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  • 1. Lesson - 1 Introduction to Management Accounting TOPICS COVEREDIntroduction, Nature, Scope, Objectives, Functions, Tools, Conventions,Advantages and Limitations of Management Accounting OBJECTIVESUpon completion of this Lesson, you should be able to:  Explain the Nature and Scope of Management Accounting  Identify the Objectives and Functions of Management Accounting  Identify the Tools and Conventions of Management Accounting  Discuss the Advantages and Limitations of Management AccountingYou have also studied in your previous semester, that Accounting providesinformation to a variety of users. The major user groups for a businessorganization are shown in Figure 1.1 below:(Figure 1.1 – Page 2 from Mgmt Acctg for Non-Specialists – PeterAtrill)User Group UseCustomers To assess the ability of the business to continue in business and to supply the needs of the customersSuppliers To assess the ability of the business to pay for the goods and services suppliedGovernment To assess how much tax the business should pay, whether it complies with agreed pricing policies, whether financial support is needed, etcOwners To assess how effectively the managers are running the business and to make judgments about likely levels of risk and return in the futureLenders To assess the ability of the business to meet its
  • 2. obligations and to pay interest and to repay the principalEmployees (non- To assess the ability of the business to continue tomanagement) provide employment and to reward employees for their laborInvestment Analysts To assess the likely risks and returns associated with the business in order to determine its investment potential and to advise clients accordinglyCommunity To assess the ability of the business to continue torepresentatives provide employment for the community, to use community resources, to help fund environmental improvements, etcManagers To help them to make decisions and plans for the business and to help them to exercise control to try to ensure that plans come to fruition.The above is not an exhaustive list. You may also come up with otherreasons why each group would find Accounting information useful.You will now observe that Accounting forms an important aspect of the totalinformation system within a business. In order to ensure that the economicresources are allocated efficiently, the various users may require economicinformation so as to arrive at decisions. The main role of Accounting is toprovide such information. As such, Accounting forms part of theinformation gathering and communication system.You may appreciate that a proper Accounting System would involve:  Identifying and capturing relevant economic information  Recording the information collected in a systematic manner  Analyzing and interpreting the information collected  Reporting the information in a manner which suits the need of usersIn Management Accounting, we will be mainly concerned with the last twoprocesses – viz. analyzing and reporting of financial information.Management Accounting is concerned with method in which information isused by, and is useful to, the decision-makers.You know that Accounting is a service function. The Accountants providethe financial information to the users (clients). In order to help the users to
  • 3. arrive at informed decisions, the Accounting information should basicallycontain the following key characteristics:  Relevance: The Accounting information should be relevant in confirming past events and or in arriving at the prediction of future events.  Reliability: It should not contain any material error or bias.  Comparability: The transaction and the items, which are basically of same nature, should be treated in the same manner for measurement, grouping and presentation purpose.  Understandability: The Accounting reports should be expressed and presented as clearly as possible, so that the intended users could understand them.  Timeliness: It should be provided at reasonably frequent and periodic intervals. More importantly, there should not be a long time lag between the end of the financial period and the date such information is made available to the intended users. Limitations of Financial AccountingThe following limitations of financial accounting have led to thedevelopment of cost accounting:1. No clear idea of operating efficiency. Financial accounting will not giveyou a clear picture of operating efficiency when prices are rising ordecreasing on account of inflation or trade depression. I suppose you willagree that, at times, profits may be more or less not because of efficiency orinefficiency but because of inflation or trade depression.2. Weakness not spotted out by collective results. Financial accountingdiscloses only the net result of the collective activities of a business as awhole. It does not indicate profit or loss of each department, job, process orcontract. It does not disclose the exact cause of inefficiency i.e., it does nottell where the weakness is because it discloses the net profit of all theactivities of a business as a whole .Say, for instance, it can be compared witha reading on a thermometer. A reading of more than 98.4° or less than 98.4ºdiscloses that something is wrong with human body but the exact disease is
  • 4. not disclosed. Similarly, loss or less profit disclosed by the profit and lossaccount is a signal of bad performance of the business but the exact cause ofsuch performance is not known.3. Not helpful in price fixation. In financial accounting costs are notavailable as an aid in determining prices of the products, services,production order and lines of products.4. No classification of expenses and accounts. In financial accountingthere is no such system by which accounts are classified so as to give dataregarding costs by departments, processes, products in the manufacturingdivisions; by units of product lines and sales territories; by departments,services and functions in the administrative division .Further expenses arenot classified as to direct and indirect items and are not assigned to theproducts at each stage of production to show the controllable anduncontrollable items of overhead costs.5. No data for comparison and decision-making. It will not provide youwith useful data for comparison with previous period and for taking variousfinancial decisions like, introduction of new products, replacement of labourby machines, price in normal or special circumstances, producing a part inthe factory or buying it from the market, production of a product to becontinued or given up, priority accorded to different products, investment tobe made in new products or not etc.6. No control on cost. It does not provide for a proper control of materialsand supplies, wages, labour and overheads.7. No standards to assess the performance. In financial accounting, thereis no such well developed system of standards which would enable you toappraise the efficiency of the organization in using materials, labour andoverhead costs. Again, it does not provide you such information whichwould help you to assess the performance of various persons anddepartments in order that costs do not exceed a reasonable limit for a givenquantum of work of the requisite quality.8. Provides only historical information. Financial accounting is mainlyhistorical and tells you about the cost already incurred. It does not provideday-to-day cost information for making effective plans for the coming yearand the period after that as financial data are summarized at the end of theaccounting period.9. No analysis of losses. It does not provide complete analysis of losses dueto defective material, idle time, idle plant and equipment. In other words, nodistinction is made between avoidable and unavoidable wastage.
  • 5. 10. Inadequate information for reports. It does not provide adequateinformation for reports to outside agencies such as banks, government,insurance companies and trade associations.11. No answer to certain questions. Financial accounting will not provideyou with answers to such questions as —(a) Should an attempt be made to sell more products or is the factoryoperating to its optimum capacity? (b) If an order or contract is accepted, is the price obtainable sufficient toshow a profit?(c) If the manufacture or sales of product X were discontinued and effortsmade to increase the sale of Y, what would be the effect on the net profit?(d) Why the annual profit is of such a small amount despite the fact thatoutput was increased substantially?(e) If a machine is purchased to carry out a job, at present done by hand,what effect will this have on profits? (f) Wage rates having been increased by 50 paisa per hour, should sellingprice be increased, and if so, by how much?Classification of Accounting:Accounting can be classified into two categories: i. Financial Accounting ii. Management AccountingWhat is Management Accounting?Accounting designed for use in the operational needs of the business i.e. toprovide information relating to the conduct of the various aspects of thebusiness like costs, funds, profits, etc is termed as Management Accounting.DefinitionBefore I try to explain the nature and scope of Management Accounting, letme reproduce some of the definitions here. First, from the experts in thefield:“Management Accounting is Accounting for effective Management” – Bose.
  • 6. “Management Accounting is concerned with accounting information that isuseful to management” – Robert N. Anthony.“Management Accounting is the term used to describe the accountingmethods, systems and techniques which, coupled with special knowledgeand ability, assist management in its task of maximizing profits orminimizing losses” – Batty J.You will now find the definitions given by reputed Accounting Institutesbelow:“Management Accounting includes the methods and concepts necessary foreffective planning, for choosing among alternative business actions and forcontrol through the evaluation and interpretation of performances.” – TheAmerican Accounting Association.“Any form of accounting which enables a business to be conducted moreefficiently can be regarded as Management Accounting.” – Institute ofChartered Accountants of England and Wales.“Such of its techniques and procedures by which accounting mainly seeks toaid the management collectively have come to be known as managementaccounting.” – The Institute of Chartered Accountants of IndiaNature of Management AccountingThe primary nature or main characteristics of MA are given below: 1. Forecasting: MA is mainly concerned with the future. Although the collection of historical data or the facts form the basis, the main focus of MA is forecasting. As it is focused on the future plans, it helps in the decision making process for future course of action. As such, most of the techniques of MA will be concerned with future. 2. Supply of Information: MA supplies the information to the management for decision-making or for monitoring and control, but it does not provide decisions. The decisions are to be taken by the managers. How well the data presented by the MA is used, interpreted and decisions taken, will depend upon the efficiency of the management.
  • 7. 3. Increase in Efficiency: Let’s face it - MA is basically concerned with the ‘problem of choice’. MA provides various alternate plans for the management. MA also makes a comparative study, including pros and cons, of all such plans. This helps the management in choosing an appropriate plan, which fulfils its objectives. Such a system improves the efficiency of the management decision-making.4. Techniques and Concepts: Do you know that MA applies special techniques and concepts so as to make the accounting data more useful for decision-making? MA deals with the study of costs by dividing the total costs into Variable, Semi-Variable and Fixed components. The techniques used by MA are mainly Marginal Costing, Standard Costs, Absorption Costing, Break-even Analysis / Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis, Variance Analysis, Activity Based Costing (ABC), Uniform Costing, Pricing techniques, Target Costing, Transfer Pricing etc.5. Cause and Effect Analysis: You would have heard of ‘Law of Karma’. Similarly, MA examines the ‘Cause’ and ‘Effect’ of different variances. For example, if the actual costs of a product are higher than the Standard Costs, the reasons for such variances are probed and analyzed. Similarly, if there is a profit / loss, the factors directly influencing the profitability are analyzed. As MA employs aforesaid techniques and analytical tools, MA is called as a branch of Science.6. No Fixed Norms: It’s like your dress code (or no code at all!). MA does not employ a fixed set of norms / rules and formats (like double entry system in Financial Accounting). Although the tools and techniques of MA are the same, their usage differs across different industries / enterprises. Similarly, the analyses of the data and the conclusions / decisions arrived at may also vary across many enterprises.7. Assists Management: You may compare MA to the Secretary to the Vice-President of an organization. MA assists the Management in decision-making but it cannot take decisions. MA is an integral part of Business Management, but does not replace the later. MA assists the Management in all of its functions. By providing the accounting data, analyses and reports in the required formats and at appropriate
  • 8. time, MA enables the Management to discharge its functions more effectively and efficiently. 8. Achieving of Objectives: You would have, by now, guessed it right (if you attempt to guess!). The principal objective of MA is to ‘serve the needs of Management’ or ‘to enable the manager to manage better.’ By providing various data and analyses for management decision-making, MA helps in promptly bringing up meaningful and actionable knowledge to the Management for their use.Scope of Management AccountingFriends, let’s now examine the scope of MA. In fact, its scope is verybroad-based and includes various aspects of business operations. The majoraim of MA is to assist the Management in latter’s principal functions ofplanning, organizing, directing and controlling. You will find below someof the specialized fields that are within the scope of MA: 1. Financial Accounting: You already know that FA is the normal accounting that deals with the recording the day-to-day business transactions called Vouchers, posting the entries into related Ledger Accounts, balancing them and bringing out a Trial Balance. At the end of required period (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and annually), the Accountant prepares the Profit and Loss Account (relating to the Income and Expenses and Profit or Loss of the business enterprise or its various divisions) and also a Balance Sheet (showing the Assets and Liabilities of the business enterprise or its various divisions). These financial statements form the basis for MA in preparing the Funds Flow / Cash Flow Statements and making the various analysis and interpretation of data to the Management for its monitoring, control and decision- making for future activities. You will appreciate the fact that without a well-designed and computerized FA system, it is difficult for the MA to provide meaningful and timely data to the Management. 2. Cost Accounting: You will learn that Costing is a branch of MA. Cost Accounting (CA) is concerned with the process and techniques of ascertaining costs of a product or service, which could help in fixing the price of such a product or service
  • 9. (provided you have the freedom to fix the price in the hyper- competitive market!). CA employs the tools and techniques such as Marginal Costing, Standard Costing, Apportioning of Costs, Absorption Costing, Variance Analysis, Target Costing, Activity Based Costing (ABC), Product / Process Pricing, Transfer Pricing, Budgetary Control, Inventory Control, etc. You will learn these tools and techniques in the later chapters.3. Budgeting and Forecasting: You have already learnt about the Budgets of the Central and State Governments. Budgeting involves giving a concrete shape in writing on the future plans, policies and goals of the organization. Whereas, Forecasting is concerned with the techniques for predicting probable future growth / trends etc, based upon given set of parameters and circumstances. The Budgets may be for various periods, say weekly, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and annually. If the Budgets are prepared covering the whole of the activities of an organization, it is called Master Budget. Suppose, the Budgets are prepared division-wise or activity-wise, such as Marketing and Sales, Procurement, Production, Storage and Distribution, HR and Administration etc, they are called Functional Budgets. If the Budget figures remain constant irrespective of the sales / production / activity levels, they are called Fixed Budgets. If the Budget figure varies with the level of sales / production / activity, then they are called Flexible Budgets. The Budget figures, say for the level of Sales, Production, Expenses etc are called Targets. The targets are set for different divisions / departments and the responsibility is fixed on the concerned divisional / departmental heads / managers, for achieving such targets. At the end of the relevant period (say every week, month, quarter, half-year, year), the Actual performance of the concerned division / department (say Sales, Production etc) is compared with the Budgeted Targets for that division / department. The difference between the Budgeted figures and the actually achieved figures are called Budgetary Variances. The reasons for the Budgetary Variances are analyzed, remedial action to set right the adverse variations, if any, are recommended and the responsibility is fixed on the various managers for taking such remedial measures. Such an exercise is called Budgetary Control. You will learn all such aspects in the later chapters.
  • 10. 4. Statistical Techniques: Don’t be frightened when you hear about Statistical Techniques! You will find them simple and easy to understand. MA employs various Statistical tool and techniques. The charts, graphs, index numbers, diagrams, pictorial presentation etc., would make the data / information impressive and easily grasped. MA also employs sampling techniques, regression analysis, linear programming, time series etc. for planning and forecasting.5. Inventory Control: You know that inventory means stocks – viz. raw materials, work-in-process, finished goods, spares, components, packing materials etc. For any manufacturing organization, the cost of inventory (particularly the raw materials and the finished goods) is quite significant. In many industries, the cost of the inventory is about 50% to 70% of the annual sales. Due to such high carrying cost of the inventory, even a small adverse variation in its cost will significantly affect the profitability of the organization. Hence, the Inventory Control is very important to any management. For an effective Inventory Control System, the management should fix different levels of stocks, such as Minimum Stock Level, Maximum Stock Level, Re-Ordering Stock Level for various types of stocks. MA is also concerned with the Inventory Control System, with the aim of keeping the cost of carrying the Inventory to the optimum level. Many industries are adopting the Japanese technique called JIT (Just-in-Time) management. JIT involves adopting, implementing and monitoring effective Inventory Control Systems, achieving high efficiency levels and close coordination between all the departments such as Marketing / Sales, Procurement, Production, Logistics and Distribution etc., as also forging close alliances / partnerships with the various suppliers of materials, transport and distribution channel partners and the major customers, so that the required Raw Materials and other components etc are received at the manufacturing plant Just-in-Time, and the required Finished Goods / Products are transported to the Customers Just-in-Time. By adopting and maintaining an efficient JIT management system, many large manufacturing organizations could reduce the inventory levels from about 90 to 120 days’ requirements to just about 7 to 10 days’ requirements and thereby significantly reducing their inventory holding costs and improving their profitability.
  • 11. 6. Interpretation of Data: You have done the analysis and interpretation of financial data while preparing your assignments in the previous semester. MA deals with a lot of analysis and interpretation of various financial and non-financial data and information. In respect of financial data, various financial statements are studied in comparison with the statements of earlier periods or of other organizations in the industry. Then detailed analyses are prepared, interpretations are made and the reports are presented in a simple, non-technical language, to the management, for decision-making.7. Reporting: As you guess, reporting means submitting the analyzed and interpreted data to the concerned management. What is more critical is the timely reporting, that is, communicating the data within the required time frame. If there is inordinate delay in communicating the data (known as ‘stale reports’), it becomes obsolete and useless to the management. The reports may be in the form of Funds Flow / Cash Flow Statements, projected Profit and Loss Statements, Budgetary Control reports, Inventory Control reports etc. The periodicity of the reports may be daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or annually, depending the nature and criticality of each report to the management decision-making.8. Internal Audit: You have heard of Audit and auditing. You have seen the published annual balance sheets of many large companies. External Auditors have audited them. In Internal Audit, the management appoints qualified and experienced auditors (mainly chartered accountants) to scrutinize all the financial transactions across all the divisions / departments of the organization, to assess that such transactions are in order as per the policies, norms, procedures and authorizations of the management and to report to the Top Management / Board of Directors, any material deviations / irregularities. It is mandatory to devise and implement suitable Internal Audit system in large organizations. Internal Audit helps in detecting any financial irregularities / frauds committed by the employees / managers of an organization and in improving the internal control systems. In many Public Sector Banks, the Concurrent Audit system has been implemented. In the Concurrent Audit system, the Head Office (or the respective Circle / Zonal / Regional office) of the Bank appoints separate external auditors (usually experienced chartered accountants) at each of its
  • 12. major branches spread throughout India. These external auditors sit in the respective branch of the bank on daily basis (like regular bank staff); scrutinize all the transactions of the branch on a daily basis. Usually, the transactions of a previous day is fully scrutinized on the very next day by the Concurrent Auditors and if any material irregularity is observed, it is reported to the Head Office (or the respective Circle / Zonal / Regional office) on the same day. These Concurrent Auditors also prepare monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and annual reports, as required by the Bank, and submit to the appropriate authorities of the Bank. The major difference between External Audit and Internal Audit is that while the Audit Report of External Auditors forms part of the Audited Balance Sheet and hence is made available to the stock exchanges and the public, the Internal Audit reports are mainly meant for the internal management / Board of Directors of the organization and generally not made available to the public.9. Tax Accounting: As you guess, the Tax Accounting is something to do with the tax liabilities of an organization. Based upon the projected Profit and Loss Statements, the tax consultants arrive at the likely tax liabilities. This will also help the management in Tax Planning (saving of tax liabilities by appropriate investments / taking advantage of tax exemption provisions). Similarly, based upon the actual Profit and Loss Statement (for the previous quarter, half-year or year), the various tax liabilities to the Central / State Govts. / Local Authorities are determined. Tax Accounting exercise includes computation of taxable income as per Income Tax Act (either for payment of Advance Tax or Annual Corporate Income Tax), TDS (Tax Deduction at Source) in respect of Salaries, Contractors, Professional, Depositors etc (payable to Central Govt. as and when such payments are made), Customs Duty (payable to the Central Govt. at the time of import of goods / machinery etc), Central Excise (payable to the Central Govt. as and when the finished goods are dispatched from the factory), Sales Tax and Service Tax (usually payable to the respective State Govt. every quarter), Octroi, and other local levies (payable to Local Authorities like Municipal Corporations) etc. Some of the Laws (and the Rules framed there-under) which the companies are required to comply with are Income Tax Act, Indian Companies Act, Indian Customs Act, Central Excise Act, Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), EXIM Policy and Procedures of Govt.
  • 13. of India, Exchange Control Regulations of Reserve Bank of India, Sales Tax Acts of respective State Governments and the regulations of local authorities. 10. Methods and Procedures: For your studies in the Rai University, all of you have to comply with the well laid-down Methods and Procedures. Similarly, for an effective implementation of MA system, an organization should have well laid down Methods and Procedures (apart from well designed FA and MA systems and formats for data recording, collection, analysis and reporting). It is also critical that the MA analyses and reports are presented to the management promptly within the required time frame. Towards this, an organization should possess proper IT systems (including servers, work-stations, computers, operating systems, networking hardware and software, data-bases, application software, ERP / CRM systems etc) and modern office management services such as high-speed Internet connectivity, Intra-net and Email systems, Fax, Telephones, Photocopiers, Scanners, Printers and other electronic and mechanical devices etc and well trained personnel for data entry and data processing and analysis. The Methods and Procedures should specify the various statistical data to be provided to various divisions / departments. The internal systems should be flexible enough to carry out special cost studies and estimations as and whenManagement(apart from regular cost studies required Accounting and analyses), preparation of quick reports on Cost-Volume-Profit relationships and reviewing / revising the forecasting of future Marginal Costing Ratio Analysis business scenario under rapidly changing market conditions and to keep tabs on latest concepts and developments, Cash flow Analysis and Relevant Costing analytical tools techniques etc. Budgetary Standard Costing Control System Divisional PerformanceCANVAS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING Cost Accounting Financial Accounting More documents of internal transactions Basic documents of external Cost Ascertainment transactions Choice of Recording Cost Unit Journal Micro cost centers Ledger Recording Final Accounts Funds flow Analysis Allocation Profit and Loss account Apportionment Balance Sheet Absorption
  • 14. Objectives of Management AccountingWhat is your objective? To study well (by completing your MBA programwith good marks / grades and acquire demonstrable managerial skills) and toget a well earned placement in a reputed organization. Isn’t it? Similarly,the primary objective of MA is to assist the management in Profit / WealthMaximization or Loss Minimization. The basic focus of MA is to assistmanagement in formulating policies, decision-making, planning, organizingand controlling of business operations. The main objectives of MA aregiven below: 1. Planning and Policy Formulation: You are aware that the first and foremost function of management if Planning. This involves forecasting for the future on the basis of given set of parameters and data, goals setting, formulation of policies, choosing the alternate courses of action and deciding on the direction and course of activities to be undertaken. MA helps the management in all such processes. MA prepares the reports and future projections based upon past performance. 2. Interpretation Process: You may realize that the main object of MA is to present the financial data and information to the management for decision-making. Most of the financial information is, generally, of technical in nature. The financial data / information is to be presented in an easily understandable non- technical language to the management. This is the function of MA which analysis, interprets and presents the financial information in an intelligible manner. MA also explains such data through statistical tools like index numbers, graphs, charts and diagrams etc. for easy grasping by the management. 3. Helps in Decision-Making: You will now certainly conclude that the primary objective of MA is assisting the management in decision-making. MA makes the entire decision-making process on scientific basis by providing the financial information along with alternate plans in terms of costs and revenue. MA adopts various techniques, provides the data pertaining to costs, price, profit etc and analyses the savings for all the alternate plans and presents to the management for objective decision-making. 4. Controlling: You have already come across that MA acts as a practical device of managerial control. The MA tools such as
  • 15. Standard Costing and Budgetary Control are very helpful in exercising controlling functions. MA compares the actual costs with pre-determined standard costs and through variance analysis, finds out the ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ and recommends remedial action. Such a technique helps in cost control. Similarly, the divisional / departmental control is exercised through the technique of Budgetary Control. Through such techniques, MA helps the management in controlling the performance of every department / manager.5. Reporting: You have also learnt that one of the objectives of MA is timely reporting of financial information in an easily understandable manner for managerial decision-making. MA not only provides the financial data periodically, but also submits various alternate plans with their pros and cons, so that the management can choose an appropriate plan, which suits the organizational objectives. MA also compares the performance of various divisions / departments periodically and presents the data to the management.6. Motivating: You will be surprised to know that MA helps in motivating the employees. Delegation of authority enhances the job satisfaction of employees. Through Budgeting, individual targets are fixed for the employees. Employees strive hard to achieve those targets, not only for getting incentives, but also for recognition and self-esteem. The entire process of goal setting, planning for the best performance at optimal costs, measuring and rewarding the actual performance etc. enhances the motivation of employees and increases efficiency of the management.7. Helps in Organizing: You would have come across the terms like ‘Return on Investment (ROI)’ or ‘Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)’. MA applies these tools. MA employs the technique called ‘Responsibility Accounting’ which you will learn in later chapters. Through ‘Responsibility Accounting’, MA lays emphasis on cost centers, profit centers, investment centers and budget centers, which helps the management to fix responsibilities on various departments / managers for controlling costs and achieving the planned targets and profitability. Such a system helps in decentralization and in setting up an efficient organizational structure.
  • 16. 8. Coordinating Operations: You will agree that MA contributes in overall coordination and control of various operations of the business. MA employs various tools and techniques which are helpful in coordination of various activities of all the divisions / departments. One of the important means of coordination employed by MA is the Budgets.Functions of Management AccountingLet me advise that MA is closely related to the process called ‘ManagementControl’. Management Control is the process of ensuring that optimumresources are procured at optimum costs and used efficiently in fulfilling theorganizational objectives. The main function of MA is to assist themanagement in discharging its functions efficiently and cost effectively.MA functions can be said to include all activities with collecting, analyzing,interpreting and presenting the financial data to the management fordecision-making. The major functions of MA are given below: 1. Modification of Data: You are aware that the FA data and FA statements are not suitable for managerial decision-making and control purposes. MA modifies the available FA data by re- arranging in such a manner, which becomes useful for the management for decision-making. The re-arranging the FA data within logical groups makes the same useful and understandable. Suppose a company is selling different products throughout the country. FA data will give the total sales figures, say for a half- year. MA modifies such FA data, classifies the sales made during the half-year into product-wise, territory-wise and salesmen-wise. This will help the management in understanding which product is selling more, which are the potential territories and who are the top performing salesmen. 2. Planning and Forecasting: You have already come across that MA is involved in Planning and Forecasting, which are critical for achieving the organizational objectives. The critical function of MA is to make short term and long term forecasts and preparing the plans (budgets) for future operations of the organization. MA employs various techniques like Marginal Costing, Standard Costing, Break-even Analysis, Funds Flow / Cash Flow Projections, Trend analysis, correlation, regression etc. which are helpful in planning and forecasting.
  • 17. 3. Financial Analysis and Interpretation: You know that MA modifies the financial data, makes detailed analysis, interprets and presents the data in a meaningful manner for effective planning and decision-making. The interpretation of the data is the most important function of MA. As the top management may not be well versed with many of the technical terms, MA presents the data in a simple non-technical language, along with comments and suggestions. This helps the management in decision-making and control. Hence, the analysis and interpretation of data are the critical functions of MA.4. Communication: You have studied about Business Communication. MA also plays as an important medium of communication. MA satisfies the information needs of all the different levels (top, middle and junior) management. While the top management may require the data in a concise form at relatively longer intervals (say monthly), middle management requires the data regularly (say weekly) and the junior management is interested in detailed data at short intervals (say daily).5. Facilitate Managerial Control: You have already come across that MA helps in the managerial control. MA enables all accounting efforts to be directed towards achieving the organizational objectives, by controlling the operations of the organization effectively. MA analyses and determines the planned targets for various departments / managers. MA periodically records the actual performance, compares with the planned targets, makes analysis of variances, finds out the reasons for variances and suggests remedial measures. Such a process helps the management to assess the performance of all the managers / employees of the organization.6. Use of Qualitative Information: You should know that collecting the financial data, its analysis and interpretation etc. may not always be adequate for management decision-making. In addition to providing the financial data, MA frequently draws upon various sources (other than accounting), for qualitative information, which cannot be converted into monetary terms. MA relies upon various case studies, engineering records, productivity reports, special surveys etc while presenting the data to the management.
  • 18. 7. Decision-Making: You already know that MA provides accounting and statistical data for managerial decision-making. Timely and appropriate decision-making is critical for the survival and growth of the business. MA provides alternate plans with detailed analysis and interpretation, which enables the management to choose an appropriate plan. 8. Coordinating: You have studied in the ‘Essentials of Management’ that coordination at various levels is the part and parcel of management. MA achieves coordination with various departments / employees through Budgeting exercise. MA takes inputs from various sources and prepares the budgets, helps in fixing the targets and communicating to various levels of management.Tools of Management AccountingAs you know, MA provides financial data, which is useful to the managerialdecision-making. Toward this, MA employs various tools, techniques andmethods. No single tool or technique can satisfy all managerial needs. Overthe years, a number of new tools and techniques have been developed whichreplaced some old ones. The important tools and techniques presentlyemployed by MA are given below: 1. Financial Planning: You will later understand that financial planning involves determining both the short term and long term financial objectives of the organization, formulating the financial policies and developing the financial procedures to achieve the objectives. Every company has to take decisions about the various sources of funds. The funds can be raised either through issue of Share Capital or through raising Debentures and or Loans. Management should also decide about the type of capital, that is, equity or preference shares. As regards Debentures and Loans, it is to be decided whether they are for short term or for long term. The ratio between loans and share capital (called ‘Debt Equity Ratio’) is also important. All such decisions are critical for financial planning. 2. Analysis of Financial Statements: “The analysis and interpretation of financial statement are an attempt to determine the
  • 19. significance and meaning of the financial statement data so that a forecast may be made of the prospects for future earning, ability to pay debt and probability of a sound dividend policy.” MA adopts the financial analysis techniques such as comparative financial statements, ratio analysis, trend analysis, funds flow / cash flow statements etc.3. Historical Cost Accounting: You know that the financial statement containing actual costs after they have been incurred is called Historical Cost Accounting. They are of limited value. But they are critical in establishing a Standard Costing system.4. Standard Costing: You should know that Standard Costing is a critical tool of Cost Control. Based on the historical costs and other relevant factors, Standard Costs are determined for various types of costs of a product (such as Standard Direct Material Cost, Standard Direct Labor Cost, and Standard Overhead Cost etc). The actual costs incurred are periodically compared with the standard costs, cost variance analysis is made and the reasons for the variances are probed. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis are the effective techniques for controlling the costs.5. Budgetary Control: You have studied in the ‘Essentials of Management’ that planning and control are essential functions of management. A number of techniques are employed in controlling. The most important technique for managerial control is through Budgetary Control. Budgets are quantitative expression of plan of action. Through Budgets, planned targets are fixed for various departments / managers. In Budgetary Control, the actual performance is periodically compared with the planned targets, Budget Variance Analysis is made, the reasons for the variances are ascertained and remedial measures are suggested.6. Marginal Costing: You will learn about this concept in the later chapters. Marginal Costing is derived on the basis of changes in the costs per unit, due to increase / decrease in one unit of production. Marginal Costing is useful in arriving at the profitability of different lines of production.7. Decision Accounting: You know that the decision-making is the basic function of management at all levels. Decisions Making process involves studying the alternate plans presented by MA, in
  • 20. terms of costs, prices and profits and selecting the appropriate choice after considering the non-financial factors as well.8. Revaluation Accounting: This is also a tool employed by MA. This term is used to denote the methods adopted for overcoming the problems related to replacement of worn-out fixed assets (particularly plant and machinery), during the period of high inflation (rising prices). Revaluation Accounting provides for the maintenance and preservation of the capital of the organization.9. Ratio Accounting: Ratio Accounting signifies the techniques and methodology of analysis and interpretation of financial statements by means of accounting ratios derived from the financial statements. Ratio Accounting includes trend analysis, comparative financial statements, inter period comparisons, ratio analysis, funds flow / cash flow statements etc. The analysis and interpretation of financial statements in the form of ratios will help the management, investors, creditors etc. in their decision-making.10. Control Accounting: This comprise of various techniques such as Standard Costing, Budgetary Control, Control Reports and statements, as well as internal audit reports, internal checks etc. MA has got good scope to display ingenuity in the analysis, interpretation and presentation of information to different levels of management.11. Internal Audits: You have heard of this in foregoing section on ‘Scope of MA’. Internal Audit is an independent audit conducted by external chartered accountants for a thorough scrutiny of accounting, financial and other transactions. Although it deals primarily with the accounting and financial transactions, it may also deals with other matters and suggest improvement in control systems.12. Management Information System: You have learnt about MIS in your previous semester. MA is required to provide periodical financial and other data to the various levels of management for the purpose of planning, controlling and decision-making. By the installation of appropriate IT systems, the Management Information System has significantly improved and it shortens the
  • 21. time frame between collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data to the management. 13. Statistical Techniques: As you have been informed in the foregoing sections, MA uses a number of Statistical and graphical techniques. Some of them are master chart, chart of sales and earning, investment chart etc. The Linear Programming, Regression Analysis, Sampling techniques etc. are used for forecasting. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLESBesides the basic accounting principles which are accepted generallythroughout the accounting profession, the following are the additionalconventions/principles which are now generally regarded as essential part ofmanagement accounting.Designing and compiling : Accounting information, records, reports,statements, and other evidence of past, present, or future results should bedesigned and compiled to meet the needs of the particular business and/ orspecific problem.This implies a certain flexibility of system. When a particular problem is tobe solved the system should be capable of producing the relevant date. Ifnecessary, there must be departure from double-entry principles. Accountingand operational-research principles should be linked together. Informationshould be accumulated and then presented to solve problems. Theaccounting information should be modified and adapted to meet each needwhenever possible. However, it is important to remember that if thisprinciple is carried too far, the cost of management accountancy system maybecome excessive. It is partly for this reason that a systematic, rather than anad hoc method, is used for accumulating costing data.Management by exception: The “principle of management by exception”is followed when presenting information to management.This assumes that plans are predetermined and then actual results arecompared with expected results. If there are no deviations there is nonecessity to report. When there are variations from predetermined plans,management is informed precisely of what is going wrong. In this way, theinformation presented to management is kept to the minimum, yet at thesame time all important facts are being revealed. What is more, managementhas less to read and study and, therefore, should have more time to takeaction.
  • 22. Control at source accounting: Costs are best controlled at the points atwhich they are incurred-“control-at-source accounting “.Recognition of this convention is acknowledged through the preparation ofdepartmental operating statements and the design of costing systems whichcontrol individual workers, material issues, and the usage of services. Theinculcation of cost consciousness is also an essential part of this convention.Accounting for inflation: A profit cannot be said to be earned unlesscapital is maintained intact in real terms.This convention recognizes that the monetary unit is not stable. Attempts toovercome the effects of changes in the value of money have been made viarevaluation accounting, but as yet there is no general acceptance of thetheory. However, there is strong evidence that more and more accountantsare modifying their views to meet the dynamic state of business and theeconomy.Use of ROI: return on capital employed is used as the criterion formeasuring the efficiency of the business. For this purpose the capitalemployed would be calculated by reference to current replacement values.Utility Management accounting systems and related forms should be usedonly as long as they serve a useful purpose.Integration: There should be integration of all management information sothat fullest use is made of the facts available and at the same time, theaccounting service should be provided at minimum cost.Absorption of overhead costs: Overhead cost should be apportioned tocost centers and absorbed to products on the basis of benefits received forfixed costs or responsibilities incurred for variable costs. The method ormethods selected should bring about the desired results of recovering theoverheads in the most equitable manner. However, this is subject to what isstated on this matter in the chapter on Marginal Costing.Utilizations of resources: Management accountancy should Endeavour toshow whether or not the resources of the business are being utilized in themost effective manner.Conventions of Management AccountingYou are aware that conventions mean “rules of the game”. MA, like allother social sciences, is partly a science and partly an art. The commonpractices adopted by the accounting community in general, to deal withspecific problems from time to time, are called Conventions. Theconventions of MA are given below:
  • 23. 1. Accounting concerns itself with the recording of business transactions only.2. As far as possible, costs and revenues should be properly matched.3. Profits should be credited on realization basis, while losses should be provided in advance.4. The methods, procedures and principles should be consistent.5. The principle of matching costs with revenues should be strictly followed.6. The accounting records should be kept as objective as possible.7. The entire accounting information, past, present or future, in any form should be designed to meet the particular needs of the business.8. The principle of reporting of exceptions should be followed when presenting information to the management.9. The object of “control at source accounting” should be followed. It means that the control mechanism should be established at the points where costs are incurred.10. A profit cannot be said to be earned, unless the capital employed is maintained intact in real terms.11. For measuring the efficiency of business, technique of measuring the return on capital employed should be adopted.12. The management information should be fully integrated.13. Overhead costs should be apportioned to the cost centers and recovered by products. The basis for recovery may be either the benefit received for fixed costs or responsibility incurred for variable costs.14. Management accounting must attempt to show whether the resources of the business are most effectively utilized.
  • 24. 15. Responsibility should be identified on the basis of the distinction between controllable and non-controllable costs. 16. Management accounting should be forward looking i.e. it should lay a great emphasis on the anticipation of problems. 17. The means of recording accounting information, presenting it to management, should be most appropriate. 18. Reports and statements should not be used as a substitute for personal contact with the persons at the higher levels of authority.The aforesaid list, although long, is still not exhaustive. As the practice ofMA is growing, there may be new additions or deletions in future.Advantages of Management AccountingYou will appreciate that in the competitive world, MA has become anintegral part of the management. MA guides and advises the managementon day-to-day basis. The advantages of MA are given below: 1. Enhances Efficiency: MA enhances the efficiency of various business operations. In the Budgets, planned targets are fixed in advance for various departments / managers. The various departments / managers are motivated to achieve their respective target which in turn increases the efficiency of management. 2. Systematic Planning: The various operations and functions of the organization are planned in a systematic manner, through the use of techniques such as Forecasting and Budgeting. 3. Objectivity: The various tools of MA have ensured objectivity, validity and reliability in business management. 4. Control: The various techniques employed by MA help in effective control of business operations. Through use of appropriate techniques, it becomes feasible for the organization for maximum utilization of capital and for maximizing the Return on Investment.
  • 25. 5. Harmony: MA helps to maintain harmony in the relationship between the management and the employees. Such harmony helps the management to improve its customer services. 6. Cost Reduction: MA focuses on cost reduction at all levels and improve the efficiency of the employees. When the cost of production is reduced, the profitability of the organization improves. 7. Avoid Fluctuations: Through the use of MA techniques, an organization can considerably reduce the seasonal and cyclical fluctuations in its business operations. 8. Fixing Standards: As MA employs scientific techniques and methodologies; it helps in fixing appropriate Standards of Productivity for the employees. Such a system avoids non- achievable high productivity standards or very low standards and helps in improving the industrial relations. 9. Wastage reduction: By implementing proper MA system, various types of wastages and production defectives can be minimized. 10. Communicating: MA helps in communicating updated information and data to various managers and employees for effective achievement of organizational objectives.Limitations of Management AccountingYou should understand that MA is a recent discipline and is still evolving.As such, MA suffers certain limitations of a new discipline. Certainlimitations are listed below: 1. Limitations of Basic Records: MA derives the financial data from the basic records such as financial accounting and other records. The correctness of data provided by MA, in turn, depends upon the correctness of such basic records – that is, the limitations of such basic records are also the limitations of MA. 2. Persistent Efforts: The conclusions and decisions arrived at by the Management Accountant are, at times, not executed automatically.
  • 26. Persistent and coordinated efforts are required at each managerial level for executing the decisions.3. MA is only a Tool: We have compared the MA to the Secretary to the Vice-President of an organization. Secretary cannot replace the position of the Vice President. Similarly, MA should not be construed as a substitute for management. MA is just a tool for the management. Ultimately, the appropriate decisions and corrective measures are to be taken by the management.4. Costly Installation: The installation of MA system in an organization requires an elaborate set-up and numerous rules and regulations. This calls for large investment. Only large organizations can afford for such costs.5. Personal Bias: The interpretation of financial data depends upon the capability of the interpreter, as one has to make a personal judgment. Personal bias and prejudices may affect the objectivity of analysis and interpretations, which in turn, may have impact on the decision-making.6. Resistance: The installation of MA system calls for basic changes in the organizational structure. New rules, regulations, targets etc affect the employees and managers. Due to such changes, there may be some kind of resistance from a section of employees.7. Evolutionary Stage: MA is still in the developmental stage and not yet reached the matured stage. The conventions of MA are not exact and not firmly established (unlike in financial accounting). Being an inexact science, its results depend upon the quality of interpretation of the data.8. Provides only Data: The main function of MA is to provide data and not decision-making. It can only inform and suggest, but not prescribe. Such a limitation should also be kept in mind while employing the various techniques of MA.9. Broad-based Scope: The scope of MA is very broad-based, which creates difficulties in the implementation process. MA collects information from both accounting and non-accounting sources.
  • 27. This gives room for some degree of inexactness and subjectivity in the conclusions arrived at. 10. Not an alternate to Administration: As already discussed, MA is only a tool of management and not an alternative of management. MA cannot replace the administration or the management.Activity and Exercises: a. Discuss the Need for Management Accounting. b. Explain the Nature, Scope and functions of Management Accounting. c. Write note on development of Management Accounting as part of accounting, its advantages and limitations.