• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Group cohesiveness
 

Group cohesiveness

on

  • 14,587 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
14,587
Views on SlideShare
14,587
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
349
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Group cohesiveness Group cohesiveness Document Transcript

    • DEFINITION OF GROUP-A collection of two or more individuals, interacting andinterdependent, who have come together to achieve a commonobjective/s. CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPThe importantcharacteristics of groups are as follows:c Socialinteractioni StabilityS Common interests or goalsCRecognition asbeing a groupTypes of Groups-1-formal or informal groups:1 Formal groupsare deliberately createdby the organization in order to help the organizational membersachieve some of the important the organizational goals.2-2 The informal groups;, in contrast, develop rather spontaneouslyamong an organization’s members without any direction from theorganizational authorities.Types of Informal group1-Interest groups2-Friendship groups F3-Reference groups4-Punctuated Equilibrium Model Group StructureG Role NormsNStatusS Group cohesivenessTeams-- A special type of group whose members havecomplementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or setof goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.Groups and Teams GROUPSGINDIVIDUALPERFORMANCEP INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITYI SHAREINFORMATIONI NEUTRAL/NEGATIVE SYNERGYNRANDOMSKILLSS RESPONSIVE TO DEMAND OFMANAGEMENTTEAMSMCOLLECTIVEPERFORMANCEP MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITYMCOLLECTIVEOUTCOMEOPOSITIVE SYNERGYP COMPLEMENTARYSKILLS SELF-IMPOSED DEMANDS
    • STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENTFormation of Groups:Two models of group development have been offered by theresearchers in the field of social sciences to explain how groups areformed. These are: a) Five-Stage Model and b) PunctuatedEquilibrium Model:According to the Five-Stage Model of group development, groups gothrough five distinct stages during the process of its development.These are as follows:Five-Stage ModelF Forming is the initial stage of group development when the groupmembers first come in contact with others and get acquainted with
    • each other. This stage is characterized predominantly by a feeling ofuncertainty among the group members as they now try to establishground rules and pattern of relationship among themselves.g Storming is the next stage that is characterized by a high degree ofconflict among the members. Members often show hostility towardseach other and resist the leader’s control. If these conflicts are notadequately resolved, the group may even be disbanded. But, usuallythe group eventually comes in terms with each other and accepts theleadership role at the end of this stage.l Norming is the third stage of the group development processduring which the group members become closer to each other andthe group starts functioning as a cohesive unit. The group membersnow identify themselves with the group and share responsibility forachieving the desired level of performance of the group. Normingstage is complete when the group members can set a common targetand agree on the way of achieving this.a Performing is the fourth stage when the group is finally ready tostart working. As the group is now fully formed after resolving theirinternal conflicts of acceptance and sharing responsibility, they cannow devote energy to achieve its objectives.n Adjourning is the final stage when the group, after achieving theobjectives for which it was created, starts to gradually dissolve itself.Many interpreters of the five-stage model have assumed that a groupbecomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages.While this assumption may be generally true, what makes a groupeffective is more complex than this model acknowledges. Undersome conditions, high levels of conflict are conducive to high groupperformance. So we might expect to find situations in which groupsin Stage II outperform those in Stages III or IV. Similarly, groups donot always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. Sometimes, infact, several stages go on simultaneously, as when groups arestorming and performing at the same time. Groups even occasionally
    • regress to previous stages. Therefore, even the strongest proponentsof this model do not assume that all groups follow its five-stageprocess precisely or that Stage IV is always the most preferable.Another problem with the five-stage model, in terms ofunderstanding work- related behavior, is that it ignoresorganizational context.4 For instance, a study of a cockpit crew in anairliner found that, within 10 minutes, three strangers as- signed tofly together for the first time had become a high-performing group.What allowed for this speedy group development was the strongorganizational context surrounding th~ tasks of the cockpit crew.This context provided the rules, task definitions, information, andresources needed for the group to per- form. They didnt need todevelop plans, assign roles, determine and allocate re- sources,resolve conflicts, and set norms the way the five-stage modelpredicts.An Alternative Model: For Temporary Groups With DeadlinesTemporary groups with deadlines dont seem to follow the previousmodel. Studies indicate that they have their own unique sequencingof actions (or inaction): (1) Their first meeting sets the groupsdirection; (2) this first phase of group activity is one of inertia; (3) atransition takes place at the end of this first phase, which occursexactly when the group has used up half its allotted time; (4) atransition initiates major changes; (5) a second phase of inertiafollows the transition; and (6) the groups last meeting ischaracterized by markedly accelerated activity . This pattern is calledthe punctuated equilibrium model and is shown below.
    • Figure: Punctuated equilibrium ModelThe first meeting sets the groups direction. A framework ofbehavioral pat- terns and assumptions through which the group willapproach its project emerges in this first meeting. These lastingpatterns can appear as early as the first few seconds of the groupslife.Once set, the groups direction becomes "written in stone" and isunlikely to be reexamined throughout the first half of the groups life.
    • This is a period of inertia that is, the group tends to stand still orbecome locked into a fixed course of action. Even if it gains new insights that challenge initial patterns and assumptions, the group isincapable of acting on these new insights in Phase 1.One of the more interesting discoveries made in these studies wasthat each group experienced its transition at the same point in itscalendar-precisely halfway between its first meeting and its officialdeadline-despite the fact that some groups spent as little as an houron their project while others spent six months. It was as if the groupsuniversally experienced a midlife crisis at this point. The midpointappears to work like an alarm clock, heightening membersawareness that their time is limited and that they need to "getmoving."This transition ends Phase 1 and is characterized by a concentratedburst of changes in which old patterns are dropped and newperspectives are adopted. The transition sets a revised direction forPhase 2.Phase 2 is a new equilibrium or period of inertia. In this phase, thegroup executes plans created during the transition period.The groups last meeting is characterized by a final burst of activity tofinish its work.In summary, the punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groupsas exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with briefrevolutionary changes triggered primarily by their membersawareness of time and deadlines. Keep in mind, however, that thismodel doesnt apply to all groups. Its essentially limited totemporary task groups that are working under a time-constrainedcompletion deadline.
    • Group processIn organizational development (OD), or group dynamics, the phrasegroup process refers to the understanding of the Behaviour of peoplein groups, such as task groups that are trying to solve a problem ormake a decision. An individual with expertise in group process, suchas a trained facilitator, can assist a group in accomplishing itsobjective by diagnosing how well the group is functioning as aproblem-solving or decision-making entity and intervening to alterthe groups operating Behaviour.Because people gather in groups for reasons other than taskaccomplishment, group process occurs in other types of groups suchas personal growth groups (e.g. encounter groups, study groups,prayer groups). In such cases, an individual with expertise in groupprocess can be helpful in the role of facilitator.Well researched but rarely mentioned by professional group workers,is the social status of people within the group ( (i.e., senior or junior).The group leader (or facilitator) will usually have a strong influenceon the group due to his or her role of shaping the groups outcomes.This influence will also be affected by the leaders sex, race, relativeage, income, appearance, and personality, as well as organizationalstructures and many other factors.Some dimensions of group processSome of the aspects of group process that a process consultant wouldlook at include: • Patterns of communication and coordination
    • • Patterns of influencerole relationship • Patterns of dominance (e.g. who leads, who defers) • Balance of task focus vs social focus • Level of group effectiveness • How conflict is handledGroup dynamicsGroup dynamics is the study of groups, and also a general term forgroup processes. In psychology, sociology, and communicationstudies . A group is two or more individuals who are connected toeach other by social relationships.[1] Because they interact andinfluence each other, groups develop a number of dynamic processesthat separate them from a random collection of individuals. Theseprocesses include norms, roles, relations, development, need tobelong, social influence, and effects on behavior. The field of groupdynamics is primarily concerned with small group behavior. Groupsmay be classified as aggregate, primary, secondary and categorygroups.Communities may be distinguished from other types of groups, inPecks view, by the need for members to eliminate barriers tocommunication in order to be able to form true community.Examples of common barriers are: expectations and preconceptions;prejudices; ideology, counterproductive norms, theology andsolutions; the need to heal, convert, fix or solve and the need tocontrol. A community is born when its members reach a stage of"emptiness" or peace.
    • Characteristics of GroupsThere are several characteristics that define a true group:Interaction among membersSocial influence within the group (normative and informational)Group norms or unwritten rules dictating acceptablebehavior and group functioningIndividual roles within the group are defined formally or informallyInterdependence among members: members relyon each other to achieve group goalExample:Software Project ManagementThe agile software development which puts emphasis on peoplerather than processes has been interested in Group Dynamics. It isthen known that some agile practices (Collective Code Ownershipand pair programming) must be taken with care because developersin a team-rewarded team will eventually try to match their efforts tothe average of what they think their teammates are doing (Lui andChan).
    • Group InterpersonalAbstract. One form of Gestalt therapy group focuses on theinterpersonal interactions and relationships among group members.This is an effective and exciting way to make therapeutic use of thegroup setting. This practical article discusses how to foster groupnorms that intensify and maximize the interpersonal aspect of aGestalt group. We examine pre-group hand-outs and interviews,defining appropriate norms, how group members initiateinterpersonal work, encouraging interpersonal norms, and how tomove work in an interpersonal direction.Increasingly Gestalt therapists are using approaches to group therapythat go beyond individual work in the group to include interpersonalinteractions or the group-as-a-whole (Feder & Ronall 1980; Harman1984; Melnick 1980; Zinker 1977, Chap. 7, Handlon & Frederickson,1998; Earley, 1996). I believe that the interpersonal learning andhealing which takes place in the interactions among the groupmembers is very valuable therapeutically, and therefore my approachto Gestalt group therapy emphasizes this.My Gestalt groups are designed to intensify and maximizeinterpersonal contact and the work that emerges from this. Much ofthe work is in pairs, as people explore their feelings towards eachother, work on their relationships, and experiment with new ways ofinteracting. Some of the work involves one person working on hisrelationship with the group-as-a-whole. This approach embodiesGestalt therapy in its emphasis on contact, awareness, dialogue, andexperimentation.This group work is similar in some ways to the interpersonal groupmethod of Yalom (1995). However, unlike Yalom, I emphasize
    • awareness and the experiential exploration of underlyingintrapsychic issues. I also pay attention to contact and intimacy issuesand use an active leadership style. All these differences arecharacteristic of Gestalt therapy.In my years of training Gestalt therapists in this method, it has beenespecially important for them to learn how to focus a group in aninterpersonal direction. Therefore, this article discusses thepracticalities of developing group norms that emphasizeinterpersonal work. This approach to group therapy is discussed indetail in my forthcoming bookGROUP DECISION-MAKINGThe most common form of group decision making takes place ininteracting groups. In these groups, members meet face-to-face andrely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate witheach other. But as our discussion of groupthink demonstrated,interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individualmembers toward conformity of opinion. Brainstorming, the nominalgroup technique, and electronic meetings have been proposed asways to reduce many of the problems inherent in the traditionalinteracting group.Brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in theinteracting group that retard the development of creativealternatives.73 It doe~ this by utilizing an idea-generation processthat specifically encourages any and all alternatives, whilewithholding any criticism of those alternatives.DECISION-MAKING GROUP TECHNIQUESThe most common form of group decision making takes place ininteracting groups.
    • In these groups, members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbaland nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other.But as our discussion groupthink demonstrated, interacting groupsoften censor themselves and pressure individual members towardconformity of opinion.Brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and electronic meetingshave been proposed as ways to reduce many of the problemsinherent in the traditional interacting group.Brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in theinteracting group that retard the development of creativealternatives. It does this by utilizing an idea-generation process thatspecifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholdingany criticism of those alternatives.In a typical brainstorming session, a half dozen to a dozen people sitaround a table.The group leader states the problem in a clear manner so that it isunderstood by all participants. Members then "freewheel" as manyalternatives as they can in a given length of time. No criticism isallowed, and all the alternatives are recorded for later discussion andanalysis. That one idea stimulates others and that judgments of eventhe most bizarre suggestions are with held until later encouragegroup members to "think the unusual. Brainstorming, however, ismerely a process for generating ideas.The following two techniques go further by offering methods ofactually arriving at a preferred solution.The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonalImmunization during the decision-making process, hence, the termnominal.Group technique members are all physically present, as in atraditional committee meeting, but Amembers operate independently. Specifically, a problem is presentedand then m the following steps take place….
    • 1- Members meet as a group but, before any discussion takes place,each member independently writes down his or her ideas on theproblem.2- After this silent period, each member presents one idea to thegroup. Each member takes his or her turn, presenting a single ideauntil all ideas have been presented and recorded. No discussion takesplace until all ideas have been recorded.3- The group now discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them.4- Each group member silently and independently rank-orders theideas. The ideas with the highest aggregate ranking determine thefinal decision.The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permitsthe group to meet formally but does not restrict independentthinking, as does the interacting group.The most recent approach to group decision making blends thenominal group technique with sophisticated computer technology .The future of group meetings undoubtedly will include extensive useof this technology .Each of these four group decision techniques has its own set ofstrengths and weaknesses.The choice of one technique over another will depend on whatcriteria you want to emphasize and the cost-benefit trade-off.For instance, the interacting group is good for building groupcohesiveness, brainstorming keeps social pressures to a minimum,the nominal group technique is an inexpensive means for generatinga large number of ideas, and electronic meetings process ideas fast.In a typical brainstorming session, a half dozen to a dozen people sitaround a table.The group leader states the problem in a clear manner so that it isunderstood by all participants. Members then "freewheel" as many
    • alternatives as they can in a given length of time. No criticism isallowed, and all the alternatives are recorded for later discussion andanalysis. That one idea stimulates others and that judgments of eventhe most bizarre suggestions are with- held until later encouragegroup members to "think the unusual.1I Brainstorming, however, ismerely a process for generating ideas. The following two techniquesgo further by offering methods of actually arriving at a preferredsolution.The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonalcommunication during the decision-making process, hence, the termnominal.Group members are all physically present, as in a traditionalcommittee meeting, but members operate independently.Specifically, a problem is presented and then the following steps takeplace:I.- Members meet as a group but, before any discussion takes place,each member independently writes down his or her ideas on theproblem.2.- After this silent period, each member presents one idea to thegroup. Each member takes his or her turn, presenting a single ideauntil all ideas have been presented and recorded. No discussion takesplace until all ideas have been recorded.3.- The group now discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them.4. - Each group member silently and independently rank-orders theideas. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking determines thefinal decision.The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permitsthe group to meet formally but does not restrict independentthinking, as does the interacting group.
    • The most recent approach to group decision making blends thenominal group technique with sophisticated computer technology.Its called the computer assisted group or electronic meeting. Oncethe technology is in place, the concept is simple. Up to SO people sitaround a horseshoe-shaped table, empty except for a series ofcomputer terminals. Issues are presented to participants and they type their responses onto their computer screen. Individualcomments, as well as aggregate votes, are displayed on a projectionscreen in the room.The major advantages of electronic meetings are anonymity, honesty,and speed.Participants can anonymously type any message they want and itflashes on the screen for all to see at the push of a participantskeyboard.It also allows people to be brutally honest without penalty. And itsfast because chitchat is eliminated, discussions dont digress, andmany participants can talk" at once without stepping on oneanothers toes. The future of group meetings undoubtedly willinclude extensive use of this technology.Each of these four group decision techniques has its own set ofstrengths and weaknesses. The choice of one technique over anotherwill depend oh what criteria you want to emphasize and the cost-benefit trade-off.For instance, the interacting group is good for building groupcohesiveness, brainstorming keeps social pressures to a minimum,the nominal group technique is an inexpensive means for generatinga large number of ideas, and electronic meetings process ideas fast.Norms control group member behavior by establishing standards ofright and wrong. If managers know the norms of a given group, itcan help to explain the behaviors of its members. When normssupport high output, managers can expect individual performance tobe markedly higher than when group norms aim to restrict output.Similarly;acceptable standards of absenteeism will be dictated by the groupnorms.
    • Status inequities create frustration and can adversely influenceproductivity and the willingness to remain with an organization.Among those individuals who are equity sensitive, incongruence islikely to lead to reduced motivation and an increased search for waysto bring about fairness (i.e., taking another job).The impact of size on a groups performance depends upon the typeof task in which the group is engaged. Larger groups are moreeffective at fact-finding activities. Smaller groups are more effectiveat action-taking tasks. Our knowledge of social loafing suggests thatif management uses larger groups, efforts should be made to providemeasures of individual performance within the group.We found the groups demographic composition to be a keydeterminant of individual turnover. Specifically, the evidenceindicates that group members who share a common age or date ofentry into the work group are less prone to resign.Group cohesiveness:Cohesiveness is an important characteristic of group. Reins Likert hasdefined cohesiveness as “ the attractiveness of the members to thegroup or resistance of the members to leaving it.” It refers to theattachment of the members with the group. According to k.Aswathppa, “cohesiveness is understood as the extent of liking each member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remainas a member of the group.” It is a degree of attachment amongmembers of the group and membership. Attractiveness is the key tocohesiveness. Cohesiveness group attract membership from newmembers. It also changes in degree over time.
    • Factors affecting cohesiveness:There are some factors that affect cohesiveness of group. They are asunder.1- Group formation factors The factors which are responsible for group formationsuch as common interests, shared goals, etc.serve as the base forcohesiveness.2-interaction Interaction between the group member makes the group morecohesive.3-difficulty in membership Some group takes great care in selecting their members andmaking admission to them very difficult. Difficulty in getting membershipincreases cohesiveness of group. Such groups are valued by members andfeel proud of being members.4-Success Success of individual or shared objectives by the members feel prideabout the success resulting in greater cohesion of the group.5- Threat When members of group feel threatened from any source, externalin particular increases cohesiveness.6- Size of group Size of group affects its cohesiveness. Increased size of groupdecreases its cohesiveness and vice versa. Small size of group facilitatesmore interaction among the group members, hence more cohesiveness.
    • 7- Continued Membership Membership of the group is continued by its members for a longerperiod of time increases cohesiveness of group. New members do not getmembership easily because of opposition from the old member.8- Attitude and values Cohesiveness of group increase because of shared attitude andvalues. Everyone gets attracts towards the people having identicalattitudes, values and beliefs. The sense of security and safety develops withthe like-minded people.Cohesiveness has certain advantages. They are:1. The members of cohesive groups have high morale.2. They don’t have conflicting views, hence decrease in conflictsamong the group members at the workplace or elsewhere.3. People of cohesive groups have no anxiety at the workplace.4. members of cohesive groups are from botheration, hence they arevery regular at their work. This reduces absenteeism and highemployee turnover.5. Cohesiveness increase productivity.6. organizations gain from the members of cohesive group becausethey communicate better, they share ideologies and respect opinionsof fellow employees. This all create an environment of cooperationresulting into benefits to the organization in the from of increasedproductivity, low employee turnover,etc.Satisfaction of Members Members of cohesive group drive more satisfactionthan those of non-cohesive groups. They get support from fellowmembers. They get more opportunities to interact. They areprotected against external threats. They succeed in their works.They have better friends at the workplace than others. All these
    • factors provide immense satisfaction to the group member than anyother person at the workplace. Active participation of member indecision making gives him more satisfaction. According to Clovis R.Shepherd, “ A group members perception at progress towards theachievement of desired goals is an important factor which is relatedto member satisfaction.” Group members progressing toward goalachievement are more satisfaction than these group members whoare not progressing towards goal achievement.GROUP AND FORMATION OF GROUPSWelcome students to the module of Group Behaviour. Up till now wehave restricted ourselves to check the behavior of individuals withinthe organization. But individuals may sometimes need to work ingroups in the organization. So in this lesson we shall try tounderstand about group and the influence of behavior of individualswhile working in a group .So students Consider a collection of people waiting at a bus stop for aseries of buses. Do these people constitute a group?No! These people are simply that; a collection of people. As acollection of people waiting for buses, they probably do not interact ,they lack cohesion (as they may be heading off in differentdirections), and, unless they are somehow huddled together againstthe rain, they are unlikely to see any commonality of interest betweenthem.Defining a group : Two or more people constitute a group if...1. they have some common purpose or goal...2. there exists a relatively stable structure -- a hierarchy (perhaps aleader), an established set of roles, or a standardized pattern ofinteraction...3. this collection of people see themselves as being part of that group
    • So students "Why do groups form?", There are a number of generaltendencies within us such as:The similarity-attraction effect: we like people who are similar to us insome wayExposure: we like people whom we have been exposed to repeatedlyReciprocity: we like people who like usBasking in reflected glory: we seek to associate with successful,prestigious groupsFurthermore, we also tend to avoid individuals who possess objectionablecharacteristics.Further more there are number of reasons why people join groupswhich are as follows;AffiliationHumans are by nature gregarious. Groups provide a natural way forpeople to gather in order to satisfy their social needs.Goal achievementProblems and tasks that require the utilization of knowledge tend togive groups an advantage over individuals. There is moreinformation in a group than in any one of its members, and groupstend to provide a greater number of approaches to solving anyparticular problemPowerIndividuals gain power in their relationship with their employers byforming unions.StatusMembership in a particular service clubs or a political body may beseen to confer status on members. So as to gain that status people joinin such groupsSelf-esteem
    • As suggested by Maslow, people have a basic desire for self-esteem.Group membership may nurture self-esteem. If one belongs to asuccessful group, the self-esteem of all members may be boosted.SecuritySometimes individuals need protection from other groups or morepowerful individuals -- "there is safety in numbers". Theseindividuals may seek security in group membership. Neighbors mayform a "Block Watch" group to ensure the security and protection oftheir neighborhood.The important characteristics of groups are as follows:T Social interaction. The members of a group affect each other andthere is a definite pattern of interaction among them.t Stability. Groups also must possess a stable structure. Althoughgroups can change, which often they do, there must be some stablerelationship that keeps the group members together and functioningas a unit.a Common interests or goals. Members of a group must share somecommon interests or goals that bind the group together.c Recognition as being a group. It is not just being together wouldensure the formation of a proper group. The members of the groupmust also perceive themselves as a group. They must recognize eachother as a member of their group and can distinguish them fromnonmembers.Emotional Intelligence: With example:Ever since the publication of Daniel Goleman’s first book on thetopic in 1995, emotional intelligence has become one of the hottestbuzzwords in corporate America. For instance, when the HarvardBusiness Review published an article on the topic two years ago, itattracted a higher percentage of readers than any other articlepublished in that periodical in the last 40 years. When the CEO of
    • Johnson & Johnson read that article, he was so impressed that hehad copies sent out to the 400 top executives in the companyworldwide.Given that emotional intelligence is so popular in corporateAmerica, and given that the concept is a psychological one, it isimportant for I/O psychologists to understand what it reallymeans and to be aware of the research and theory on which it isbased. So in my presentation today, I’d like to briefly lay out thehistory of the concept as an area of research and describe how ithas come to be defined and measured. I also will refer to some ofthe research linking emotional intelligence with important work-related outcomes such as individual performance andorganizational productivity.Even though the term has been misused and abused by manypopularizers, I believe it rests on a firm scientific foundation. Also,while there are aspects of the concept that are not new, someaspects are. Finally, emotional intelligence represents a way inwhich I/O psychologists can make particularly significantcontributions to their clients in the future. So let’s begin with somehistory.The Value of Emotional Intelligence at WorkMartin Seligman has developed a construct that he calls "learnedoptimism" . It refers to the causal attributions people make whenconfronted with failure or setbacks. Optimists tend to makespecific, temporary, external causal attributions while pessimistsmake global, permanent, internal attributions. In research at MetLife, Seligman and his colleagues found that new salesmen whowere optimists sold 37 percent more insurance in their first two
    • years than did pessimists. When the company hired a specialgroup of individuals who scored high on optimism but failed thenormal screening, they outsold the pessimists by 21 percent intheir first year and 57 percent in the second. They even outsold theaverage agent by 27 percent .In another study of learned optimism, Seligman tested 500members of the freshman class at the University of Pennsylvania.He found that their scores on a test of optimism were a betterpredictor of actual grades during the freshman year than SATscores or high school grades .The ability to manage feelings and handle stress is another aspectof emotional intelligence that has been found to be important forsuccess. A study of store managers in a retail chain found that theability to handle stress predicted net profits, sales per square foot,sales per employee, and per dollar of inventory investment .Emotional intelligence has as much to do with knowing when andhow to express emotion as it does with controlling it. For instance,consider an experiment that was done at Yale University by SigdalBarsade . He had a group of volunteers play the role of managerswho come together in a group to allocate bonuses to theirsubordinates. A trained actor was planted among them. The actoralways spoke first. In some groups the actor projected cheerfulenthusiasm, in others relaxed warmth, in others depressedsluggishness, and in still others hostile irritability. The resultsindicated that the actor was able to infect the group with hisemotion, and good feelings led to improved cooperation, fairness,and overall group performance. In fact, objective measuresindicated that the cheerful groups were better able to distribute themoney fairly and in a way that helped the organization. Similar
    • findings come from the field. Bachman found that the mosteffective leaders in the US Navy were warmer, more outgoing,emotionally expressive, dramatic, and sociable.One more example. Empathy is a particularly important aspectof emotional intelligence, and researchers have known for yearsthat it contributes to occupational success. Rosenthal and hiscolleagues at Harvard discovered over two decades ago thatpeople who were best at identifying others’ emotions were moresuccessful in their work as well as in their social lives . Morerecently, a survey of retail sales buyers found that apparel salesreps were valued primarily for their empathy. The buyers reportedthat they wanted reps who could listen well and really understandwhat they wanted and what their concerns were .Thus far I have been describing research suggesting that"emotional intelligence" is important for success in work and inlife. However, this notion actually is somewhat simplistic andmisleading. Both Goleman and Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso haveargued that by itself emotional intelligence probably is not a strongpredictor of job performance. Rather, it provides the bedrock forcompetencies that are. Goleman has tried to represent this idea bymaking a distinction between emotional intelligence and emotionalcompetence. Emotional competence refers to the personal andsocial skills that lead to superior performance in the world of work."The emotional competencies are linked to and based on emotionalintelligence. A certain level of emotional intelligence is necessary tolearn the emotional competencies." For instance, the ability torecognize accurately what another person is feeling enables one todevelop a specific competency such as Influence. Similarly, peoplewho are better able to regulate their emotions will find it easier todevelop a competency such as Initiative or Achievement drive.
    • Ultimately it is these social and emotional competencies that weneed to identify and measure if we want to be able to predictperformance.ConclusionSo is there anything new about emotional intelligence? In someways, emotional intelligence really is not new. In fact, it is based ona long history of research and theory in personality and social, aswell as I/O, psychology. Furthermore, Goleman has never claimedotherwise. In fact, one of his main points was that the abilitiesassociated with emotional intelligence have been studied bypsychologists for many years, and there is an impressive, andgrowing, body of research suggesting that these abilities areimportant for success in many areas of life.However, rather than arguing about whether emotional intelligenceis new, I believe it is more useful and interesting to consider howimportant it is for effective performance at work. Although I have nothad the time to cover very much of it, I hope I have shown that therenow is a considerable body of research suggesting that a person’sability to perceive, identify, and manage emotion provides the basisfor the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are importantfor success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of changeincreases and the world of work makes ever greater demands on aperson’s cognitive, emotional, and physical resources, this particularset of abilities will become increasingly important. And that is goodnews for I/O psychologists, for they are the ones who are bestsituated to help clients to use emotional intelligence to improvebothproductivity and psychological well-being in the workplace oftomorrow.Groups and TeamsDo you still remember the excitement during the last world cup and the waythe Indian team performed? No matter what they could finally achieve ornot, we all used to comment on spirit of the Indian team. A team can bedefined as a special type of group whose members have complementary
    • skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of goals for which theyhold themselves mutually accountable. In the recent times, a lot of emphasisis being given on developing teams. The importance of teams has long beenappreciated in the world of sports, and now it is being used increasingly inthe realm of business and industry as well. Though there are similaritiesbetween groups and teams and these two terms are often usedinterchangeably, there are in fact a few striking differences between the two.The following table will help to summarize this.Work Groups Work TeamsIndividualCollectiveIndividual outcomeMutual outcomeShare informationNeutral / negativeCollective performanceAlways positiveRandomComplementaryPerformanceAccountabilityGoalsSynergySkillsResponsive toSelf-imposed demandsDemands of management Groups and TeamsImplications for ManagersThe recognition of the existence of both formal and informal groups in anyorganization and an understanding of the basic processes involved havecreated a profound effect on the functioning and outlook of the managers intoday’s workplace. Understandably, there is now a great deal of concern indeveloping groups and effective teams as there is ample evidence to supportthe view that organizational performance improved when the employees areencouraged to work in groups rather than working as an individual member