To study jobs, analysts develop questionnaires that are sometimes called checklists or job analysis schedules. These questionnaires seek to collect job information uniformly. They uncover the duties, responsibilities, human abilities and performance standards of the jobs investigated. E.g job analysis questionnaire
A job description defines what the job does; it is a profile of the job.
A Job Specification describes what the job demands of employees who do it and the human factors that are required. It is a profile of the human characteristics needed by the job. These requirements include experience, training, education, physical demands and mental demands.
According to Flippo, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job. Training is a planned program designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills, attitude and social behavior of employees.
Bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behavior.
Job-oriented process, vocational in nature.
Short-term activity designed essentially for operatives.
Training & Development Distinction Long term Short-term When General Knowledge Specific job-related information Why Theoretical- conceptual ideas Technical-mechanical operations What Managers Non-managers Who Development Training Learning Dimension
A Systematic Approach to Training Conduct training Identify training objectives Compare training outcomes against criteria Select training methods Determine training needs 3. Evaluation 2. Implementation 1. Assessment
Trainers are asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees have to work together and offer solution to the problem. This method of training helps them develop team spirit and work unitedly towards common goal.
Disadvantage is disruption in production schedule.
The development of human resources is a part of strategic human resource plan.
Employees have career aspirations when they join an organization. It makes good business sense to provide incentives to employees to remain with the organization especially when management makes considerable investments in training and developing its human resources.
Hall defined Strategic Human Resource Development as - The identification of needed skills and active management of employees learning for the long range future in relation to explicit corporate and business strategies.
The cognitive strategy is probably the least effective in management development. The methods used are relatively passive. While this approach tends to increase the knowledge and expertise of individuals, it does little to change a person’s behavior, attitudes and values, important elements of a manager’s career development.
The Managerial Grid Approach- is an example of attempting to change the dominant management style in an organization e.g. to make managers more person or task oriented to increase their effectiveness.
Sensitivity training - is considered to be very effective method for making managers more aware of the impact of their own behavior on others or to prepare them for more effective interactions with staff in foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures.
Outdoors - has become a fashionable development method, involving team oriented tasks done in the wilderness e.g. mountain climbing. The objective is to develop a strong team spirit by making team members depend on each other for survival.
Team Building helps team members to diagnose group processes and to devise solutions to problems.
Mentoring involves establishing a close relationship with a boss or someone more experienced who takes a personal interest in the employee’s career and who guides and sponsors it.
Sensitivity Training - To prepare managers for overseas assignments. The objective is to increase self-awareness and the ability to assess the impact of own’s behavior on others.
Culture Assimilators - Consist of a series of episodes dealing with interpersonal issues in a cross-cultural situation. By responding to individual episodes and referring to explanations describing why their responses were appropriate or not, trainees have an opportunity to test their cross-cultural effectiveness.
Role-play is semi structured activity. Participants are given a description of a situation with specific role instructions, but no script, forcing the participants to improve their reactions to the setting. The results usually reveal personal biases and values that can be analyzed and discussed. A significant learning experience can be achieved if participants are asked to advocate a position that is contrary to their own beliefs.
Simulation is a common cross-cultural training method. A popular simulation game is Ba Fa’ Ba Fa’. Participants are divided into two cultures, Alpha and Beta. After learning the rules of their own culture, participants have to interact with members of the other culture. Since the interaction rules for each culture are different, confusion, frustration and hostility result. These experiences are discussed in a debriefing session.
Awareness training - focuses on the need for managing and valuing diversity. It is also meant to increase participant’s self-awareness of diversity related issues like stereotyping and cross-cultural insensitivity.
Skill-building training - educates employees on specific culture differences and how to respond to differences in the workplace.
HR Dept can increase employee awareness through a variety of educational techniques. E.g. speeches, memoranda, and position papers from senior executives stimulate employee interest at low cost to the employer. Workshops and seminars on career planning increase employee interest.
A Life Plan is that often ill-defined series of hopes, dreams and personal goals each person carries through life. For e.g broad objectives to be happy, healthy and successful combine with specific goals to be a good spouse, parent or citizen.