  mktg & manf to Jap MKts, Spirite clear Soft drink Lemon flavour instead of lime(US).
  • I.P.S Firms must choose the time when a product is to be modified to better suit its market. According to the Conference Board, important factors for product modification mentioned by more than 70 percent of firms surveyed are long-term profitability, long term market potential, product-market fit, short-term profitability, cost of altering or adapting (e.g, retooling), desire for consistency (e.g, maintaining a world image), and short-term market potential. These factors apply to consumer non-durable and durable products as well as to industrial products. MANFATORY PRODUCT MODIFICATION
    • The mandatory factors affecting product modification are the following:
    • Government’s mandatory standards (i.e, country’s regulations)
    • Electrical current standards
    • Measurement standards
    • Product standards and systems
    234
  • I.P.S 235 GOVT MANDATORY:- Specifications when imported. For.e.g. Switzerland banned the use phosphates in detergents,substitute by Zeolites & nitroacetates (max 5%) to avoid harmful effects in drinking water; Labels / Pkg Display; Avon’s Shampoo’s reformulated to remove formaldehyde preservatives(violation in Foreign countries); Adding Vitamens in Margerine  forbidden in Italy, compulsory in UK & Holland. ELECTRICAL:- phase, frequency, and voltage & manuals. MEASUREMENT STD:- Imperial system vs Metric system, USA & Yemen still Non-metric.(US lose mn of dollars due to this)US Firms often cite NTB”s  cause of failure in Jap Mkt.some NTB’s intentionally designed to discourage imports. Yet Japs point out that US Firms refuse to modigy products.  caused loss of order to Jap NIT –Commn Industry.
  • I.P.S 236 3 TV systems=US  NTSC, French  SECAM, Germany  PAL. USA 525 scanning lines/frame in TV, others 625  sharper picture. OPTIONAL PRODUCT MODIFICATION:
    • Mandatory Modification:- follow it or leave it. E.g Italy's Piaggio withdrew its Vespa scooters from the U.S. market in 1983, choosing not to meet U.S. pollution control standards for its few exports.
    • Optional Modification:- Mktr’s discretion in taking action e.g Nescafe in Swiss taste is different from Nescafe in France (just across the border).
    • Attractiveness of optional Modification is related to physical distribution and this involves the facilitation of product transportation at the lowest cost. Products assembled & shipped=delivery at lower cost ; slight modification helpful like narrow roads, stairways or elevator and when goods are larger.
  • I.P.S 235
    • Local / Climatic conditions:- e.g.Avon modified for not/humid climate “Candid”(lipstick line). Gas formulations in Brazil & USA are different. Brazil  temp high –gasoline requires higher flash pt to avoid vapor lock and engine stalling.
    • Space constraint e.g Sears for Jap Mkt– Friz small & tall
    • Jap Plywood req 3x6ft (no studs) USA supply 4x8ft + studs.
    •  Consumer Demographics related to physical appearances effects how products are used & suitability, Habitat Mothercare PLC (British) products not consistent with American Customs, Comforters are not long enough ( American Beds), Tumblers not long enough to hold ice, Philips downsized its shaver to fit smaller Jap Hands, dolls modified to resemble the physical appearance of local people ( Barbie)
  • I.P.S 237
    • Local use conditions include users habits, Japs prefer to use pencils(typed business corrosp common in US)—copiers require special characteristics that allow the copying of light pencil lines, Microsoft programs in different languages like Czech Republic, Polish, Hungarian, Russian.
    • Environmental conditions– Detergents to suit/fit local water conditions,IBM modified design to include Japs word processing capabilities, Kodak changes in graphic art products for Japs 9 no darkroom, diff light environment)
    •  Product size,color, speed, grade, & source  redesigned to suit locals – Kodak altered its film to cater to Jap Idea of attractive skin tones, Kraft’s cream cheese tastes different in USA, UK, GER, Canada.
    • Asians /Europeans daily shopping---. Small Friz’s– save cost & electrical consumption.
  • I.P.S 238 -  Products clash with Culture --- products loose out. e.g Campbell used in emergency) VS Knorr/Maggi (dehydrated) ( Make it own way, flair & style), Middle East—Halalled Chicken. -  US palate VS Jap Palate.US palate= sweet, too large, too spicy. Totino’s Pizza (made by Pilsbury) had to be modified to capture the Jap Mkt by not adding any preservative or dyes, changing the ingredients,reducing the size from 12oz to 6.5oz to suit Jap Ovens. In conclusion, marketers should not waste time resisting product modification. The reluctance to change a product may be the result of insensitivity to cultural differences in foreign markets. INCREMENTAL COST >> INCREMENTAL PROFIT DROP MOD REVERSE GO FOR MODIFICATION.
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