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    Human resource management unit 2 Human resource management unit 2 Presentation Transcript

    • HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Preeti Nigam Faculty, Rai University
    • Unit-II
      • Job Analysis, Role Analysis, Methods of Manpower Search, Attracting and selecting HR;
      • Induction and socialization, Manpower training & development;
      • Career and succession Planning, Managing Organizational Renewal.
    • Job Analysis
      • Job Analysis systematically collects, evaluates and organizes information. It is done by specialists called job analysts who gather data about each position
    • Major HRM Activities that Rely on Job Analysis Information
      • Improve productivity levels through careful study of jobs.
      • Eliminate unneeded job requirements that can cause discrimination in employment
      • Match job applicants to job requirements
      • Plan for future human resource requirements
      • Determine training needs for employees
      • Compensate employees fairly and equitably
      • Improve overall quality of work life
      • Set realistic performance standards
      • Redesign jobs to improve performance and/or employee morale
    • Role of Job Analysts
      • Identify the jobs to be analyzed
      • Develop data collection approaches including questionnaire construction
      • Collect job analysis information
    • Job Identification
      • Small organizations: process is simple because there are few jobs
      • Large organizations: analysts may have to construct list of jobs from payroll records, organization charts, or discussion with workers and supervisors. Previous records may also be used.
    • Data Collection Instrument Design
      • To study jobs, analysts develop questionnaires that are sometimes called checklists or job analysis schedules. These questionnaires seek to collect job information uniformly. They uncover the duties, responsibilities, human abilities and performance standards of the jobs investigated. E.g job analysis questionnaire
    • Job Analysis Questionnaire
      • Status refers to whether the job is exempt or not exempt from overtime laws.
      • Identification information includes job title, division and title of supervisors and a unique job identification number.
    • Job Analysis Questionnaire
      • Duties and Responsibilities - outlines the purpose of job, what the job accomplishes and how the job is performed.
      • Human Characteristics and Working conditions -
        • checklist uncovers the particular skills, abilities, training, education, experience and other characteristics.
        • Working conditions may explain the need for particular skills, training, knowledge or a particular job design.
    • Job Analysis Questionnaire
      • Performance Standards - seeks information about job standards which are used to evaluate performance.
        • This information is collected on jobs with obvious and objective standards of performance.
        • When standards are not readily apparent, job analysts may ask supervisors or industrial engineers to develop reasonable standards of performance.
    • Collecting Job Analysis Information
      • Interviews
        • Face to face interviews are effective
      • Mail Questionnaires
        • Survey employees through mailed questionnaire sent by inter-office mail or by post.
        • Position Analysis Questionnaire
        • Management Position Description Questionnaire
      • Employee Log
        • Workers periodically summarize their tasks and activities in the log. They are time consuming.
      • Observation
        • Direct observation is slow, costly and potentially less accurate. Language barrier may necessitate observation.
      • Combinations
        • 2-3 methods. High accuracy low cost.
    • The 3 phases of Job Analysis Information General Familiarity with organization and Type of work Job Identfn Data collection instrument Design Data Collctn
      • Applications
      • Job Descrip
      • Job specs
      • Job stndrds
      • Job design
      • HRIS
      • Identify job families
      • Recruitmnt, selection & trng
      • Redesign jobs
      Collection of job analysis info Prep for JA Applications of JA Info
    • Uses of Job Analysis
      • HR Planning
      • Recruitment
      • Selection
      • Placement and Orientation
      • Training
      • Counseling
      • Employee safety
      • Performance Appraisal
      • Job design and Redesign
      • Job Evaluation
    • Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data
      • Job Performance
      • Personal Observations
      • Critical Incidents
      • Interview
      • Questionnaire
        • The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
        • Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ)
        • Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
    • Management Position Description Factors
      • Product, marketing and financial strategy planning
      • Coordination of other organizational units and personnel
      • Internal business control
      • Products and services responsibility
      • Public and customer relations
      • Advanced consulting
      • Autonomy of actions
      • Approval of financial commitments
      • Staff service
      • Supervision
      • Complexity and stress
      • Advanced financial responsibility
      • Broad personnel responsibility
    • Impact of Behavioral Factors on Job Analysis
      • Employee fears
      • Resistance to Change
      • Overemphasis on current employees
      • Management `Straight Jacket’
    • Job Descriptions
      • Job Identification
        • A job description is a written statement that explains the duties, working conditions and other aspects of a specified job.
          • Skill Level- amount and type of education and training
          • Skill Type- type of work performed
      • Job Summary and Duties
        • It is a written narrative that concisely summarizes the job in a few sentences. It tells what the job is, how is done and why.
      • Working Conditions
        • Hours of work, safety and health hazards, travel requirements etc
      • Approvals
        • Supervisors are asked to approve the job descriptions. It is a further test of the job description.
    • Job Specification
      • A job description defines what the job does; it is a profile of the job.
      • A Job Specification describes what the job demands of employees who do it and the human factors that are required. It is a profile of the human characteristics needed by the job. These requirements include experience, training, education, physical demands and mental demands.
      • They both can be combined into one document.
    • Role Analysis
      • In case of ambiguity of middle and higher management roles, Role Analysis is effective.
        • Expected role
        • Perceived role
        • Actual role
      • Steps
      • Objectives of the department and its functions must be identified
      • Role incumbent is asked to state his key performance areas
      • Other role partners are asked to state their expectations from the role incumbent
      • The incumbent’s role is clarified and expressed in black and white after integrating diverse viewpoints
    • Designing Jobs
      • How the job is to be performed, who is to perform it and where it is to be performed.
    • Approaches to Job Design
      • Engineering Approach- (FW Taylor)- Work is scientifically studied.
      • Human Approach- Design jobs in an interesting manner.
      • The Job Characteristic Approach- Hackman and Oldham suggest that motivation, satisfaction and performance should be integrated in the job design.
      • Sociotechnical Approach- Both technical system and the accompanying social system should be considered while designing jobs.
    • Techniques for Designing Jobs
      • Job Simplification
      • Job Enlargement
      • Job Rotation
      • Job Enrichment
    • Recruitment
      • Recruitment is to develop a group of potentially qualified people.
      • Communicate in such a way that job seekers respond
      • Cost effective to attract qualified people and provide enough information for un-qualified persons to self select themselves out.
    • Methods of Recruitment
      • Internal Methods
      • Direct Methods
      • Indirect Methods
      • Third Party methods
      • Alternatives
    • Third Party Methods
      • Private Employment Search firms
      • Employment Exchanges
      • Gate Hiring and Contractors
      • Unsolicited Applicants/ Walk-ins
    • Alternatives to Recruitment
      • Overtime
      • Subcontracting
      • Temporary Employees
      • Employee Leasing
    • Selection
    • Selection
      • The process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. The purpose id to pick the most suitable candidate.
    • Steps In the Selection Process Reception Hiring Decision Reference Checks Medical Examination Selection Interview Selection Tests Application Blank Screening Interview 1 5 6 4 3 2 8 7
    • Selection Testing
      • Intelligence Tests
      • Aptitude Tests
      • Personality Tests
      • Achievement Tests
      • Simulation Tests
      • Assessment Center
        • The in-basket
        • The leaderless group discussion
        • Business games
        • Individual Presentations
        • Structured Interviews
      • Graphology Tests
      • Polygraph Tests
      • Integrity Tests
    • Standards for Selection Tests
      • Reliability
      • Test-retest Reliability
      • Inner rater reliability
      • Intra-rater reliability
      • Validity
      • Qualified people
      • Preparation
      • Suitability
      • Usefulness
      • Standardization
    • Selection Interview
      • Non-directive Interview
      • Patterned Interview
      • Structured or situational Interview
      • Panel Interview
      • Stress Interview
      • Appraisal interview
    • Induction and Socialization
    • Induction
      • Induction or orientation is the process through which a new employee is introduced to the job and the organization.
    • Objectives
      • Removes Fears
      • Creates a good impression
      • Acts as a valuable source of information
    • Induction Program Steps
      • Welcome to the organization
      • Explain about the company
      • Show the location/department where the new recruit will work
      • Give the company’s manual to the new recruit
      • Provide details about various workgroups and the extent of unionism within the company
      • Give details about pay, benefits, holidays, leave etc. Emphasize the importance of attendance or punctuality
      • Explain about future training opportunities and career prospects
      • Clarify doubts
      • Take the employee on a guided tour of buildings, facilities etc.
    • Induction Program Topics
      • Organizational Issues
        • History of the Company
        • Names and titles of Key Executives
        • Employees title and department
        • Layout of physical facilities
        • Probationary period
        • Products/services offered
        • Overview of production process
        • Company policies and rules
        • Disciplinary procedures
        • Employee’s handbook
        • Safety steps
    • Induction Program Topics
      • Employee Benefits
        • Pay scales, pay days
        • Vacations, holidays
        • Rest pauses
        • Training Avenues
        • Counseling
        • Insurance, medical, recreation, retirement benefits
    • Induction Program Topics
      • Introductions
        • To supervisors
        • To co-workers
        • To trainers
        • To employee Counselor
      • Job Duties
        • Job location
        • Job tasks
        • Job safety needs
        • Overview of jobs
        • Job objectives
        • Relationship with other jobs
    • Socialization
      • Socialization is the process through which a new recruit begins to understand and accept the values, norms and beliefs held by others in the organization.
    • Training
    • Training
      • According to Flippo, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
      • Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job. Training is a planned program designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills, attitude and social behavior of employees.
    • Features
      • Increases knowledge and skills for doing a job.
      • Bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behavior.
      • Job-oriented process, vocational in nature.
      • Short-term activity designed essentially for operatives.
    • Training & Development Distinction Long term Short-term When General Knowledge Specific job-related information Why Theoretical- conceptual ideas Technical-mechanical operations What Managers Non-managers Who Development Training Learning Dimension
    • Training vs Education
      • Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee while doing a job.
      • Education is the process of increasing the general knowledge and understanding of employees.
    • Need for Training
      • Perform tasks effectively.
      • Prepare existing employees for higher level jobs.
      • Existing employees require refresher training.
      • Training is required when a person moves from one job to another.
      • Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile.
      • Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands.
    • Training Objectives
      • To impart the basic knowledge and skill to the new entrants.
      • To equip the employees to meet the changing requirements of the job and the organization.
      • To teach the employees new techniques and ways of performing the job.
      • To prepare employees for higher level tasks.
    • The Philosophy of Training
      • Modeling
      • Motivation
      • Reinforcement
      • Feedback
      • Spaced Practice
      • Whole Learning
      • Active Practice
      • Applicability of Training
      • Environment
    • Areas of Training
      • Knowledge
      • Technical Skills
      • Social Skills
      • Techniques
    • Types of Training
      • Orientation Training
      • Job Instruction training
      • Refresher Training
      • Apprenticeship training
      • Vestibule Training
    • A Systematic Approach to Training Conduct training Identify training objectives Compare training outcomes against criteria Select training methods Determine training needs 3. Evaluation 2. Implementation 1. Assessment
    • Training Needs Assessment
      • Organizational Analysis
        • Analysis of objectives
        • Resource utilization analysis
        • Environmental scanning
        • Organizational climate analysis
      • Task or Role Analysis
      • Manpower Analysis
    • Objectives of Training Objective
      • Innovative
      • Anticipating problems
      • before they occur
      • Problems Solving
      • Training clerks to
      • reduce complaints
      • Training supervisors
      • to reduce grievances
      • Regular
      • Orientation
      • Recurring training
      • of interviewers
      • Refresher courses
      • on safety procedures
    • Training Methods
      • Job Instruction Training (JIT)- to teach workers how to do their current jobs.
      • The trainee receives an overview of the job
      • The trainer demonstrates the job to give the employee a model to copy.
      • The employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way.
      • The employee does the job independently without the supervisor.
    • Job Instruction Training
      • Merits
      • Trainee learns fast through practice and observation
      • It is economical
      • The trainee gains confidence quickly as he works himself
      • It is most suitable for unskilled and semiskilled jobs where the job operations are simple
      • Demerits
      • The trainer should be good
      • Trainee while learning may damage equipment, waste materials, cause accidents frequently
      • Experienced workers cannot use the machinery while it is being used for training
    • Coaching and Mentoring
      • Coaching is one-on-one relationship between trainees and supervisors which offers workers continued guidance and feedback.
      • Mentoring is a particular form of coaching used by experienced executives to groom junior employees. Mentoring involves one-on-one coaching for a period of several years.
    • Job Rotation
      • It involves the movement of trainee from one job to another.
      • It allows workers to build rapport with a wide range of individuals within the organization
      • Disadvantage is that expertise may not be developed
    • Apprenticeship Training
      • Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer.
      • Disadvantage is that people have different abilities and learn at varied rates. So job skills acquired may no longer be appropriate.
    • Committee Assignments
      • Trainers are asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees have to work together and offer solution to the problem. This method of training helps them develop team spirit and work unitedly towards common goal.
      • Disadvantage is disruption in production schedule.
    • Off the Job Methods
      • Vestibule Training
      • Role Playing
      • Lecture Method
      • Conference/ Discussion Approach
      • Programmed Instruction
    • Behaviorally Experienced training
      • Role Playing
      • Business games
      • Cases
      • Incidents
      • Group Discussions
      • Short assignments
      • Sensitivity Training
      • Lab Training
    • Contributions of Training
      • Increased Productivity
      • Improved Morale
      • Reduced supervision
      • Reduced accidents
      • Increased organizational stability
    • Evaluation of a Training Program
      • Reactions
      • Learning
      • Job Behavior
      • Organization
      • Ultimate value
    • Decision Points in Planning Training Evaluation- John Dopyera and Louise Pitone
      • Should an evaluation be done? Who should do the evaluation?
      • What is the purpose of evaluation?
      • What will be measured?
      • How comprehensive will the evaluation be?
      • Who has the authority and responsibility?
      • What are the sources of data?
      • How will the data be collected and compiled?
    • Methods of Evaluation
      • Questionnaires
      • Tests
      • Interviews
      • Studies
      • Human resource factors
      • Cost benefit analysis
      • Feedback
    • Career and succession Planning
    • Management Development
      • The development of human resources is a part of strategic human resource plan.
      • Employees have career aspirations when they join an organization. It makes good business sense to provide incentives to employees to remain with the organization especially when management makes considerable investments in training and developing its human resources.
    • Strategic Human resource Development
      • Hall defined Strategic Human Resource Development as - The identification of needed skills and active management of employees learning for the long range future in relation to explicit corporate and business strategies.
    • Management Development
      • Management Development can be defined as the process of enhancing an employee’s future value to the enterprise through careful career planning.
    • Three Basic Developmental Strategies
      • Wexley and Latham propose three basic developmental strategies organizations use:
        • Cognitive: being concerned with altering thoughts and ideas (knowledge, new processes)
        • Behavioral: attempts to change attitudes and values
        • Environmental: Strategies to change attitudes and values
    • Training and Development Strategies Job rotation, organizational development, the learning organization concept, temporary assignments, employee exchange programs, matrix management, project team, internal consulting, cross-cultural management training Environmental Role playing, behavior modeling, Managerial grid, sensitivity training, outdoors, team building, mentoring Behavioral Articles, lectures, videos, university courses, management seminars Cognitive Instruments/Programs Strategies
    • Cognitive Strategy
      • The cognitive strategy is probably the least effective in management development. The methods used are relatively passive. While this approach tends to increase the knowledge and expertise of individuals, it does little to change a person’s behavior, attitudes and values, important elements of a manager’s career development.
    • Behavioral Strategy
      • Behavioral Strategies aim at making individuals more competent in interacting with their environment
      • e.g with colleagues, subordinates or customers
    • Common Instruments for Behavioral Strategy
      • Role Playing - well known and effective method to familiarize an employee with how to apply concepts learned in the classroom in a practical setting.
      • Behavior Modeling - teaches a desired behavior effectively by providing the trainee with a vivid and detailed display of desirable behavior by a manager of ten with strong social reinforcement.
    • Common Instruments for Behavioral Strategy
      • The Managerial Grid Approach- is an example of attempting to change the dominant management style in an organization e.g. to make managers more person or task oriented to increase their effectiveness.
      • Sensitivity training - is considered to be very effective method for making managers more aware of the impact of their own behavior on others or to prepare them for more effective interactions with staff in foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures.
    • Common Instruments for Behavioral Strategy
      • Outdoors - has become a fashionable development method, involving team oriented tasks done in the wilderness e.g. mountain climbing. The objective is to develop a strong team spirit by making team members depend on each other for survival.
      • Team Building helps team members to diagnose group processes and to devise solutions to problems.
      • Mentoring involves establishing a close relationship with a boss or someone more experienced who takes a personal interest in the employee’s career and who guides and sponsors it.
    • Environmental Strategy
      • Creating an environment that continuously reinforces desirable behavior
      • Job rotation
      • Organizational development
      • The learning organization concept
      • Temporary assignments
      • Employee-exchange programs
      • Matrix management
      • Project teams
      • Internal consulting
      • Cross-cultural management training
    • Characteristics of a Learning Organization
      • Systems thinking - ability to see things as a whole, perceive interrelationships, recognize patterns of change, infer associations and connections
      • Personal Mastery - ability to continually clarify and deepen personal visions, focusing energies, and seeing reality objectively.
      • Mental Models - deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action
    • Characteristics of a Learning Organization
      • Shared Vision - binds people together around a common identity and a sense of destiny
      • Team Learning - tool for raising the collective intelligence of a group above that of anyone in it.
    • Cross-Cultural Management Training
      • Preparing employees to work in a different cultural environment
    • Reasons for the Lack of Proper Cross-cultural Management Training
      • The temporary nature of many such assignments
      • Lack of time because of the immediacy of the need of the employee overseas
      • The trend toward employment of local nationals
      • Doubt about the need for special training
      • Parallel doubts about the effectiveness of existing training programs
    • Cross-cultural Training Methods
      • Sensitivity Training - To prepare managers for overseas assignments. The objective is to increase self-awareness and the ability to assess the impact of own’s behavior on others.
      • Culture Assimilators - Consist of a series of episodes dealing with interpersonal issues in a cross-cultural situation. By responding to individual episodes and referring to explanations describing why their responses were appropriate or not, trainees have an opportunity to test their cross-cultural effectiveness.
    • Cross-cultural Training Methods
      • Critical Incidents are brief descriptions of effective or ineffective behavior that illustrate problems an expatriate employee may encounter in an organization abroad.
      • Cases are more detailed and complex than critical incidents. They illustrate a variety of cross-cultural problems in management within a single setting.
    • Cross-cultural Training Methods
      • Role-play is semi structured activity. Participants are given a description of a situation with specific role instructions, but no script, forcing the participants to improve their reactions to the setting. The results usually reveal personal biases and values that can be analyzed and discussed. A significant learning experience can be achieved if participants are asked to advocate a position that is contrary to their own beliefs.
    • Cross-cultural Training Methods
      • Simulation is a common cross-cultural training method. A popular simulation game is Ba Fa’ Ba Fa’. Participants are divided into two cultures, Alpha and Beta. After learning the rules of their own culture, participants have to interact with members of the other culture. Since the interaction rules for each culture are different, confusion, frustration and hostility result. These experiences are discussed in a debriefing session.
    • Dimensions of a Cross-cultural Behavior
      • Cognitive - this stage emphasizes knowledge about another culture e.g customs, values
      • Affective - At this stage, attempt is made to change the attitudes of trainees toward another culture by exposing them to stimuli from this culture and asking them to respond. E.g critical incidents
      • Behavioral - This is applied stage. Trainees are expected to behave appropriately under certain conditions in different situations. E.g role play, simulation
    • Objectives of Cross-cultural Training
      • Cultural sensitivity
      • Sensitivity
      • General knowledge about target culture
      • Tolerance
      • Ability to adapt
      • Ability to translate and apply newly acquired insights and skills in an organizational environment
    • Managing Cultural Diversity
      • Two types of training-
      • Awareness training - focuses on the need for managing and valuing diversity. It is also meant to increase participant’s self-awareness of diversity related issues like stereotyping and cross-cultural insensitivity.
      • Skill-building training - educates employees on specific culture differences and how to respond to differences in the workplace.
    • What Employees want?
      • Career equity
      • Supervisory concern
      • Awareness of opportunities
      • Employee interest
      • Career satisfaction
    • Benefits in Involvement of Human Resource Managers in Career Planning
      • Develops promotable employees
      • Lowers turnover
      • Taps employee potential
      • Furthers growth
      • Reduces hoarding
      • Satisfies employee needs
      • Assists employment equity plans
    • Career Education
      • HR Dept can increase employee awareness through a variety of educational techniques. E.g. speeches, memoranda, and position papers from senior executives stimulate employee interest at low cost to the employer. Workshops and seminars on career planning increase employee interest.
    • Information on Career Planning
      • Much of the information is already a part of HR department’s information system. For e.g job description, job specification
      • When different jobs require similar skills they form job families
      • A job progression ladder is a partial career path where some jobs have prerequisites
    • Three Jobs with similar requirements Grouped into a Job Family Partial career path Job Family Linotype Operator Teletype Operator Clerk-Typist Job Ladder
    • Career Counseling
      • A Counselor is someone who has employee interests in mind and provides specific job-related information.
      • Counselor may help employees discover their interests by administering and interpreting aptitude and skill tests.
        • The Kuder Preference Record
        • Strong Vocational Interest Blank
    • Employee Self-Assessment
      • A Life Plan is that often ill-defined series of hopes, dreams and personal goals each person carries through life. For e.g broad objectives to be happy, healthy and successful combine with specific goals to be a good spouse, parent or citizen.
    • Personal Failure Factors
      • Contradictory life demands
      • Failure of expectations
      • Sense of external control
      • Loss of affiliative satisfaction
    • Career Development
      • Career Development comprises those personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a career plan.
      • Individual Career Development involves:
        • Job performance
        • Exposure
        • Resignations
        • Organizational Loyalty
        • Mentors and sponsors
        • The Godfather system
        • Key subordinates
        • Growth opportunities
    • Organizational Renewal
    • Suggested Readings:
      • Dessler, Gary, Human Resource Management, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi.
      • Rao, V.S.P., Human Resource Management-Text & Cases, Excel Books, New Delhi.
      • Ramaswamy, E; Managing Human Resources, Oxford University Press, New Delhi
      • Irancevich, John, Human Resource Management, Irwin/McGraw Hill.
      • Casio, Wayne F; Managing Human Resources, McGraw Hill Inc.
      • Subba Rao, P; Essentials of Human Resource Management & Industrial Relations, Text, Cases & Games, Mimbai, Himalaya Publishing House.
      • Mondy R.W; Noe, R.M., Premeaux, S.r. and Mondy J.B; Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall Inc.
      • Saiyodain, Human Resource Management, TMH, N.Delhi.
      • Aswthappa, Human Resource Management, TMH, N.Delhi.