Man has witnessed two major revolutions in the last couple of centuries:Industrial revolution & Computer revolution. Both of these have affectedgreatly the life style and thinking pattern of an individual and of the societyas a whole.Industrial revolution was based on physical machinery. Pressing a buttoncaused a great deal of useful physical action.On the other hand, computer revolution was based on mental machinery.Pressing a key and clicking a mouse can cause a great deal of useful mentalactivities. These mental activities mainly include a set of computationsperformed on a set of data items.Computing has been the fastest growing field in the past three decades.Starting from a large computer with limited power has now turned into ahandy yet very powerful P.C. The costs have also decreased considerablyfrom million rupees down to the few thousand rupees. Computers havewalked in to everyone’s life. The computer is an essential and permanentelement in an organization, be it business, industrial or educationalorganization.We have seen that computers can be used to store, up-date and analyzeinformation, to direct and control industrial processes, and to aid andencourage scientific research. These, and many other applications, havebrought about many changes in the organization and quality of life, whichaffect us directly as individuals or indirectly as members of society. The
speed of change is accelerating and the changes that are to come may beeven more radical than those we have already experienced. To which ever use computers are applied, there is always a socialimplication. Whether the computer is used as a clerk to prepare bills, as aninformation system to provide medical records or judgments on credit-worthiness, in the control of traffic or industrial processes, in management,education or design, or in scientific research and analysis, there are issuesinvolving people and such emotive words as automation, redundancy,privacy, security, impersonalization and individuality come to the fore.There are several domains of computer such as: Business Organizations Industrial Organizations Educational Organizations Government Organizations Medical Organizations Entertainment Organizations Scientific ResearchIndian computing environment is also making use of computers in all thesedomains. First of all I will like to elaborate the various applications in thefield of commerce.
Computers are widely used in :Applications of Computer in Commerce Payroll Accounting Office Automation Stock Control Insurance Stock Broking Accounting BankingPayroll:Often the accounting, staff are kept totally busy in calculating wages ofemployees during the first seven days of every month and many otherimportant accounting function are to be postponed to accommodate this timebound job of payroll calculation. We thus see that computerization of payrollrelieves the accounting staff to attend to other important matters as well.Payroll is one of the first commercial area to become widely computerized.In a payroll system the procedures of wage calculation are fairly welldefined and the end results of computerization can easily be evaluated . Theprogram contains formulae for calculating all the deductions to arrive at thenet pay.Computers are used in calculation of Total-pay. Deduction, perks, etc. arecalculated and Database is kept to have a track of salaries supplied indifferent months for budgetary calculations etc.
AUTOMATIONThe object of introducing a computer, or of extending existing computerfacilities, may be to increase productivity, to attain a consistently highquality of product, to improve a service and/or to gain knowledge. It may beused to extend an existing manual system, perhaps to increase the speed andefficiency of operation, or to handle more work without increasing staff oraccommodation, or to provide management with information more quickly.The convergence of computers and telecommunications, and rapid growth inthe microcomputer sector , gave extra impetus to office automation from theearly 1980’s and contributed further to the gradual evolution of theelectronic office.Today, office automation covers the use of stand-alone word processors,personal computers, work stations, terminals, networks , desktop publishing,electronic mail, data storage and information managementOffice automation is evolution of electronic office in which there is lessemphasis on the written word and more emphasis on written retaining,manipulating and utilizing information in electronic form.The lions share of payroll involves computing and computer is best suitedfor this purpose.
InsuranceFinance houses, Insurance Companies and Stock booking firm$ are widelyusing_ computers for their concerns. Insurance companies are keeping allrecords up-to-date. They are maintaining a Database of all clients withinformation showing how to continue with policies, Starting Date, next dueinstallment, Maturity date etc. Interests due, survival benefits, bonus etc. areall automatically updated.Stock brokingStock exchanges now a market place dependent on computers with shareprices and records of share dealings. These computers display up-to-dateinformation about prices, transactions, rates of exchange and providingadministrative back up.Finance houses and stock broking firms also make use of computers. Hereconditions and requirements are similar to those in banking. Large files ofinformation have to be retained and updated, interest rates and bonuses haveto be calculated, policy statements and renewal notices have to be preparedand payments made. In the buying and selling of stocks and shares, variouscalculations have to be made, contract notes drawn up and files consultedand amended.The world of the Stock Exchange is changing rapidly. The traditionalmethods of trading involving brokers and jobbers are no longer practiced.The Exchange is now a marketplace dependent on computers with shareprices and records of share dealings maintained on databases. Typically,
dealers in stocks and shares work at desks with half a dozen or more screensand terminal devices. Some of them display up-to-date information aboutprices, transactions, rates of exchange, whilst others are used to provideadministrative backup. Armed with this information the dealer is in a betterposition to apply judgment and take decisions.National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange has radicallychanged its mode of operation with the introduction of SEAQ (StockExchange Automated Quotations, a system, which provides data about shareprices for dealers and customers. SEAQ presents lists of all securities,together with buying and selling prices, and "Records details of alltransactions. Subscribers can look at information but not change it. Firms inthe City may also be able to access SEAQ from their own computersystems.All the databases are maintained minute to minute to provide thelatest up to date information.AccountingAnother important area of computer is the accounting system. A wellmaintained accounting setup with capabilities of quick production of reportsand summaries is an asset to any business activity in that the management isaware of the latest up to date financial standing of the business. Anaccounting system is suited for computerization because the system involvesmass processing of data which other wise take many man hours to complete.Accuracy is of paramount importance as regards accounting data isconcerned which is often lost in manual system. Also the types ofaccounting data are of simple numerical in nature involving large volumesand laborious calculations. With the advent of computers it has become
possible to prepare profit and loss figures monthly or if necessary even on adaily basis.Budgetary controlA budget is a plan or estimate of expenditure in relation to income. It is veryessential for expenditure control. Having budgeted expenditure we can planand check whether it falls within the budget we have calculated or not.Budgetary control plays a very important role in the management of finance.Expenditure is planned before spending money. If the expenditure does notfall within the budget it is disapproved or postponed. Using computer thebudgets can be produced on yearly basis or monthly basis in respect to eachbudget.A spreadsheet package is used to conduct what if analyses in the budgets.
BankingBanks were the organizations, which invested very heavily in computing.Today banking is almost totally dependent on computer. Different branchesare equipped with computer terminals; these provide on-line accountingfacility, which include current balances, deposits, overdrafts, interestcharges, shares and trustee records. ATM machines are making it even easierfor customers to deal with banks. Leading international banks and financialinstitutions are able to obtain up-to-date news on foreign currency rates fromworlds money markets using on-line worldwide information retrievalservice.Banks were among the first large organizations to invest heavily incomputing, and today banking is almost totally dependent on the computer.In the past, a large but manageable amount of bookkeeping was handledmanually, but such has been the expansion in banking that a huge labor forcewould be needed to tackle todays massive volume of bookkeeping. Thecomputer is necessary because there is no other way of dealing with theproblem. In most instances, the computer is sited centrally. Branches areequipped with terminals, giving them an on-line accounting facility andenabling them to integrate the central system for information on such thingsas current balances; deposits, overdrafts, interest charges, shares and trusteerecords. Under computer control, customer statements are prepared andprinted out onto specially designed stationery. Cheques are handled bycomputers at the clearing banks, a mammoth operation normally carried outduring the night when the system can concentrate on (be dedicated to) this
purpose. The cheques are sorted into branch, and then customer order andreturned to the branches the next day. The computer also provides each.Branch, and its customers, with prompt access to information from a muchwider financial world than would be possible under a manual, local system.Developments, such as the automatic cash dispenser, are making it eveneasier for customers to deal with banks.Data is entered and received using visual display terminals, and theprocessed data is held on disk storage at the central sites.Indian banks areproviding online banking,electronic funds transfer,ATM’s ,currencyexchange and many more facilities.Let us consider the example of RBI & SBIThe Reserve Bank of India collects various data/information from the banksthrough periodical returns/ statements. For processing these data on acomputer system, it is necessary to keep a unique identity of the source ofdata. This is achieved through allotting suitable code number, named asUniform Code Numbers to all the bank offices.The Uniform codes alongwith other particulars of each and everybranch/office of commercial and cooperative banks are maintained in thecomputer system of the Department of Statistical Analysis and ComputerServices in the form of Master Office File(MOF). MOFs are beingmaintained separately for commercial banks and co-operative banks.
The State Bank Of India provides ATM services, online banking ,E-payments, latest news , customer care etc.STATE BANK NETWORKED ATM SERVICESAn automatic teller machine or automated teller machine (ATM) is anelectronic device that allows a banks customers to make cash withdrawalsand check their account balances without the need for a human teller. ManyATMs also allow people to deposit cash or cheques and transfer moneybetween their bank accountsState Bank offers you the convenience of over 5500 ATMs in India, thelargest network in the country and continuing to expand fast! This meansthat you can transact free of cost at the ATMs of State Bank Group (Thisincludes the ATMs of State Bank of India as well as the Associate Banks –namely, State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, StateBank of Indore, State Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank ofSaurashtra, and State Bank of Travancore) and wholly owned subsidiary viz.SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd., using the State Bank ATM-cum-Debit (Cash Plus) card.State Bank ATM-cum-Debit (State Bank Cash plus) Card:India’s largest bank is proud to offer you the latest in banking convenienceviz. State Bank ATM-cum-Debit(Cash Plus) card. With this card, there is noneed to carry cash in your wallet and you need not fear of overspending onyour credit card! You can now withdraw cash and make purchases anytimeyou wish to.
Internet BankingThe Internet banking portal of the bank, enables its retail banking customersto operate their accounts all across India, removing the restrictions imposedby geography and time. Its a platform that enables the customers to carryout their banking activities from their desktop, aided by the power andconvenience of the Internet.Availing the Internet banking services, you can do the following normalbanking transactions online: • Self-account funds transfer across India. • Third party transfers in the same branch • New account opening • Demand Draft requests • Standing instructions • New Cheque-book request and much more.COMPUTERS FOR USE Of GOVERNMENT Applications Computers with their power & quick decision making capability; hasinvaded Govt.organisations as well. Today computers are used at local level,at district level, state level ahead at center also. All districts in India areconnected via a central computer Networking system. NIC (NationalInformatics Center) started by late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi has donea lot of work in providing up to date information in all parts of India. Today
licensing system, Budgets, Voters-lists, Weather schedule, Crops seasons;Male/female ratio etc. are some of the areas that are already computerized.We can have information about total licence of Maharashtra sitting at Delhi.Only district headquarters are providing information of their individualdistrict and aligned areas to state. The state headquarters report to centralplace. While India is divided into five major zones to covercommunications. Latest development in this area is Video-Conferencing. Inthis technique we can talk to our leader at Delhi sitting in Pune, Ahmedabad,Chandigarh, Bombay. Not only one can talk, but can also listen, see andargue with the person at other end.CONCLUSIONS AND THE FUTURESociety is already more computerized than many people may imagine andbecause of the implications of this, some of which we have examined, it isclearly important that people become aware of the potentialities so that theycan seek to influence future use. Awareness hinges on education and this isgrowing and should continue to expand - hopefully at the same fast pace atwhich the youthful, vigorous computer industry is itself expanding.Inevitably, the computer seems destined to bring about radical changes andsome of these we may not yet have appreciated as potentially problematic.The goal, surely, is not to create a better world of computers, but to create abetter world for man to live in. There may be conflict in balancing progresswith civilization and, in the long run, society can only blame itself ifcomputers are allowed to create more problems than they solve.
The Industrial Revolution saw many technological developments, thesocial effects of which have changed over several generations beforebecoming absorbed into our way of life. Significant changes have takenplace in the thirty-five years or so since the computer industry came intobeing, but several lifetimes may have to pass before the social and culturaleffects of the computer are fully understood. Computers are pointing the way to an automated society. The developmentof robots to work in certain hostile situations, such as fire fighting, mines,security of sensitive establishments and space exploration, could bringconsiderable benefits. Computing power will become even cheaper, computers will be easier tohandle and become even more widely available to the general public. Thiswill affect our lives as individuals and the societies in which we live. I