Encyclopedia of world history ~ volume 1
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  • 1. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD HISTORY The Ancient WorldPrehistoric Eras to 600 c.e. VOLUME I
  • 2. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD HISTORY Volume I The Ancient World Prehistoric Eras to 600 c.e. Volume II The Expanding World 600 c.e. to 1450 Volume III The First Global Age 1450 to 1750 Volume IVAge of Revolution and Empire 1750 to 1900 Volume V Crisis and Achievement 1900 to 1950 Volume VI The Contemporary World 1950 to the Present Volume VII Primary Documents Master Index
  • 3. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD HISTORY The Ancient WorldPrehistoric Eras to 600 c.e. VOLUME I edited by Marsha E. Ackermann Michael J. Schroeder Janice J. Terry Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur Mark F. Whitters
  • 4. Encyclopedia of World HistoryCopyright © 2008 by Marsha E. Ackermann, Michael J. Schroeder, Janice J. Terry, Jiu-Hwa LoUpshur, and Mark F. WhittersMaps copyright © 2008 by Infobase Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by anymeans, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storageor retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataEncyclopedia of world history / edited by Marsha E. Ackermann . . . [et al.]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4 (hc : alk. paper) 1. World history—Encyclopedias. I. Ackermann, Marsha E. D21.E5775 2007 903—dc22 2007005158Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities forbusinesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Departmentin New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.comMaps by Dale E. Williams and Jeremy EagleGolson Books, Ltd.President and Editor J. Geoffrey GolsonDesign Director Mary Jo ScibettaAuthor Manager Sue MoskowitzLayout Editor Kenneth W. HellerIndexer J S EditorialPrinted in the United States of AmericaVB GB 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1This book is printed on acid-free paper.
  • 5. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD HISTORY Volume I CONTENTS About the Editors vi Foreword vii Historical Atlas viii List of Articles ix List of Contributors xiii Chronology xvii Major Themes xxix Articles A to Z 1 Resource Guide 509 Index 513
  • 6. About the EditorsMarsha E. Ackermann received a Ph.D. in American culture from the University of Michigan. Sheis the author of the award-winning book Cool Comfort: America’s Romance with Air-Conditioningand has taught U.S. history and related topics at the University of Michigan, Michigan State Uni-versity, and Eastern Michigan University.Michael J. Schroeder received a Ph.D. in history from the University of Michigan and currentlyteaches at Eastern Michigan University. Author of the textbook The New Immigrants: MexicanAmericans, he has published numerous articles on Latin American history.Janice J. Terry received a Ph.D. from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University ofLondon, and is professor emeritus of Middle East history at Eastern Michigan University. Herlatest book is U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East: The Role of Lobbies and Special InterestGroups. She is also a coauthor of the world history textbooks The 20th Century: A Brief GlobalHistory and World History.Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur received a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and is professor emeritus ofChinese history at Eastern Michigan University. She is a coauthor of the world history textbooksThe 20th Century: A Brief Global History and World History.Mark F. Whitters received a Ph.D. in religion and history from the Catholic University of Americaand currently teaches at Eastern Michigan University. His publications include The Epistle of Sec-ond Baruch: A Study in Form and Message.vi
  • 7. ForewordThe seven-volume Encyclopedia of World History is a comprehensive reference to the most impor-tant events, themes, and personalities in world history. The encyclopedia covers the entire rangeof human history in chronological order—from the prehistoric eras and early civilizations to ourcontemporary age—using six time periods that will be familiar to students and teachers of worldhistory. This reference work provides a resource for students—and the general public—with con-tent that is closely aligned to the National Standards for World History and the College Board’sAdvanced Placement World History course, both of which have been widely adopted by states andschool districts. This encyclopedia is one of the first to offer a balanced presentation of human history for a trulyglobal perspective of the past. Each of the six chronological volumes begins with an in-depth essaythat covers five themes common to all periods of world history. They discuss such important issuesas technological progress, agriculture and food production, warfare, trade and cultural interactions,and social and class relationships. These major themes allow the reader to follow the developmentof the world’s major regions and civilizations and make comparisons across time and place. The encyclopedia was edited by a team of five accomplished historians chosen for being special-ists in different areas and eras of world history, as well as for having taught world history in theclassroom. They and many other experts are responsible for writing the approximately 2,000 signedentries based on the latest scholarship. Additionally, each article is cross-referenced with relevantother ones in that volume. A chronology is included to provide students with a chronological ref-erence to major events in the given era. In each volume an array of full-color maps provides geo-graphic context, while numerous illustrations provide visual contexts to the material. Each articlealso concludes with a bibliography of several readily available pertinent reference works in English.Historical documents included in the seventh volume provide the reader with primary sources, afeature that is especially important for students. Each volume also includes its own index, while theseventh volume contains a master index for the set. Marsha E. Ackermann Michael J. Schroeder Janice J. Terry Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur Mark F. Whitters Eastern Michigan University vii
  • 8. Historical Atlas List of Maps The World: From Prehistory to 10,000 b.c.e. M1 The Beginning of Agriculture, 9000–500 b.c.e. M2 Civilizations in Europe and Asia, 3500–1500 b.c.e. M3 Ancient Mesopotamia, 3000–2000 b.c.e. M4 Ancient Egypt, 2795–1640 b.c.e. M5 Babylonian Empire, c. 1750–c. 1595 b.c.e. M6 Egyptian Asiatic Empire under Tuthmosis III, 1450 b.c.e. M7 Trade Routes of the Mycenaeans and Minoans M8 Ancient Palestine, 925–722 b.c.e. M9 Asian Empires, 600 b.c.e. M10 Assyrian and Babylonian Empires, 950–539 b.c.e. M11 The Persian Empire M12 Greek and Phoenician Routes, c. 500 b.c.e. M13 Persian Wars, 492–479 b.c.e. M14 Greece during the Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e. M15 Macedonia under Philip II, 359–336 b.c.e. M16 The Empire of Alexander the Great, 334–323 b.c.e. M17 Hellenistic World, c. 300 b.c.e. M18 The Punic Wars, 264–200 b.c.e. M19 Roman Expansion, 240 b.c.e.–30 c.e. M20 The Mauryan Empire, 325–260 b.c.e. M21 Palestine at the Time of Christ M22 China during the Han Dynasty, 202 b.c.e.–250 c.e. M23 Trade Routes of the First Century c.e. M24 Farthest Extent of the Roman Empire, under Emperor Hadrian, 117–138 c.e. M25 Crisis of the Third Century, 250–271 c.e. M26 The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, c. 300 c.e. M27 Parthia and the Sassanid Empire, 114–628 c.e. M28 The Rise of Constantine, 306–324 c.e. M29 Barbarian Invasions and Settlements M30 Byzantine Empire under Justinian, 527–567 c.e. M31 Major Religions in the Eastern Hemisphere, c. 600 c.e. M32viii
  • 9. List of ArticlesA Aristotle Book of the DeadAdrianople, Battle of (378 c.e.) Ark of the Covenant BoudiccaAeneid Armenia Brendan the NavigatorAeschylus Artaxerxes Buddhism in ChinaAesop Aryan invasion Buddhist councilsAfrican city-states Ashoka ByblosAfrican religious traditions Assyria Byzantine-Persian warsAhab and Jezebel AthanasiusAkhenaten and Nefertiti Athenian predemocracy CAkkad Augustine of Hippo Caesar, AugustusAlcibiades Aurelius, Marcus Caesar, JuliusAlexander the Great Axial Age and cyclical Cambyses IIAlexandria theories CappadociansAlexandrian literature Caracalla, Edict of (212 c.e.)Ambrose B CarthageAndes: Neolithic Babylon, early period casteAntonine emperors Babylon, later periods Cato, Marcus Porcius (the Younger)Anyang Bactria cave paintingsapocalypticism, Jewish and Bamiyan Valley Celts Christian Ban Biao (Pan Piao) CeylonApostles, Twelve Baruch Chandragupta IIArabia, pre-Islamic Basil the Great Chang’anAramaeans Benedict choregic poetryArchaic Greece Bhagavad Gita ChosonArianism Bible translations Christian Dualism (Gnosticism)Aristophanes Boethius Christianity, early ix
  • 10. x List of ArticlesChrysostom, John Eusebius HittitesCicero Ezana Homeric epicsclassical art and architecture, Greek Hundred Schools of PhilosophyClassical Period, Greek F HunsCleisthenes Fa Xian (Fa-hsien) HurriansClement of Alexandria Fertile Crescent HyksosCode of Justinian First AmericansConfucian Classics Flavian emperors IConfucianism as a state ideology food gatherers and producers, imperial cult, RomanConfucius prehistory Indo-EuropeansConstantine the Great Indus civilizationConstantinople G Israel and JudahCoptic Christian Church Gandharacuneiform Ganjin JCyclades Gaul JainismCyril of Alexandria Gautama Buddha JeromeCyrus II Georgia, ancient Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth Gilgamesh Jewish revoltsD Gracchi Job and theodicyDamascus and Aleppo Great Wall of China John the BaptistDaoism (Taoism) Greek Church Jomon cultureDarius I Greek city-states Josephus, FlaviusDavid Greek colonization JosiahDelphic oracle Greek drama Judah ha-NasiDemosthenes Greek mythology and pantheon Judaism, early (heterodoxies)Desert Fathers and Mothers Greek oratory and rhetoric JudgesDeuteronomy Gregory the Great Julian the ApostateDharma Sutras Guangwu (Kuang-wu) Julio-Claudian emperorsDiadochi Gupta Empire Justinian IDiocletian gymnasium and athleticsDravidians KDruids and Picts H Kama SutraDuke of Zhou (Chou) Hadrian KanishkaDunhuang (Tun-huang) Hagia Sophia Kautilya Han dynasty Khosrow IE Hannibal KijaEbla Han Wudi (Han Wu-ti) Kingdom of GodEdessa Helena King’s Highway and Way of the SeaEgeria Helen of Troy KushEgypt, culture and religion Hellenistic art Kushan EmpireElam HellenizationEleusis heresies LEphesus and Chalcedon, Councils of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Laozi (Lao Tzu) and ZhuangziEphrem Xenophon (Chuang Tzu)Epicureanism Herods late barbariansEra of Division (China) Hesiod Latin ChurchEssenes Hezekiah LegalismEsther, book of hieroglyphics legionariesEthiopia, ancient Hindu philosophy LeonidasEtruscans Hippocrates, Galen, and the Leo the GreatEuripides Greek physicians libraries, ancient
  • 11. List of Articles xiLibya Nebuchadnezzar II Pompeii and HerculaneumLinear A and B Neolithic age PompeyLiu Bang (Liu Pang) Neoplatonism Pontius PilateLo-lang Nero pre-Socratic philosophyLu, Empress Nestorius and the Nestorian prophetsLucian Church PsalmsLuoyang (Loyang) New Comedy Pseudepigrapha and the Apocryphalyric poetry New Kingdom, Egypt Ptolemies Nicaea, Council of pyramids of GizaM Nineveh PyrrhusMa Yuan Nubia PythagorasMaccabeesMahabharata O QMaotun (Mao-t’un) Odovacar Qin (Ch’in) dynastyMarathon, Battle of (490 b.c.e.) Old Kingdom, Egypt QumranMarcellinus, Ammianus OlmecsMari Olympic Games RMarius and Sulla Oriental Orthodox Churches Ramayanamartyrologies Origen Ramses IMauryan Empire Ostracism Ramses IIMaximus the Confessor Ostrogoths and Lombards RavennaMaya: Classic Period Red Eyebrow RebellionMaya: Preclassic Period P religious inclinations, prehistoryMedes, Persians, Elamites paideia Roman EmpireMegasthenes paleoanthropology Roman golden and silver agesMencius Paleolithic age Roman historiansMeng Tian (Meng T’ien) Palmyra Roman pantheon and mythMeroë Panathenaic Festival Roman poetryMesoamerica: Archaic and Parthenon Rome: buildings, engineers Preclassic Periods Pataliputra Rome: decline and fallMesoamerica: Classic Period Patriarchs, biblical Rome: foundingmessianism patricians Rome: governmentMiddle Kingdom, Egypt Patrick Rosetta Stonemigration patterns of the Americas PaulMilan, Edict of (313 c.e.) Pax Romana SMinoans Peisistratus SadduceesMishnah Peloponnesian War SakyasMittani Pericles San and Khoi tribesMohenjo-Daro persecutions of the church Sanskritmonasticism Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana SapphoMoses Persian invasions Sargon of AkkadMozi (Mo Tzu) Persian myth Sassanid EmpireMycenae Petronius Saulmystery cults pharaoh scribes Pharisees Sea PeoplesN Philip of Macedon Second SophisticNabataeans Philo Seleucid EmpireNative Americans: chronologies Phoenician colonies Seneca and peoples pilgrimage Septimus SeverusNative Americans: regional Platonism Servant Songs of Isaiah adaptations polis Shang dynasty
  • 12. xii List of ArticlesShintoism Themistocles WSilk Road Theodoric Wang MangSima Qian (Ssu-ma Ch’ien) Theodosius I Wei Man (Wiman)Simeon the Stylite Theravada and Mahayana Wen and WuSinai, Mount Buddhism wisdom literatureSix Schools of classical Hindu Three Kingdoms, China philosophy Three Kingdoms, Korea XSocrates Toba (T’o-pa) dynasty XerxesSoga clan Torah Xia (Hsia) dynastySogdians Trajan Xiang Yu (Hsiang Yu)Solomon Tripitaka Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu)Solon Triumvirate Xunzi (Hsun Tzu)sophism TroySophocles Trung sisters YSpartacus Turabdin Yamato clan and stateStoicism Yao, Shun, and YuSuiko U Yayoi cultureSumer Ugarit Yellow Emperor (HuangdiSunzi (Sun Tzu) Ulfilas or Huang Ti)Syracuse Ur Yellow Turban RebellionSyriac culture and church Yemen V Yuezhi (Yueh-chih)T Vardhamana MahaviraTalmud Vedas ZTantrism Vedic age Zakkai, Yohanan benTeotihuacán Vercingetorix Zhang Qian (Chang Ch’ien)Tetrarchy Visigoth kingdom of Zhou (Chou) dynastyThebes Spain Zoroastrianism
  • 13. List of ContributorsShelley Allsop William E. Burns George Raleigh Derr IIIDeakin University George Washington University Explorer Charter SchoolMehrdad Amiri R. O’Brian Carter Stefano FaitIndependent Scholar Berry College University of St. AndrewsJohn H. Barnhill P. Richard Choi Peter FeinmanIndependent Scholar Andrews University Institute of History, Archaeology, and EducationJames S. Baugess Brian A. CoganColumbus State Community Molloy College Scott Fitzsimmons College University of Calgary, Canada Justin CorfieldMelissa Benne Geelong Grammar School Allen FromherzSt. Charles Community College University of St. Andrews Kevin DaughertyMark Aaron Bond Department of Resource Silvana A. GaetaIndependent Scholar Development, Pokagon University of Buenos Aires Band, PotawatomiDewayne Bryant Indians Joseph R. GerberRegions University Regis University Tim DavisEmiliano J. Buis Columbus State Community Mohammad GharipourUniversity of Buenos Aires College Georgia Institute of TechnologyJohn Barclay Burns Abbe Allen DeBolt Gertrude GilletteGeorge Mason University Ohio University Ava Maria University xiii
  • 14. xiv List of ContributorsJames A. Grady Faramarz Khojasteh Annette RichardsonVanderbilt University Independent Scholar Independent ScholarStephen Griffin Bill Kte’pi James RoamesSan Diego State University Independent Scholar University of TorontoLowell Handy Jody Vaccaro Lewis Aaron D. RubinAmerican Theological Library Dominican House of Studies, Penn State University Association Washington, D.C. Philip C. SchmitzAngela Kim Harkins Kirk R. MacGregor Eastern Michigan UniversityFairfield University University of Iowa M. J. SchroederFranklin T. Harkins Leo J. Mahoney Eastern Michigan UniversityFordham University Mohave Community College Matt J. SchumannAlecia Harper Jonah B. Mancini Eastern Michigan UniversityUniversity of South Carolina Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Hebrew University Marc SchwarzMatthew T. Herbst University of NewUniversity of California, San Diego Patit Paban Mishra Hampshire Sambalpur UniversityJohn Hobbins James E. Seelye, Jr.Independent Scholar Diego I. Murguia University of Toledo University of Buenos AiresArthur Holst Grant R. ShaferWidener University John F. Murphy, Jr. Washtenaw Community American Military University CollegeCornelia HornSt. Louis University Steve Napier Trevor Shelley Miami University, Ohio Independent ScholarAdam R. HornbuckleIndependent Scholar M. O’Connor Eric Smith Catholic University Nebraska Christian CollegeJeffrey M. Hunt of AmericaBrown University Olena V. Smyntyna Andrew Pettman Mechnikov NationalJoel Itzkowitz Independent Scholar UniversityWayne State University Robert R. Phenix, Jr. Jason A. StaplesRussell James St. Louis University University of CalgaryUniversity of West Florida Elizabeth Purdy Samaya L. SukhaMark D. Janzen Independent Scholar University of MelbourneUniversity of Memphis Sadhansu S. Rath Janice J. TerryVickey Kalambakal Sambalpur University Eastern Michigan UniversityIndependent Scholar Khodadad Rezakhani Lana ThompsonDaniel A. Keating University of California, Florida AtlanticSacred Heart Seminary Los Angeles University
  • 15. List of Contributors xvWilliam P. Toth John Walsh Mark F. WhittersBowling Green State University Shinawatra University Eastern Michigan UniversityS-C Kevin Tsai Andrew J. Waskey Nurfadzilah YahayaIndiana University Dalton State University National University of SingaporeDallace W. Unger, Jr. John Zhu-En Wee Bruce T. YocumColorado State University Yale University Independent ScholarJiu-Hwa Lo Upshur Michael Wert Lilian H. ZirpoloEastern Michigan University University of California, Irvine Rutgers University
  • 16. Chronology2,000,000 B.C.E. First Genus Homo Emerges 4400 B.C.E. Horses Domesticated First example of early humanoids emerge in Africa. The domestication of horses provides an important new mode of transportation.1,000,000 B.C.E. Premodern Humans Migrate out of Africa Prehumans move from Africa into West Asia and 3500 B.C.E. Cuneiform Writing elsewhere. The Sumerians, in present-day Iraq, are the first group to develop a written script called cuneiform. Archae-100,000 B.C.E. Homo sapiens in East Africa ologists have discovered thousands of clay tablets Homo sapiens communities are established in East with Sumerian cuneiform writing on them. Africa. 3500 B.C.E. Bronze Made40,000 B.C.E. Paleolithic Era Bronze is made for the first time in a process whereby Paleolithic era lasts to about 10,000 when Mesolithic copper is combined with tin to create a new metal era begins. that can be used in many tools.7000 B.C.E. Neolithic Era in Fertile Crescent 3500 B.C.E. Sumerian Civilization Neolithic societies based on agriculture emerge in the Sumerian civilization, with city-states and agriculture Fertile Crescent, present-day Iraq and Syria. with irrigation systems, is established in the Fertile Crescent.6000 B.C.E. Neolithic Societies in Europe, Asia, andWestern Hemisphere 3250 B.C.E. Paper Made of Papyrus Reed Neolithic cultures spread around the world. The first known paper is produced in Egypt.5500 B.C.E. Egyptians Weave Flax into Fabric 3200. B.C.E. South America In Egypt, flax threads are woven together to create Beginnings of complex societies along the northern fabric for the first time. Peruvian Pacific coast. xvii
  • 17. xviii Chronology3200 B.C.E. Hieroglyphic Writing 2340 B.C.E. Sargon, King of Akkad The Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing. This Sargon builds Akkad as the new seat of government style was gradually replaced by the Greek system. and unites all of the Sumerian cities into one centrally organized empire.3050–2890 B.C.E. Egypt’s First Dynasty King Menes creates the first dynasty of Egypt and 2205–1766 B.C.E. Xia Dynasty unites Egypt into a single kingdom, bringing together Founded by Emperor Yu, it is traditionally accepted the two separate Lower and Upper kingdoms. as China’s first historic dynasty.3000 B.C.E. First Chariots 2060 B.C.E. Third Dynasty of Ur Founded (Sumeria) The first known use of wheels for transport occurs in Ur-Nammu of Ur seizes power from Utukhegal and Sumer; they are used both for transport and on early creates a new Sumerian dynasty. Under his son Shulgi chariots. the empire of Ur extends as far as Anatolia.2900 B.C.E. Great Pyramid Built 2055 B.C.E. Mentuhotep II Reunifies Egypt The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) at Giza out- After a period of strife between the nobles and the side present-day Cairo is built around 2900. It takes kings known as the First Intermediate Period, King 4,000 stonemasons and as many as 100,000 laborers Mentuhotep reunites the kingdom under a new to build the pyramid. dynasty.2900 B.C.E. Indus Valley 2000 B.C.E. Great Stone Palaces at Knossos Civilization begins in the Indus Valley. Most of the The stone palaces at Knossos and Malia are built on peoples of the Harappan civilization live either near Crete at around 2000. or in the city of Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro. 2000 B.C.E. Babylonians Develop Mathematic System2700 B.C.E. Epic of Gilgamesh The Babylonians develop a mathematical system In the Fertile Crescent, the epic poem on the founding based on units of 60. They also divide a circle into a of Uruk, the first major city, is created. 360 units.2700 B.C.E. Founding of China 2000 B.C.E. Preclassic Period in Maya Zones Chinese mythical ruler Yellow Emperor becomes leader Permanent settlements mark the emergence of the of tribes along the Yellow River plain. Chinese writers Early Preclassic Period in the Maya zones of Meso- accept him as the founder of the Chinese nation. america.2700 B.C.E. Early Minoan Culture 1991–1786 B.C.E. Amenemhat I Founds the Middle The Minoan civilization emerges on the island of Crete. Kingdom Amenemhat I reduces the power of the nobles and2686–2613 B.C.E. Egypt’s Third Dynasty establishes a strong central government. The Third Dynasty is founded by Pharaoh Djoser. 1900 B.C.E. Cotton Used for Textiles in Asia and Fish-2613–2498 B.C.E. Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty nets in Peru The Fourth Dynasty is founded by the Pharaoh Beginning around 1900 b.c.e., the Harappans begin Sneferu. He builds the pyramid at Dahshur. growing and weaving cotton into fabric; Pacific Coast polities in central Peru continue growing and2350–2198 B.C.E. Three Emperors of China weaving cotton into fishnets, providing a maritime Period of the mythical Three Emperors—Yao, Shun, and basis for the emergence of Andean civilizations. Yu —whose reigns are remembered as a golden age. 1900 B.C.E. Mycenaeans Arrive in Greece2341–2181 B.C.E. Egypt’s Sixth Dynasty Around 1900 b.c.e., the Mycenaeans arrive from the During the course of the Sixth Dynasty, the powers of north and gain control of Greece. This is the period the pharaoh decrease. The growing power of the nobil- of Greek history written about by Homer and known ity limits the absolute power of the Egyptian kings. as the Heroic period or Mycenaean age.
  • 18. Chronology xix1900 B.C.E. Middle Minoan Culture 1375–1360 B.C.E. Akhenaten IV Minoan culture reaches its high point with the con- In 1379, Akhenaten IV becomes pharaoh and the struction of great palaces at Phaistos. Egyptian Empire begins to weaken.1766–1122 B.C.E. Shang Dynasty 1300 B.C.E. Andean Civilizations The Shang dynasty under Tang the Successful replaces Beginnings of complex societies in the Lake Titicaca the Xia in 1766. The 30 kings of Shang dynasty rule Basin in the Andean highlands. a largely agricultural society that is established in the Yellow River plain. 1288 B.C.E. Ramses II Fights the Hittites Ramses II fights to regain control of the territory1792 B.C.E. Hammurabi Conquers Mesopotamia seized by the Hittites. Ramses fights the Hittites at the Hammurabi extends the power of Babylon over all Battle of Kadesh. of Mesopotamia and develops first codified law in Hammurabi’s Code. 1240 B.C.E. Philistine Kingdom Established The Philistines establish themselves in the coastal1720–1570 B.C.E. Hyskos Dynasties XV and XVI plain of present-day Israel. Sensing the declining power of the Egyptian dynas- ties, the Hyksos invade Egypt from Syria-Palestine 1240–1100 B.C.E. Israelites Established and establish their capital at Avaris; they rule as if Tradition has it that the Israelites, after escaping from they were Egyptian pharaohs. Egypt, establish themselves in Canaan. The Israelites organize into 12 tribes and take control of the land1500 B.C.E. Aryans Conquer Harappan Civilization through a combination of military victories and polit- The Harappan civilization declines before 1500 due ical assimilation. to natural causes. The weakened Harrappans are quickly conquered by northern invaders from the Eur- 1200 B.C.E. Olmec Civilization in Mexico and Central asian steppes known as Aryans. With it the Vedic age America begins. Olmec culture flourishes from 1200 to 500 in Meso- america.1500–1000 B.C.E. Early Vedic Age in India Indo-European or Aryan peoples spread across the 1186 B.C.E. Ramses III Indo-Gangetic plains in northern India. Ramses III of the Twentieth Dynasty, the last power- ful pharaoh of Egypt.1595 B.C.E. Hittites Conquer Babylon, Introduce Char-iot Warfare 1184 B.C.E. Trojan War The Hittites, under the command of King Mursilis, com- Legend has it that the Greeks unite under the com- bined with the Kassites, defeat the Babylonian army. mand of Agamemnon and attack Troy in Asia Minor. After a long siege, the Trojans are forced to submit to1580 B.C.E. New Kingdom of Egypt the Greeks. The New Kingdom is established by the pharaoh Ahmose who forces the Hyksos out of the Nile Delta 1140 B.C.E. Second Babylonian Empire Begins in 1570 b.c.e. After an extended period of domination by the Kas- sites, the second Babylonian empire emerges.1540 B.C.E. Egyptians Defeat Nubians Ahmose subjugates Nubia in present-day Sudan. 1122–256 B.C.E. Zhou Dynasty in China King Wu defeats the Shang dynasty and establishes1450 B.C.E. Greeks Conquer Minoans the Zhou dynasty. After trading with the Minoans for a long period of time, the Mycenaeans conquer them. 1122–771 B.C.E. Western Zhou After King Wu’s death, his brother the duke of1400 B.C.E. Iron Age in Western Asia Zhou consolidates the power of the Zhou dynasty The use of iron by the Hittites gives them a military under a feudal system that operates successfully advantage. until 771.
  • 19. xx Chronology1122 B.C.E. First Contact between China and Korea 814 B.C.E. Carthage Founded Kija, a Shang prince, and his followers, fleeing the Zhou Phoenicians, from present-day Lebanon, create a conquerors, establish several settlements in Korea. colony at Carthage, in present-day Tunisia, and it becomes an important world power in its own right.1100 B.C.E. Development of Phoenician Alphabet Phoenicians inherit a script of consonants and add 800–300 B.C.E. Upanishads Written vowels to form a basis for an alphabet. Indian ascetics write a collection of 108 essays on philosophy that are incorporated into Hindu1100 B.C.E. Hallstatt Culture teachings. Iron is used for the first time in Austria. From Austria the use of iron spreads throughout Europe. 800 B.C.E. Chavín Culture in Peru Chavín culture complex emerges in Peruvian Central1090 B.C.E. Nubia Becomes Independent Highlands and central Pacific coast regions. With the breakup of the New Kingdom, Nubia once again becomes independent of Egypt. 780–560 B.C.E. Greek Colonies Established The Greeks establish a series of colonies in Asia1090 B.C.E. New Kingdom Dissolved Minor. The end of the New Kingdom coincides with the end of the Ramesid dynasty, and Egypt enters a long period 776 B.C.E. First Olympic Games of turmoil. Sacred truces among the Greek city-states allow the gathering of athletes for regular competitions.1070 B.C.E. Collapse of Assyria The Assyrian Empire collapses under the assault of 770–256 B.C.E. Eastern Zhou Aramaeans and Babylonians. The Zhou capital at Hao is destroyed by invading northern tribesmen. A new capital is established1050 B.C.E. Chavín Culture in Peru to the east at Luoyang, starting the Eastern Zhou Chavín civilization begins to extend over Peru. period.1010 B.C.E. King Saul 753 B.C.E. Rome Founded Saul, the first king of the Israelites, is killed by the Tradition has it that Rome was founded in 753; its Philistines and succeeded by King David. founder is Romulus, said to be the son of a princess of Alba Longa.1000 B.C.E. Middle Preclassic in Maya Zones End of the Early Preclassic period and beginning of the 747–716 B.C.E. Kushite Conquests in Egypt Middle Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. The Kushite ruler Piy moves down the Nile from present-day Sudan and conquers large parts of Egypt,995 B.C.E. King David Captures Jerusalem including Thebes and Memphis. King David captures the Jebusite city of Jerusalem and makes the city the capital. 722 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel Falls After a three-year siege, Samaria (the capital of Israel)945–730 B.C.E. Libyans Rule Egypt falls to the Assyrians, who take some 20,000 Israel- About 945, Libyan settlers, under Shishak, seize con- ites into slavery. trol of Egypt and found the Twenty-second Dynasty. 707–696 B.C.E. Kushite Dynastic Rule over Egypt922 B.C.E. King Solomon King Shabako establishes rule over Egypt and adopts King Solomon reigns from 961 to 922. During his many old Egyptian customs. reign, he consolidates the kingdom of Israel. 660 B.C.E. Empire of Japan Established900 B.C.E. Etruria According to legend, Jimmu Tenno invades Japan’s The Etruscans spread in Italy, taking control and main island Honshu. There he establishes himself as forming a loosely connected league of cities. Japan’s first emperor. He creates the Yamato family
  • 20. Chronology xxi and is believed to be a direct ancestor of Japan’s cur- 559 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great rent emperor. Cyrus declares himself king of both Persia and Media.650–630 B.C.E. Second Messenian War The Messenians led by Aristomenes revolt against 558 B.C.E. Zoroastrianism Is Founded Sparta; after 20 years, Sparta subdues the rebellion Zoroaster begins his work as a prophet for the reli- and reorganizes itself into a military state. gion of the Persians.650 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroy Babylon 550 B.C.E. Laozi and Daoism An attempted revolt against the Assyrians by the Baby- Laozi is the mythical founder of philosophy Daoism lonians results in the destruction of Babylon. and reputed author of its classic the Daodejing.626 B.C.E. Chaldean Empire Founded by Nabopolasser 540–468 B.C.E. Mahavira Founds Jainism The Chaldeans take control of Babylon and establish Jainism is an extremely ascetic religion that offers an a new dynasty. alternative to Vedism-Hinduism.621 B.C.E. Greek Lawgiver Draco 539 B.C.E. Cyrus Takes Jerusalem Athens is ruled by an oligarchy, but a nobleman, Cyrus allows the Jews who had been conquered by Draco, is appointed to create a code of laws. the Babylonians to return to Jerusalem after his defeat of the Babylonians.612 B.C.E. Nineveh Captured and Assyrian Empire Ends Nineveh, the capital of Babylon, is captured by a 525 B.C.E. Persians Conquer Egypt coalition of armies. The seizure of Nineveh is fol- The end of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty when the last lowed by the capture of Harran in 610, ending the pharaoh is defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia. Assyrian Empire. 521 B.C.E. Darius600–300 B.C.E. Hundred Schools of Philosophy in China Cyrus is succeeded by Darius I in 521. Darius spends All China’s classical schools of philosophy develop the first years of his administration suppressing during this era of political division as the Eastern revolts that develop throughout the empire. Darius Zhou kings lose power. reorganizes the Persian Empire into separate prov- inces, or satraps, each with its own governor and594 B.C.E. Solon Becomes Archon tax system. Athens experiences a period of social and politi- cal upheaval and Solon, an esteemed Athenian, is 516 B.C.E. Darius Invades Indus Valley appointed ruler of Athens. Darius invades India, capturing the Indus Valley, which is annexed to the Persian Empire.588 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem; Babylo-nian Captivity 509 B.C.E. Roman Republic Founded Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian army takes Jerusalem, The Roman Republic is founded, and Junius Brutus destroys the Jewish Temple, and takes many Jews into and Tarquinius serve as the first consuls of Rome. captivity. He builds the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 508 B.C.E. Athenian Democracy Established by Cleis-566 B.C.E. Gautama Buddha thenes Prince Siddhartha founds Buddhism, which rejects Cleisthenes is appointed ruler, enacts fundamental the Vedic Hindu caste system and the Vedas. reforms that become the basis of the golden age of Athens, and creates the assembly made up of Athe-560 B.C.E. Peisistratus Rules Athens nian males. Following the resignation of Solon, Athens is gov- erned by a group of leaders. One of them is Peisistra- 499 B.C.E. Greek City-States Revolt tus, who makes three attempts to seize power, finally The Ionian Greek city-states in Asian Minor revolt succeeding on the third attempt. against Persian rule.
  • 21. xxii Chronology490 B.C.E. Battle of Marathon 390 B.C.E. Axum Kingdom in East Africa The army of Athens and its allies meet the Persians on Axum kingdom based in Ethiopia expands its rule the plains of Marathon, about 22 miles from Athens. and ultimately defeats the Kushite kingdom. The decisive Greek victory at Marathon ends the immediate Persian threat. 371 B.C.E. Battle at Leuctra Sparta is defeated at the Battle of Leuctra by Epae-480 B.C.E. Thermopylae and Salamis minondas of Thebes. The defeat shatters the myth The Persians’ quest for world domination is stopped of Spartan invincibility and ends Sparta’s hegemony for the second time, allowing the flowering of Greek over Greece. civilization, especially in Athens. 359 B.C.E. Philip II479 B.C.E. Founding of Confucianism Philip II becomes regent of Macedonia and reorganizes Confucius—China’s greatest philosopher—founds the army to make it one of the strongest in Greece. the school of Confucianism, which becomes China’s state philosophy in the second century b.c.e. 334 B.C.E. Alexander the Great Alexander the Great leads a Greek army of 35,000470–391 B.C.E. Moism Is Founded soldiers into battle against the Persian army led by Moism, a school of philosophy, is founded by Mozi. Darius III at Granicus. Alexander’s troops gain the It flourishes during the Hundred Schools era in China upper hand and kill or capture half of the Persian and subsequently dies out. army, which is forced to retreat.460 B.C.E. Age of Pericles 331 B.C.E. Battle of Gaugamela The age of Pericles lasts from 461 (when Pericles Darius III and the Persian Empire make a final stand becomes the dominant politician in Athens) until 429. in October 331 at Gaugamela near Arbela in the It is a period of expanding democracy at home and heart of Assyria. Nearly 1 million men face an army increasing imperialism abroad. of 50,000 Macedonians under Alexander. Forced to flee the battlefield, Darius is pursued and eventually431–404 B.C.E. Peloponnesian War assassinated, thereby ending the Persian Empire. For 27 years, Athens and Sparta engage in warfare. The war ends with a Spartan victory. 330 B.C.E. Reforms of Shang Lord Shang becomes chief minister of the state of Qin429 B.C.E. Hippocratic Oath in China and begins to implement legalism as its state Named after the famous Greek physician, the oath is philosophy. still taken by contemporary physicians. 326 B.C.E. Mauryan Empire400 B.C.E. Andean Civilizations The Maurya dynasty is founded in India by Chandra- Decline of Chavín culture complex in Central High- gupta Maurya. It will unite most of the Indian sub- lands and central Pacific coast and the rise of Pukará continent plus Afghanistan. polities in northern Titicaca Basin. 321 B.C.E. Ptolemy400 B.C.E. Late Preclassic in Maya Zones Ptolemy, ruler of Egypt, defeats Antigonus at the Bat- The end of the Middle Preclassic period and beginning of tle of Gaza. Ptolemy is supported by Seleucus, who the Late Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. goes on to reconquer Babylonia.400 B.C.E. Decline of the Kush 300 B.C.E. Yayoi Culture in Japan Kushite kingdom with capital at Meroë, in present-day This neolithic culture replaces the more primitive Sudan, begins to decline. Jomon culture.399 B.C.E. Socrates Dies 300 B.C.E. Euclid Publishes Elements Socrates, the foremost Greek philosopher, who taught The Greek mathematician Euclid, living in Alexan- Plato, author of the Republic, dies. Their work had a dria, publishes a 13-volume work called Elements that major impact on Western thought. lays out, for the first time, the principles of geometry.
  • 22. Chronology xxiii300 B.C.E. Bantus in Western Africa 200 B.C.E. Bantu Migrations in Africa Bantus in western Africa use iron implements, skills Bantu migrations from western Africa into central and perhaps gained from Kushites. southern Africa begin and last for several hundred years; Bantus are largely agriculturalists.269–232 B.C.E. Mauryan Empire Ashoka expands the Mauryan Empire of India to its 195 B.C.E. Wei Man Establishes Kingdom in North maximum. He converts to Buddhism and convenes Korea the third Buddhist Council. Wei Man flees China with followers and sets up rule centered at Pyongyang in Korea. His family rules265–241 B.C.E. First Punic War until China annexes northern Korea in 109 b.c.e. The First Punic War is fought between Rome and Carthage over claims to Sicily. 195–180 B.C.E. Empress Lu of China Wife of Liu Bang, she rules as regent after his death;245 B.C.E. Third Syrian War she attempts but fails to establish her own dynasty. The Third Syrian War starts when Ptolemy III’s sis- ter is killed by his former wife. Ptolemy responds by 149 B.C.E. Third Punic War invading the Seleucid Empire, advancing all the way The Roman army lands at Carthage and lays siege to to Bactria. the city. After a three-year siege, the Romans capture Carthage and destroy the city.240 B.C.E. Archemides Shows Value of Pi Archemides, the Greek mathematician, is the first to 149–148 B.C.E. Fourth Macedonian War determine the value of pi. He also successfully calcu- The Macedonians led by Andricus rebel against Roman lates the area of a circle. rule. The Romans defeat the Macedonians and make Macedonia a province of Rome.218–201 B.C.E. Second Punic War Carthage and Rome fight a 17-year war. It takes place 144 B.C.E. Aqueducts in Rome in both Italy, which is attacked by Hannibal, and then The Romans develop an extensive aqueduct system to Carthage. Rome is victorious. bring water to Rome.221 B.C.E. Qin State Unifies China 141–87 B.C.E. Han Wudi Qin state in northwestern China establishes a His reign sees successful Chinese offensives against the national dynasty and begins imperial age in Chinese Xiongnu and the beginning of Chinese dominance of history. Central Asia. The Silk Road flourishes and Confucian- ism becomes China’s state ideology.216 B.C.E. First Macedonian War The first Macedonian War breaks out when Philip V 138 B.C.E. Zhang Qian “discovers” Central Asia for of Macedonia invades Illyria. The Romans use their China superior naval forces to stop the Macedonians. His epic journeys leads to Chinese interest in Central Asia and East-West trade via the Silk Road.209 B.C.E. Maotun Unites Xiongnu Tribes The Xiongnu nomadic tribes will become dominant 111 B.C.E. Annam Conquered by Han China in the steppes and formidable foes of China for the Annam (North Vietnam) comes under Chinese politi- next three centuries. cal rule and cultural influence.206 B.C.E. Xiang Yu Attempts to Unify China 108 B.C.E. Northern Korea Conquered by Han China With the end of the Qin dynasty, Xiang emerges as It comes under Chinese political rule and cultural the strongest contender for leadership of China. He is influence. defeated by Liu Bang in 202 b.c.e. 100 B.C.E. Nabatean City of Petra202 B.C.E. Han Dynasty in China Nabateans, an Arab tribe, establish a thriving Founded by commoner Liu Bang, the Han consolidates commercial state at Petra in present-day southern the imperial tradition begun in the Qin dynasty. Jordan.
  • 23. xxiv Chronology91–88 B.C.E. Social War the Senate and is guilty of treason. Pompey is forced The Social War breaks out when Italians who are not to flee as Roman soldiers flock to Caesar, who suc- citizens of the Roman Empire revolt. cessfully gains control of all Italy.87 B.C.E. Sima Qian completes The Historical Records 44 B.C.E. Caesar Assassinated Sima Qian writes the complete history of the Chinese Caesar is assassinated by a group of Roman senators world up to his time, which becomes the exemplar of that includes Marcus Brutus. The death of Caesar is later Chinese historical writing. followed by a power struggle between Mark Antony and Octavian.82 B.C.E. Consul Sulla Enters Rome Consul Sulla returns to Rome after subduing oppo- 43 B.C.E. Cicero Assassinated nents of Roman rule. Sulla is elected dictator of Cicero, the great Roman orator, denounces Antony. In Rome. retaliation, Antony orders the assassination of Cicero.73 B.C.E. Third Servile War 42 B.C.E. Antony Defeats Cassius The most famous slave revolt, known as the Third Mark Antony battles the forces of Cassius at Philippi. Servile War, is led by the slave Spartacus, a gladia- Cassius is defeated and commits suicide. Twenty days tor; Spartacus and his men seize Mount Vesuvius, and later, forces under Brutus are also defeated, and Bru- thousands of slaves flock to his support. tus commits suicide.69 B.C.E. Cleopatra 37 B.C.E. Herod the Great Cleopatra reigns as queen of Egypt from 69 to 30 Herod the Great is recognized by the Roman Senate b.c.e. as king of Judaea. The Hasmonean dynasty that had ruled Judaea until this period allies themselves with the65 B.C.E. Pompey’s Conquest Parthians, who are defeated by Mark Antony’s forces. Roman forces under Pompey defeat Mithridates VI, king of Pontus. Pompey forces Mithridates to flee to 31 B.C.E. Battle of Actium the eastern Black Sea region and then to Armenia. Mark Antony and Octavian fight a naval battle at Actium off Epirus in western Greece. Although the60 B.C.E. Triumvirate battle is decisive, Antony and his love, Cleopatra, flee Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Marcus Crassus form the to Egypt, where Antony’s army surrenders. Antony first triumvirate to rule Rome. and Cleopatra kill themselves soon after.57 B.C.E. Caesar Defeats Tribes 27 B.C.E. Octavian Julius Caesar defeats the Celtic Helvetica tribes from Octavian becomes the “Augustus,” and the era of the what is present-day Switzerland at Bibracate in pres- Roman Empire begins. ent-day France. C.E. The Common Era begins with the birth of Jesus Christ,55 B.C.E. Caesar Invades Britain although Jesus probably is born between 7 and 4 b.c.e. Caesar leads Roman troops across the Straits of Dover and returns to England the next year with a larger 6 C.E. Herod Deposed force to defeat the Catuvellauni and establish Roman Herod Archelaus is deposed by the Roman emperor sovereignty over parts of England. Augustus.50 B.C.E. Kingdoms of Korea Founded 9 C.E. German Tribes Destroy Roman Legions The kingdoms of Korea are founded around 50 b.c.e. Three Roman legions are defeated by a German army There are the Koguryo in the north, Silla in the south- led by Ariminus, thereby ensuring German indepen- east, and Pakche in the southwest. dence from Rome.49 B.C.E. Caesar Crosses the Rubicon 9 C.E. Xin Dynasty Julius Caesar and his army cross the Rubicon in Wang Mang usurps the Han throne, ending the West- northern Italy. By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar defies ern Han dynasty and establishes the Xin dynasty.
  • 24. Chronology xxv18 C.E. Red Eyebrow Rebellion 100 C.E. Terminal Preclassic Period in Maya Zones Peasant rebellion in China contributes to the down- The end of the Late Preclassic period and beginning fall of Wang Mang’s usurpation. of the Terminal Preclassic in the Maya zones of Meso- america.25–220 C.E. Eastern Han Dynasty After the death of Wang Mang, the Han dynasty is 122 C.E. Hadrian’s Wall Is Built restored, called the Eastern Han. The Roman emperor Hadrian orders the construction of a defensive wall stretching 70 miles across north-30 or 33 C.E. Jesus Crucified ern England to keep out the Scottish tribes. Jesus Christ is put to death by the Romans in Jerusalem. 132 C.E. Bar Kokhba Revolt39 C.E. Revolt of Trung Sisters The Jews of Jerusalem rise up in rebellion in 132 after Unsuccessful revolt of Annam (North Vietnam) from the Romans build a temple to Jupiter on the site of Chinese rule. the Jewish Temple. The revolt is led by Simon bar Kokhba and Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph but is ultimate-64 C.E. Rome Burns ly crushed. The city of Rome is nearly destroyed in a catastrophic fire. The fire is said to have been set by the emperor 167 C.E. German Tribes Invade Northern Italy Nero. The German tribes cross the Danube River and attack the Roman Empire.66 C.E. Judaea Rebels against Rome A rebellion breaks out in Jerusalem against Roman 180 C.E. Marcus Aurelius Dies rule. The Romans dispatch an army from Syria to quell Marcus Aurelius dies and is succeeded by his son, the revolt, but it is destroyed on the way to Jerusalem. Commodus. Commodus is the first emperor since Domitian to succeed by virtue of birth, rather than by68 C.E. Year of the Four Emperors assassination. Four separate emperors rule Rome. 184 C.E. Revolt of the Yellow Turbans70 C.E. Jerusalem Falls A peasant revolt in China contributes to the fall of the Titus succeeds in capturing Jerusalem; he burns Jeru- Eastern Han dynasty. salem, killing or selling into slavery tens of thousands of Jews. 200 C.E. Teotihuacán in Mexico Teotihuacán, a vast urban center with pyramids and78 C.E. Kushan Empire public buildings in Mexico, flourishes to c. 600. The Kushan dynasty is established by King Kanishka. It extends from Afghanistan to the Indus Valley and is 220 C.E. Han Dynasty ends the melting pot of Greco-Roman, Persian, and Indian Last Han emperor is forced to abdicate. cultures. 220–265 C.E. Three Kingdoms in China79 C.E. Mount Vesuvius Explodes Era of wars between three regional states—Wei, Shu Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying the Roman cities Han, and Wu—for control of China. of Pompeii and Herculaneum. 250 C.E. Early Classic Period in Maya Zones96–180 C.E. Five Good Emperors Beginning of the Early Classic Period in the high- Starting with Emperor Marcus Nerva, Rome is ruled lands and lowlands of the Maya zones of Meso- by five individuals who become known as the Good america. Emperors. 265–589 C.E. Period of Division100 C.E. Emergence of Moche Culture in Peru Northern China is ruled after 317 by nomadic dynas- Moche culture, which is hierarchical with warrior- ties of Turkic ethnicity, while southern China remains priest kings, emerges in Peru and flourishes until with ethnic Chinese dynasties. Buddhism is dominant approximately 700 c.e. in both north and south.
  • 25. xxvi Chronology267 C.E. Queen Zenobia Rules Palmyra 405–411 C.E. Fa Xian Travels to India Zenobia rules rich trading entrepôt at Palmyra in Chinese Buddhist monk travels to India, records northeastern present-day Syria and fights against Gupta culture, and returns to China with Buddhist Roman domination until her defeat in 272. manuscripts.300 C.E. Axum Kingdom in East Africa 407 C.E. Romans Withdraw from Britain Axum kingdom rules Ethiopia and later much of pres- Western Roman Emperor Honorius withdraws his ent-day Sudan after defeating Kushites; under King troops from Britain. ‘Ezana, Ethiopia becomes a Christian country. 410 C.E. Rome Sacked by Visigoths320 C.E. Gupta Dynasty After a decade of battles, the Visigoths under Alaric The Gupta Empire is founded by Chandragupta I. sack Rome in 410. Under his successor the Gupta Empire extends to include all of northern India. 439 C.E. Carthage Captured by Vandals The Roman city of Carthage is captured by Vandals324 C.E. Constantine the Great under the command of Genseric, who makes Car- Constantine the Great initiates a civil war of succes- thage his capital. sion against his potential rivals for the throne. In a series of engagements that culminates in 324 at the 441 C.E. First Saxon Revolt Battle of Adrianople (in present-day Turkey), Con- The first Saxon revolt against native Britons occurs stantine defeats his rivals and becomes the undisputed in 441. emperor of all Rome. 451 C.E. Attila the Hun Defeated330 C.E. Byzantium Attila faces the Visigoths and Romans together in Constantine the Great dedicates his new capital at the Battle of Chalons (Châlons). Attila is defeated Byzantium, renamed after himself as Constantinople. and forced to withdraw.337 C.E. Roman Empire Divides 455 C.E. Saxons Crushs Britons Constantine dies, and the empire is divided with the At the Battle of Aylesford in Kent, England, the Sax- Western Roman Empire governed from Rome and ons led by Hengst and Horsa defeat the Britons. This the Eastern Roman Empire governed by Constanti- battle is an important step in the Saxon conquest of nople. Britain.357 C.E. Battle of Argentoratum 455 C.E. Vandals Sack Rome At the Battle of Argentoratum in 357, the Roman The Vandals attack and invade Rome. general Julian drives the Franks from Gaul, thus re- establishing the Rhine as the frontier of the empire. 476 C.E. Western Roman Empire Ends The Western Roman Empire ends after Emperor376–415 C.E. Chandragupta II Romulus Augustulus is deposed by German merce- India reaches its golden classical age. Both Buddhism naries at Ravenna. The German mercenaries then and Hinduism flourish. declare themselves rulers of Italy.376 C.E. Ostrogoths Invaded 486 C.E. Roman Occupation of Gaul Ends The Huns, a nomadic Mongol people, sweep in from The last Roman emperor of France is defeated by Asia and defeat the Ostrogoth Empire. Clovis I, king of the Salian Franks, and Clovis estab- lishes the Kingdom of the Franks.378 C.E. Valens Killed by Visigoths After their defeat by the Huns, the Visigoths seek 488 C.E. Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy refuge in the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Theodoric I (the Great) invades northern Italy at Valens gives them permission to cross the Danube as the request of the Byzantine emperor. He conquers long as they agree to disarm, but the Visigoths are Italy and establishes the Ostrogothic Kingdom of mistreated by Roman officials and revolt. Italy.
  • 26. Chronology xxvii500 C.E. Ghanaian Kingdom in West Africa 550 C.E. Gupta Empire Ends The Ghanaian kingdom in western Africa rises to India is disrupted by rebels and Huna invaders. power and reaches its apogee of power in 1050. 552 C.E. Battle at Taginae500 C.E. Svealand The Byzantine army invades Italy and defeats The first Swedish state, Svealand, is founded around the Ostrogoths using a combination of pikes and 500. The Goths inhabit the southern part of the Scan- bows. dinavian Peninsula. Much of what is known about early Sweden is taken from the epic Beowulf, written 552 C.E. Buddhism Introduced to Japan in 700 C.E. Buddhist missionaries from Korea reach Japan and begin to influence the Yamato court.500 C.E. Introduction of Zero Indian mathematicians revolutionize arithmetic by 558–650 C.E. The Avars introducing zero (0) to number systems. The Avars, a Turkish Mongolian group, form an empire that extends from the Volga to the Hungarian503–557 C.E. Persian-Roman Wars plains. In 626, they lay siege to Constantinople but Between 503 and 557, three successive wars—interrupt- are forced to withdraw. ed by periods of peace—are fought between the Persian Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. In 567 a peace 565 C.E. Justinian the Great is reached under which Rome agrees to pay the Persians Justinian the Great dies in 565, bringing to an end 38 30,000 pieces of gold annually, the borders between the years of rule as leader of the Byzantine Empire. Under empires are reaffirmed, Christian worship is to be pro- his stewardship, the empire expands to include all of tected in the Persian Empire, and regulations regarding North Africa and parts of the Middle East as well as trade and diplomatic relations are delineated. Italy and Greece. Under Justinian, the first comprehen- sive compilation of Roman law is issued, known as507 C.E. Kingdom of Franks Justinian’s Code. Clovis defeats the Visigoths under Alaric II at the Bat- tle of Vouille. The Visigoths retreat into Spain, where 572 C.E. Leovigild, King of Visigoths they retain their empire. Leovigild, king of the Visigoths, reinvigorates the empire and extends Visigoth dominance over all of530 C.E. Western Monasticism the Iberian Peninsula. Saint Benedict formulates his rule, enabling monas- teries in Europe to preserve treasures of civilization as 581 C.E. Sui Dynasty Reunites China the Roman Empire decays. After nearly four centuries of internal divisions and strife, China reunites under the leadership of532 C.E. Nika Revolt Yang Jian under the Sui dynasty. Yang uses Bud- A popular uprising against the emperor Justinian dhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to help unite the occurs in Constantinople, but the emperor, with the realm. support of Empress Theodora, crushes the revolt. 598 C.E. Pope Greogory Obtains 30-Year Truce537 C.E. Hagia Sophia Basilica Built Gregory the Great is the first monk to become pope; The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is completed. he controls the civil affairs of Rome and expands the The basilica represents the apogee of Byzantine archi- power of the church. Gregory also negotiates a 30- tecture. It was later made into a mosque by the Otto- year truce with the Lombards to ensure the indepen- mans in 1450. dence of Rome.
  • 27. Major Themes Prehistoric Eras to 600 c.e.FOOD PRODUCTIONSurvival in the face of the elements has been the struggle for most of human existence on the planet.Since their emergence, Homo sapiens have invested most of their time in hunting and food gather-ing and staying warm and dry during the periods known as the ice ages. Modern human beingsmigrated from their first home in Africa into Europe, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas, probablyfollowing herds of bison and mastodon, an early source of food. They were so successful in theirhunting that many animal herds were reduced to the point of extinction. As the climate changed and the ice receded, new possibilities for food production occurred.Our human ancestors began to gather edible plants and learned how to domesticate them. This wasan agricultural revolution that allowed them to break free from their nomadic past and establishsedentary communities. Along with cultivating plants came the domestication of animals, probablyfirst dogs and then livestock that would provide meat, milk products, as well as hides for clothing.Some animals became beasts of burden. In the division of labor between genders, women assumeddomestic roles that included cooking, tending small animals, and weaving, while men did the farm-ing, hunting, and herding of large animals. These new methods of food production could producesurpluses, which in turn allowed larger communities to develop, advancing civilization. Where con-ditions did not allow agriculture, nomadism continued. By and large, nomads existed on the fringesof the civilized world, and they failed to develop written languages. The agricultural revolutionoccurred first in Mesopotamia and spread afterward to Asia and Europe. Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia, or the Fertile Crescent, developed the world’s first cities, so itis not surprising that wheat and barley were first cultivated there. Irrigation and the drainage ofswamps also first occurred there, around 5000 b.c.e. From time immemorial the Nile River over-flowed its banks bringing fertile silt and water to the narrow and prolific floodplain. When the Nilefailed, social upheaval and revolution often followed. In China, agriculture began along the Yellow River valley around 10,000 b.c.e. with the domesti-cation of millet, barley, and other crops. Rice was first grown along the Yangtze River valley around xxix
  • 28. xxx Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. 5000 b.c.e. and later became the staple food for much of Asia. By 3000 b.c.e. the Chinese had invented the plow, and by 400 b.c.e., iron-clad farming implements. The agricultural revolution occurred along the Indus River valley before 5000 b.c.e., where farmers cultivated wheat, barley, peas, and other crops. Farming became common across Europe by 3500 b.c.e., but for centuries afterward, farmers worked a piece of land until the soil wore out, then simply moved on to virgin fields. Such practice is roughly the same as the “slash and burn” farming of seminomadic communities in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, still in use to the present day. A remedy for soil depletion was crop rotation: One plant replenished what another plant took from the soil the previous season. This method was practiced first in Europe around 1400 b.c.e. In the Western Hemisphere the agricultural revolution began first in Mexico, perhaps around 5000 b.c.e. The “three sisters” of diet in this part of the world—maize, beans, and squash—provided a balanced diet and source of nutrition for the indigenous people, and they required little labor to produce. Beasts of Burden. The first beasts of burden to be domesticated were the donkey, the buffalo, and the camel, all by 3000 b.c.e. The llama was used in the Andes Mountains in South America. Animal husbandry lagged behind in the Americas because horses died out early in this part of the world and were only reintroduced by Europeans after 1500 c.e. Over the centuries people as far separated as the Celts and Chinese adopted the horse to great advantage. However, at first the horses were mainly used to pull war chariots; later for cavalry, and not commonly for agricultural labor. Human diet throughout the world largely consisted of cereal grains, beans, vegetable oils, fresh vegetables and fruits, dairy products, occasional fresh meat, and fermented beverages made from either fruit or grains. Consumption of cereals came in many forms, but in Europe, the Near East, and the Americas mainly through coarse bread. White bread, made of fine wheat flour without the germ, was most highly prized throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. In 350 b.c.e. a new strain of wheat suitable for such bread was cultivated in Egypt, and Egypt and North Africa thereafter became a granary for the Mediterranean peoples. Fruits and vegetables were consumed locally. Trade and migrations introduced new plants across Eurasia and Africa and resulted in great improvements in food production. Sub-Saharan Africa produced food surpluses with the introduc- tion of the banana by the Malay peoples (of present-day Indonesia). Because of this fortuitous event, in the fourth century b.c.e. the city-states of Nigeria were able to flourish. Another revolutionary product, sugarcane, was cultivated in India and the East Indies from 100 b.c.e., but its dissemina- tion to Europe waited for the discovery of a process of refinement. Instead, honey and concentrated fruit were used for sweetening throughout much of the ancient world. The New World offered a variety of plants not available in the Old World, most important maize, but also cacao, papaya, guava, avocado, pineapple, chilies, and sassafras. Several of the more common foods today originally come from the Americas: peanuts, potatoes, and tomatoes. The relationship between abundant food and community development was readily apparent in this hemisphere: Where farming flourished (Mesoamerica and South America), city-states and civiliza- tions abounded; but where farming lagged (North America), population centers were few and less organized. The “discovery” of the Americas by Western explorers had an enormous impact on diet and nutritional resources throughout the world. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS Many ancient cultures were fascinated with the movement of the heavenly bodies because people thought that they exerted influence on earthly events. The ancients carefully observed astral rhythms and computed how the seasons fit this schedule. Sumer, one of the earliest Mesopotamian cities, left behind the first calendar (354 days) by 2700 b.c.e. China had developed a calendar system very similar to the modern one by 1400 b.c.e. In Cen- tral America the Maya developed an amazingly accurate calendar that could predict eclipses and planetary conjunctions that mirrored the modern way of calculating years, based on a commonly
  • 29. Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxiaccepted event like the birth of Christ. Dionysius Exiguus (a Christian) invented the current datingsystem in the sixth century c.e. Metal Forging. Copper smelting began in Catal Huyuk (perhaps the earliest city excavated,found in modern-day Turkey) before the Bronze Age. However, the people in northern Thailandwere the first to make bronze (an alloy of tin and copper) around 4000 b.c.e. The first bronzefoundry in China developed around 2200 b.c.e. Craftspeople among the Hittites of western Asiaperfected iron making for their weapons by 1200 b.c.e.; iron work was also known in centralAfrica. The Iron Age reached China by 500 b.c.e. Being cheaper to produce than bronze, iron soonfound widespread use in war and farming. The Chinese began casting iron a thousand years beforeEuropeans did. At about the same time they began to cast iron the Chinese also began to make steel.Researchers have recently uncovered a Chinese belt buckle made of aluminum, showing that theybegan to refine this metal some 1,500 years before Europeans. In the Andes area gold smelting, usedlargely for jewelry, developed around 200 b.c.e. After 600 c.e. Western Hemisphere cultures alsobegan to smelt silver and copper but never processed iron or bronze. Rubber was first found amongthe Chavín culture of the Andes around 1100 b.c.e. Scientific Tools and Speculation. Peoples of the Near East were the first to develop writing. Theyused papyrus, animal skins, and clay tablets. The earliest surviving writing in China was found incisedon animal bones and turtle shells and cast into bronze vessels. The Chinese invented paper aroundthe beginning of the Common Era, a much cheaper medium than silk and less cumbersome than claytablets or metal. Western civilizations made strong contributions to the speculative disciplines of mathematics andsciences. The abacus was invented in the Near East around 3000 b.c.e., an indication of fascinationfor numbers, mathematics, and the sciences. Famous scientists include Pythagoras (500 b.c.e.), who,in addition to figuring out useful things related to triangles, developed both scientific and eccentrictheories about the physical universe. Euclid (300 b.c.e.) is still studied today for his insights in geom-etry, and his theory profited another Greek mathematician, Aristarchus, who computed the distancebetween the Sun and the Moon c. 280 b.c.e. Archimedes in turn figured out pi and invented suchsimple machines as the lever and the pulley. Greek astronomers also made observations and deduc-tions that were unparalleled until Galileo during the European Renaissance. Chinese mathematicians were first to use exponential formulae and scientific notation (200b.c.e.) and utilized several other innovations: the magnetic compass (1 c.e.), “negative numbers”(100 c.e.), and north-south, east-west parallels in maps (265 c.e.). Industry and Medicine. Two civilizations used the wheel to advantage in their development.They were the Sumer (c. 3000 b.c.e.) and the Shang dynasty in China (c. 1700 b.c.e.). One practi-cal application of the wheel is the wheelbarrow, invented by the Chinese in the first century c.e.Other “wheels” of great benefit but unrelated to transportation were the potter’s wheel, found inMesopotamia as early as 3500 b.c.e., and the water wheel, a technology of hydrology inventedaround 500 b.c.e. The wheel was not used in transportation in the Western Hemisphere. The Egyptians were the earliest glassmakers (c. 1500 b.c.e.), but by 100 b.c.e. Syria becamea major exporter of high-quality glasswares. In manufacturing cloth the Chinese were the first todomesticate the silkworm and to cultivate mulberry trees during the Neolithic Period. Silk-weavingtechnology then spread elsewhere and by 550 c.e. had reached the Byzantine Empire. Cotton waswoven and traded in the Indus River valley around 2500 b.c.e. Although cotton growing and spin-ning are adopted by other cultures, Indian textiles remain famous throughout the period. The Chinese have a long and venerable history of homeopathy and natural remedies in healthcare. Acupuncture started in China (2500 b.c.e.). The Mesoamericans are known to have acquireda vast knowledge of the medicinal use of plants. Chroniclers in the New World listed some 1,200indigenous medicinal plants that sprang from native treatments and traditions. The Greek worldis known for its well-published and imitated physicians, as well as remedies for ailments. Thefamous Greek physician Hippocrates wrote the Corpus Hippocraticum (400 b.c.e.), a textbookfor medical doctors. Other Greek physicians of note included Erasistratus of Chios who explained
  • 30. xxxii Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. heart valves (250 c.e.) and Galen (third century c.e.), whose medical writings provided advice for centuries to come. SOCIAL AND CLASS RELATIONS The social structure of the earliest civilizations shows hierarchies and a concentration of power among certain elites. There were few matriarchal societies in the ancient world; most were patri- archal and polygamous among the wealthy social classes. As civilizations developed and expanded, their social structures often had to be modified. Sometimes this resulted in a decentralization of power, even on rare occasions, as in ancient Greece, in democracy. At other times changes were forced by foreign invasions. Egypt. The apex of Egyptian society was the pharaoh since he (or more precisely, his “house” or the institution that he incarnated) stood as the intermediary between the world of gods and of human beings. The pharaoh’s main duty was to maintain maat, an apotheosized state of cosmic balance or justice for his whole realm. Pharaoh owned vast tracts of land and sometimes vied with priests for con- trol and status. His office was hereditary and dynastic. History records one woman, Hatshepsut, who served as regent for more than 20 years until the son of the previous pharaoh could assume power. When the Nile failed and Egyptian life was disrupted, the ruling dynasty lost credibility and pro- vincial administrators, the priestly class, or foreigners intervened, resulting in the installing of a new dynasty. One group of outsiders who seized power sometime around 1600 b.c.e. was the Hyksos, a Semitic people. However, by 1300 b.c.e. a native dynasty had returned to power, and the outsiders were expelled. The conservative nature of Egyptian society, reinforced by the regularity of the Nile and the insularity of the land, made for few social and class changes in its long history. India. Plentiful artifacts and architectural remains from the Indus River civilization survive but so far the writing has not been deciphered. The Indo-Europeans brought social and class changes when they settled in northern India around 1500 b.c.e. Their hierarchic and warlike society can be seen in the mythology narrated in their Sanskrit scripture, the Vedas. Their class structure and suppression of native peoples resulted in the imposition of the caste system that dominates Indian society to this day. Although the Indo-Europeans did not settle in southern India, they nevertheless influenced the darker-skinned Dravidian people there, who also adopted the caste system. Aryan religion was modified around 500 b.c.e. by new concepts introduced by the Upanishads and by new protest religions called Buddhism and Jainism. After reaching its maximum influence from the reign of Emperor Ashoka (c. 280 b.c.e.) to the Gupta dynasty (c. 350 c.e.), Buddhism largely faded from Indian society but spread to China and Southeast Asia. China. Rulers of the Shang dynasty (c. 1700–1100 b.c.e.) established themselves as the sole intermediary between the human world and the spirit world, as did its successor, the Zhou (Chou) dynasty (c. 1100–256 b.c.e.). Zhou rulers relied on a network of feudal relations to extend the Chi- nese empire and claimed their right to rule under the concept called “mandate of heaven.” This was a double-edged sword as heaven rewarded virtuous rulers and punished unjust ones through giving the people the right to revolt. The decline of Zhou power and centuries of civil wars culminated in the unification of China under the Qin (Ch’in) dynasty. The Qin unified their conquest through the imposition of absolute government power, under an ideology called Legalism. The brief experiment with Legalism made the next dynasty, Han, turn to Confucianism. Confucian society divided the people into four non- hereditary social classes: the scholar-officials, farmers, artisans, and merchants. Confucians taught that the family was the center of society. It remained China’s official ideology from the second cen- tury b.c.e. to the 20th century c.e. Preliterate nomads along its northern frontier confronted the sedentary Chinese civilization. The most formidable among them from the late Zhou to the post-Han era were called the Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu), whose defeat by the Han rulers after c. 100 b.c.e. led to the opening of the Silk Road that would link China with India, Central Asia, Persia, and Rome. In addition to the exchange of economic goods, Buddhism and some Western ideas entered China via this commercial route.
  • 31. Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxiii Classical Greece. For all the democratic reforms attributed to the ancient Greeks, only Athensand its allies accepted this form of “equality under the law,” and even then the rights were brief induration and limited to male citizens. Because of the stubborn autonomy that each city-state claimedfor itself, it is hard to sum up Greek social and class relationships. In general, Greeks despised kings,prized local identities, often quarreled among themselves, and nonetheless cooperated in matters ofathletic competition. They also agreed about the superiority of the Greek language, religion, andcommerce compared with those of other peoples. They rarely mixed with non-Greek “barbarians.”Non-Greek slaves, who did the work too undignified for Greeks to do, were grudgingly accepted.Family and marriage were valued because survival depended on having enough children so that thenext generation would protect the city with an army and take care of the citizens in old age. Rome. Early Rome overturned its Etruscan kings and became a republic dominated by a groupof men who made decisions for all the citizens. These leaders were called senators, and they camefrom an aristocratic class called the patricians. Commoners (or plebeians) owned small plots of landand were full citizens of the early republic, but their role in government was limited to veto powerof plebiscites and election of their own spokesmen, called tribunes. Class struggles led to civil warsand the disintegration of republican institutions. As Rome acquired land outside the Italian peninsula, two changes occurred that affected Romansociety: First, the patrician class benefited because successful wars increased its wealth and power;second, the old system of running Roman politics failed to cope with the new empire’s demands.The plebeians abandoned their small farms and moved to the city for economic opportunities.Rome’s leaders were increasingly compelled to provide “bread and circuses” to keep the unem-ployed citizens content. Popular disenchantment with the new arrangements and the leaders’ ten-dency to foment civil war motivated the likes of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony to experiment withnew forms of government. Though the office of Caesar (a term that came to mean both emperor anddemigod) proved popular, there was still an undercurrent of discontent from classes as diverse as theoriginal patricians of the Republic days and newly acquired slaves, numbering up to one-third of thecity’s population. Spartacus led a throng of disgruntled slaves in 73 b.c.e., requiring eight legions toquash the uprising. Julius Caesar, the hero of the new imperial age, was murdered in the Senate byold guard Republicans on the Ides of March, 44 b.c.e. The Caesars adapted by expanding the opportunities for citizenship and by giving slaves andfreedmen opportunities to gain wealth and improve their status. However, there is no evidence thatwealth disparities diminished over the whole imperial period. The steady rise of inadequacies of theRoman religion led to the spread of Christianity among all ranks for Roman society. The Americas. Mesoamerican and Andean peoples became more hierarchical and stratifiedas urbanization increased. Birth, lineage, and occupation determined one’s place in these civiliza-tions. The overall class structure was pyramidal with the ruler and nobility on top, followed bya priestly class, a warrior class, merchants and traders, artisans and crafts workers, then agricul-turalists, with servants and slaves on the bottom. The whole schema was cemented together bya mythology that resembled that of Shang China or pharaonic Egypt: The gods approved of theelites as guardians of the secret lore concerning such things as astronomy, calendrical calcula-tions, and ritual, which enabled them to stay in power. While there is some evidence of lower-class discontent, the preponderance of evidence indicates that wars, invasions, and ecologicalbottlenecks—not internal class conflicts—were primarily responsible for the decline of classicMesoamerican civilizations. Literary Classics and Monasteries. The ability to read and write was considered almost magi-cal by potentate and peasant alike in the ancient world. This fascination with the written textexplains why those ancient religions that survived are scripture based. Reading and writing becameparticularly useful as cities and civilizations required more complex administration and organiza-tion. At first, writing was complicated and unwieldy (such as Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinesepictographs), and few could master the thousands of symbols in each written language. As a resultcertain societies honored the scholarly class or compelled their administrators to pass literacy tests
  • 32. xxxiv Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. (such as in China under the influence of Confucianism, beginning in the Han dynasty). In the New World only the Maya devised a written language utilizing a system of 800 glyphs. Some ancient scripts evolved and became syllabic or hybrids of pictures and sounds (such as Mesopotamian cuneiform), which reduced the number of symbols from thousands to hundreds. When Ugarit reduced its symbols to 30, cuneiform became the standard script in the Near East for laws and literature. The Phoenicians were important because they perfected the alphabet letters to represent sounds. Soon the Greeks added vowels, and the alphabet as we know it was invented. The alphabet was simple enough that many could learn it and gain access to literature and history and thus power. Israel gave an institutional place to the prophet as a critic of the ruling king and priest, and the prophet’s critique—once it was written down—became a powerful statement to future generations about the limits of power. Greece flourished in the fifth century b.c.e. in the arts and sciences because it too encouraged literacy among its people. In many civilizations monastic societies were seen as separate from the secular society. The roots for Western monasticism came from Anthony of the Desert (late 300s c.e.) and the “Desert Fathers and Mothers” of Egypt (300–500 c.e.), indicating Eastern Christian influence on the Latin Church. Benedict (c. 500 c.e.) is called the father of the monastic movement in the West. His rule came at a critical time for Western civilization, because various barbarian tribes had broken through the fron- tiers and were destroying cities and institutions, yet the empire had taken few measures to preserve its manifold cultural heritage. The monasteries of Benedict and his followers provided an alternate society, a counterculture with its own meritocracy and value system. By the end of the period it was the monas- teries that powerfully preserved culture and encouraged progress: They showed hospitality to displaced refugees, they developed and retaught agricultural techniques, they recopied precious manuscripts, and they eventually returned to recivilize the people that were once were proud Roman citizens. The only Western library of the sixth century c.e. that functioned after Rome’s decline was Benedict’s at Vivari- um. Similarly, Hindus and Buddhists honored monastic institutions as well as individual ascetics. TRADE AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES From the beginning humans have migrated and mixed with one another. The first migration took place out of Africa to the Near East some 100,000 years ago, when humans spread across Europe and Asia. The ice ages provided land bridges for travel to parts of Oceania (60,000 b.c.e.) and North America (14,000 b.c.e.). DNA tests indicate that every human living in the far corners of the world can be traced back to a common ancestor in Africa. This prehistoric wanderlust continued after the beginning of civilization, enriching the civilization’s heritage. Archaeological records shows that the “cradles of civilization” were not so isolated. Even the most advanced of empires had contacts with lands and peoples that they considered out- siders and inferiors. For example, Mesopotamia (3000 b.c.e.) could produce food for its burgeoning population and cities along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, but where would it obtain copper and tin for bronze making, except in far-off Cyprus? Ancient Egypt (2600 b.c.e.) acted as though it had everything it needed because of the Nile, but where would it get its wood and ivory, not to mention its slaves, except from Semitic peoples in Phoenicia and Syria? These interactions are confirmed by physi- cal remains found by archaeologists in each of these respective sites. As history progressed and wealth and resources became more concentrated around cities, trade and cultural exchanges become more deliberate. In fact, a reliable barometer of the health of a civilization can be found in the level of trade and exchange it maintains with others. Along with the movement of goods among the ancient cities in the river valleys of Mesopota- mia, Egypt, India, and China, there were movements of peoples and tribes that affected the balance of power and development. One of the most significant migrations for later language and cultur- al development involved the expansion of Indo-European peoples around 1600 b.c.e. from their homeland between the Black and Caspian Seas. For reasons unknown they moved in several direc- tions: toward present-day Iran and India, toward the Mediterranean Sea into Europe, and toward the Middle East into Mesopotamia. Those who moved into Iran gave their land its name. By 500
  • 33. Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxvb.c.e. the descendants of these Aryans, under Cyrus the Great, had conquered the largest empire theworld had yet seen. In India these hierarchical foreigners replaced the Indus River valley city-states.The new society had an Indo-European language, known as Sanskrit, and its religion based on theVedic scriptures replaced the religion of the natives. Cultural Penetration and Subversion. Indo-Europeans met with stiff cultural resistance fromthe Dravidian people of southern India. Their harsher views moderated, and eventually thehybridization of their Vedic religion and local cultures emerged. All of these profound changeswere the results of the Indo-European encounter with the peoples of India and resulted in thedevelopment of several great religions. The Indo-Europeans also moved to the south and westof their original homeland. They marched into Mesopotamia around 1600 b.c.e. and formedthe Hittite Empire but could not keep control of the ever-shifting puzzle of native city-states.All that remained of the Hittite legacy was the war-making technology of chariots, war horses,and iron weapons. In the West they made an impact on the Mediterranean world, replacing thedominant Minoan civilization of Crete with their Mycenaean culture. Greek language, litera-ture, and ethnic identity resulted with the mixing of the Mycenaeans and later immigrants calledDorians and Ionians. The Indo-European Greek culture formed the underpinnings of modern Western civilization.Greek culture captivated the Romans, who conquered the Greeks and were in turn conqueredby the higher Greek civilization. Eventually, Roman patricians insisted on their sons being edu-cated by Greek tutors, or on sending their sons to Athens for schooling. Most important, modernRomance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese) came from the same Latin-Greek-Indo-European family. Another people who profoundly influenced other civilizations through their travels were thePhoenicians, a seafaring and adventurous people from modern Lebanon who settled as far away asBritain and even navigated around the Horn of Africa. Their greatest contribution to world prog-ress was the invention of the alphabet. With an alphabet of 24 letters, simplifying earlier writingsystems of Egyptian hieroglyphics and Sumerian cuneiform, the Phoenician script was adopted bythe Greeks, who incorporated vowels, and subsequently by many other cultures. Religious Exchanges. Three exchanges did not involve goods or people but, rather, religions:Christian influence on Rome, Jewish influence on Islam, and Islamic influence on Europe. Chris-tianity began in the highlands of Galilee and Judaea. It showed these roots profoundly, especiallywhen it directly clashed with the Roman emperor cult, because of its Semitic respect for monothe-ism and its interpretation of a Jewish doctrine called the “kingdom of God.” Such differences ledto periodic persecution and martyrdom of Christians under Roman rule. Marginalization onlyincreased the appeal of the new religion. By 310 c.e. the Christian message had reached even theruler Constantine, who converted to Christianity, resulting in an era of Christian expansion. Theearly enthusiasm of the Christian preachers had already pushed beyond the traditional territoriesof Diaspora Jews: India claims to have had contact with the apostle Thomas by 50 c.e., Armeniaby 325 c.e., Axum in Africa by 350 c.e., Persia by 488 c.e., and western Europe by 600 c.e. A second surprising cultural contact involved the Diaspora Jews in the Arabian Peninsula. WhenJews were expelled from their homeland by Roman invasions, they often went into the Easternworld instead of the West. One place they congregated was Mecca (500 c.e.), a trading and religiouscenter, halfway between Yemen and Egypt and at the crossroads of trade from the Persian Gulf.Here they established synagogues and dialogue with their Arab hosts, one of whom the Qur’an sayswas Muhammad. Much of the Qur’an presupposes the stories and ideas of the Jewish Bible. Exchange by Conquest. Cultural exchanges also resulted from military conquests and empirebuilding. Alexander the Great conducted a campaign against the Persians around 330 b.c.e. Alexan-der, a Macedonian, had been shaped by the Greek worldview due to his being held hostage in Greece,his compliance with Greek customs and lifestyle, his education by the famous Greek philosopherAristotle, and his own personal mission to spread Hellenism abroad. After his lightning-like worldconquest, he began to set up Greek institutions throughout his empire, demanding Greek as the lingua
  • 34. xxxvi Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. franca and violently repressing certain native religions (such as Zoroastrianism). He began to demand divine homage as king in the manner of the Persians. He diminished the role of Greek city-states and increased a sense of being an “empire citizen.” He caused trade between Asia and the Mediterranean to increase markedly. His military conquest resulted in profound cultural hybridization. Another form of exchange was caused by conquest. Since the third century b.c.e. a nomadic people called the Xiongnu had raided and warred with the sedentary Chinese. Chinese victories and expansion after c. 100 b.c.e. caused the Xiongnu to migrate westward, creating a snowball effect on the Gothic peoples who had settled on the frontiers of Rome for decades. When the Asian nomads (also known as the Huns) pushed through Hungary into Roman frontier areas in 376 c.e., the Goths fled into the Roman Empire. They first sacked Rome in 410 c.e. In 441 c.e. Attila the Hun launched a devastating attack and advanced all the way to Rome. The whole Roman order came apart, and the ensuing chaos led to the “Dark Ages.” The Mauryan Empire at the end of the fourth century b.c.e. controlled the Indian subcontinent, but its cultural influence went far beyond it. Indian Buddhist missionaries began proselytizing in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Afghanistan, and Central Asia, bringing a new religion, as well as Indian civi- lization. Indian trade and cultural identity not only survived the fall of the Mauryan Empire but expanded under the Gupta Empire in the fourth century c.e. The impact of the Indians on Southeast Asia was so strong that the region was called “Indianized Asia.” China dominated East Asia culturally and politically. Beginning in the second millennium b.c.e. Chinese civilization expanded from the Yellow River valley, assimilating various groups of peoples. Successive rulers of the Han dynasty incorporated present-day Korea and Vietnam into the Chinese empire. They also conquered areas deep in Central Asia, expelling or subjugating nomadic tribes including the Xiongnu. By the first century b.c.e. the two great empires, the Roman and Chi- nese, had extended dominion over much of the Eurasian world, imposing the Pax Romana and the Pax Sinica. The resultant trade and cultural interactions along the Silk Road that linked Chang’an (Ch’ang-an, the Chinese capital) and Rome by land and sea and that included Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, and the Middle East would survive the fall of both the Roman and Han and Gupta Empires. Trade exchanges between Asia and Europe picked up markedly after 500 b.c.e. due to several factors, among them improved roads and navigational techniques. New religions also encouraged missionaries to go abroad to spread their faiths. Throughout Central and South America, from as early as 2000–1500 b.c.e., there are physical remains of artifacts that were made in far-away areas of the New World, thus, proof of exchange. There was by 1000 b.c.e. a network of pan-Mesoamerican communication that connected central and southern Mexico as far south as Nicaragua. These contacts spread farming innovations into new adjacent areas. It is possible that the same sharing of information occurred between the Andes urban areas and Mesoamerica. The great city of Teotihuacán (450 c.e.) in central Mexico was a hub of travel and trade. Its road network connected the city to the North American Southwest, the Mayan highlands, and west to the Pacific. African connections to the outside world began during the reigns of several Upper Nile pha- raohs, expanded under the Persian Empire and Ptolemaic dynasty, and reached a high point under the Romans, who utilized North Africa as a breadbasket region. Romanized Africa also became a base for Christian missionary activity. In fact, the church’s leading early thinker, Augustine, came from modern-day Tunisia. Ancient Egypt and later the kingdom of Axum in present-day Sudan acted as important links in trade and in the transmission of ideas and technologies between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. URBANIZATION The founding of cities depends on several factors but none more important than an abundant supply of food and water. For this reason, in the ancient world it was common for cities to be located near rivers and coasts. Some examples of this principle at work are the cities of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia, the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers in China, the Indus River in India, and the
  • 35. Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxviiNile River in Egypt. Other factors can also explain the location of cities. For example, Constantino-ple became a thriving city without either good local farmland or freshwater because of its strategiclocation. Aqueducts and massive cisterns were built to bring in water from afar. Important cities had to be defensible. Examples of ancient sites that could withstand invasion werethe Phoenician city of Tyre, situated on an island; Corinth in Greece had an acropolis on a high hilloverlooking the harbor; and Petra in present-day Jordan, located in a desert and reachable only via anarrow and winding route through a pass. Similarly Chang’an, ancient capital of China, was protectedby nearby mountain passes that held back nomadic invaders. Even cities that did not have naturaldefenses could survive, for example, Sparta, located on a plain, or Rome, whose seven hills above theTiber River were not adequate for protection, because both developed formidable armies. Protective Walls and Impressive Monuments. Walls and fortifications protected most ancient cit-ies. One of the oldest cities in the world (7000 b.c.e.), Jericho was known in the Bible for its reput-edly impenetrable walls that protected the 2,000 people who lived there, making it a large settle-ment for its day. Other cities constructed ingenious gates, towers, and moats as safeguards againstenemies. Among the cities most famous for their gates were Mycenae (Agamemnon’s capital, 1200b.c.e.), which had a famous “Lion Gate,” and Babylonia, which had its awesome Ishtar Gate (550b.c.e.). Both of these gates were as much intended to impress as to defend. The Mauryan capital,Pataliputra (200 b.c.e.), reputedly had 570 towers and a moat. Moats were also used in Maya citiesas early as 250 c.e. Rulers decorated their capital cities with monuments and public works to flaunt their power andimpress their residents and visitors. A good example is the colossal complex of Teotihuacán (450c.e.), located near modern-day Mexico City. It had 200,000 residents and 600 pyramid temples(the largest one 700 feet long at its base, 215 feet high) in the city. Later, the Aztec described it asthe “Place of the Gods.” The bas-relief monumental art of Nineveh showed foreigners cringing infear before Sennacherib, Assyria’s king. The Egyptian pyramids of Giza were intended to solidifypharaoh’s image as the keeper of maat, or cosmic balance. The Parthenon was built by Pericles todemonstrate Athens’s preeminence among the Greek city-states in the fifth century b.c.e. The armies and laborers who defended the cities presupposed adequate manpower. Many greatstates used mercenaries to staff defenses and slaves to labor on public works tasks. The first emperorof China, who unified the country in 221 b.c.e., made intolerable demands on his people to buildwalls, canals, and roads. Similarly, in the city of Jerusalem the biblical king Solomon put alien resi-dents into servitude and taxed his subjects to poverty in order to build a temple, several palaces,and other huge projects. Rome relied heavily on the labor of its slaves, which totaled one-third ofits population by 100 b.c.e. Cities of Myth and Origin. Ur (5000 b.c.e.) was situated on the banks of the Euphrates River. Urwas a Mesopotamian religious center for centuries and the site of a famous ziggurat tower, perhapssomething like the Tower of Babel. Several thousand years later it was cited in the Jewish Bible asthe homeland of Abraham. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa (2300 b.c.e.) were cities on the banks ofthe Indus River and its tributary in present-day Pakistan. Both were well populated and developedaccording to an urban plan. The Shang dynasty built its capitals in the fertile, silt-enriched lands of the middle Yellow Riverbasin of China. One capital named Ao was surrounded by a wall, 30 feet high and 65 feet wide, thattook 19,000 men working 330 days a year for 18 years to build. The pharaohs ruled over Memphisand Thebes on the Nile, and their urban monuments stood as testimony to the power and prestigeof Egypt. According to their own reckoning, ancient Egyptians felt no need to colonize in this periodbecause they felt that inferior peoples would come to them from abroad for their plentiful resourcesand superior culture. Some of the most spectacular ancient urban centers were in the Americas, along the Peruviancoastal plain, the central Andes Mountains, and in Mesoamerica. Each city celebrated its origin with amythological tale. If a city was newly founded, it would claim continuity with some other well-knowndivine figures and traditions to buttress its quest for respect.
  • 36. xxxviii Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. Differing reasons attracted people to live in cities, and they debated about how to design cities to create the “good life.” Cities answered a multitude of human needs. They offered potential for civic ennoblement (temples, schools, plays, libraries, the arts, parks, and palaces), or they could be the breeding ground of demagoguery, decadence, and disease. How to create the ideal city motivated the Hebrew prophet Zechariah (the Bible), the Greek philosopher Plato (The Republic), and the Mauryan political adviser Kautilya (Arthashastra, or Treatise on Polity) to give instruction about governing ideal cities. WARFARE The main elements of war making were basically the same in 3500 b.c.e. as they were in 600 c.e., although the size of armies and the scope of wars increased significantly over time. Techniques and technologies may have improved, but all wars involved the combatants in hand-to-hand struggle, usually with swords and spears, and long-distance fighting using bows and arrows, in siege warfare, and in cavalry combats. The following is a short list of some techniques and technologies of warfare that showed advances over the period. Cavalry. The horse came onto the battlefield pulling chariots as the Indo-Europeans moved out of their homeland in the crossroads of Europe and Central Asia. It was a remarkable innovation. Sumer was known to have used donkey-driven chariots a bit earlier (3000 b.c.e.), but the Indo-European Hittites (1400 b.c.e.) on horse chariots rode into the heartland of Sumer without challenge. The next advance after cavalry became an important component in warfare was the invention of the stirrup by Asian nomads around 300 b.c.e. About the same time the nomadic Huns nailed a metal horseshoe on the hoofs of their animals. With these inventions horses could go farther and faster and the riders gained fuller control over their mounts. India was the first land to use elephants in battle. Alexander the Great first encountered the war elephant in India. Later the Romans prized them highly. But elephants did not adapt well to cold. When Hannibal invaded Italy, only one elephant survived the march across the Alps. Infantry and Iron Weapons. The horse did not make infantry obsolete. Improvements in provid- ing protection for foot soldiers came with Sumer’s use of the shield (2500 b.c.e.). In Alexander the Great’s day a whole company of fighters would march into battle linked together by shields to form a moving wall. This formation is called the “phalanx.” Ordinary citizen soldiers could learn the coordi- nation and discipline involved with the phalanx, and this esprit de corps continued into civic life and social interaction. In ancient Greece a dynamic of participatory government sprang from this expecta- tion of battlefield accountability. When combined with Athens’s newfound opportunities on the sea, the aristocracy based on cavalry gave way to democracy based on infantry and navy. Individual body armor, used with the shield, protected soldiers in battle. By 250 b.c.e. the Chinese had developed body armor made of metal plates. The idea of “knights in shining armor” doing pitched battle is a fancy of the Middle Ages, as iron was simply too heavy and valuable for large-scale use. The Parthians (c. 250 c.e.) claimed that their horses ate Iranian mountain alfalfa and were strong enough to bear their warriors in full (though mostly noniron) armor. The marauding Hittites inaugurated the Iron Age with iron weapons replacing bronze ones. By 1000 b.c.e. iron was common for weapons all over the Mediterranean world and spread to China after 500 b.c.e. Even the Celts had become experts at smelting and used wrought iron on the battle- field by 750 b.c.e. Sieges and Archers. The Assyrians, most feared warriors of the Near East, excelled in war-making technologies and organization (extensive secret police, propaganda), crafting a united and long-lasting empire out of Mesopotamian city-states. When they advanced against the walls and gates of cities, Assyrians used battering rams and siege engines that struck terror in the hearts of the inhabitants. When their soldiers marched outside the city walls before battle, the Assyrians would race around with their chariot-driven platforms of archers and mow down their hapless opponents. For 500 years the tech- niques of besieging cities did not change much, until the Romans invented the catapult in 500 b.c.e., which hurled boulder and flaming fireballs against the defenses of their enemies.
  • 37. Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxix The bow and arrow were among the earliest primitive weapons used throughout the world. Forthe Greeks of the Iliad the bow and arrow were despised and considered effeminate compared withhand-to-hand combat, the true test of heroes. Xerxes’ Persians (490 b.c.e.) and Marcus Aurelius’sRomans (170 c.e.) used archers to great advantage, as their arrows would blacken the skies beforethe charge of their infantry and cavalry. The Chinese found ways of perfecting aim and power withthe crossbow; later the composite bow originated among the nomadic tribes of the Asian steppes.Both were more accurate and powerful than the simple bow. Navies. In the 14th century b.c.e., the Achaeans (Greeks) and others took to the sea. By 1200b.c.e. the first-known sea battle was fought: the Mediterranean Sea Peoples against the Egyptians.Assyria and India each had seagoing ships by the early 700s b.c.e. Besides the Phoenicians and pos-sibly the Etruscans, the Athenians were one of the first states to make seafaring their mainstay. Fromthem the use of the trireme ship (a vessel with three rows of oars) took on decisive importance inwarfare. Athens survived by controlling the seas. Navies became more and more important as civi-lizations increased their trade and social contacts. However, for the most part ships were used forcargo transportation, raiding, and exploration. In warfare they had a limited role. Thus, the nativesof Oceania put their seafaring to use in colonizing places such as Hawaii and the Easter Islands, andthe Phoenicians explored Britain and rounded the Horn of Africa.
  • 38. AAdrianople, Battle of (378 c.e.) the Ostrogoths and began raiding Roman settlements in Thrace.On August 9, 378 c.e., the Eastern Roman army un- Throughout July and August of 378 the Romansder the command of Emperor Valens attacked a Gothic gained the upper hand and rounded up the Gothicarmy (made up of Visigoths and Ostrogoths) that had forces. The majority of the Goths were finally broughtcamped near the town of Adrianople (also called Hadri- to bay near the town of Adrianople. The Western andanoplis) and was routed. The battle is often considered Eastern emperors had agreed to work together to dealthe beginning of the collapse of the Roman Empire in with the Goths. Western emperor Gratian with histhe fifth century. army was on his way to join Valens when Valens decid- During the 370s c.e. there was a movement of ed to attack the Goths without Gratian and his army.peoples from Mongolia into eastern Europe. Called Moving from Adrianople against the Gothic wagonthe Huns, they were driven from Mongolia by the camp on August 9, Valens’s attack began before hisChinese. From 372 to 376 the Huns drove the Goths infantry had finished deploying. As the Roman cavalrywestward, first from the region of the Volga and Don charged the camp, the Gothic cavalry, having been re-Rivers and then the Dnieper River. This pushed the called from their raids on the surrounding countryside,Goths into the Danube River area and into the Eastern returned and charged the Roman cavalry and routed itRoman Empire. Seeking refuge from the Huns, Em- from the battlefield. The combined force of Gothic in-peror Valens gave the Goths permission to settle in the fantry and cavalry then turned on the Roman infantryempire as long as they agreed to serve in the Roman and slaughtered it. The Goths killed two-thirds of thearmy. Roman army, including the emperor. The Romans agreed to provide the Goths with It took the new emperor, Theodosius I, until 383 tosupplies. Greedy and corrupt Roman officials tried gain the upper hand. Theodosius was able to drive manyto use the situation to their advantage by either sell- of the Goths back north of the Danube River, while oth-ing supplies to the Goths that should have been free ers were allowed to settle in Roman territory as Romanor not giving them the supplies at all. During a con- citizens. In the short term this ended the problems withference between the Visigoth leadership and Roman the Goths but set the stage for problems for the Westernauthorities in 377, the Romans attacked the Visigoth Roman Empire. With the peace the Eastern Roman Em-leaders. Some of the leaders escaped and joined with pire gained a source of soldiers for its army. These soldiers 
  • 39.  Aeneidwould eventually rebel and march against Rome. In 401 portance for Rome at the time of the Aeneid’s com-the Gothic leader Alaric led a Goth-Roman army on an position. The Aeneid also contains several etiologicalinvasion of Italy. The invasion was turned back in 402, stories of interest to the Roman people, most notablyand Alaric finally agreed to stop hostilities in 403. The that of Dido and the origin of the strife between thepeace only lasted until 409, when Alaric invaded Italy Romans and the Carthaginians.again and eventually captured and sacked Rome on Au- The Dido episode is one of the most famous vi-gust 24, 410 c.e. gnettes of the Aeneid. Dido, the queen of Carthage— See also late barbarians; Roman Empire. also known by her Phoenician name, Elyssa—aids Ae- neas and his shipwrecked Trojans in Book 1. ThroughFurther reading: Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe, Venus’s intervention, Dido falls desperately in love300–1000. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999; Dupuy, R. with Aeneas and wants him and his men to remainErnest, and Trevor N. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military in Carthage. But a message from Jove reminds Ae-History, from 3500 B.C. to the Present. New York: Harper- neas that his fated land is in Italy. Immediately, heCollins Publishers, 1993; Ermatinger, James W. The Decline orders his men to depart. Dido is heartbroken overand Fall of the Roman Empire. Westport, CT: Greenwood Aeneas’s leaving: She builds a pyre out of Aeneas’s giftsPress, 2004; Ward-Perkins, Bryan. The Fall of Rome and the and commits suicide on it, prophesying the coming ofEnd of Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005; Hannibal before she dies. When Aeneas descends toWolfram, Herwig. The Roman Empire and Its Germanic the Underworld in Book 4, Dido’s shade refuses toPeoples. Trans. by Thomas Dumlap. Berkeley: University of speak with him.California Press, 1997. Dido’s character shows a great deal of complexity. She appears first as an amalgam of Alcinous and Arete Dallace W. Unger, Jr. as she hospitably receives her Trojan guests but soon becomes a Medea figure, well acquainted with magic and arcane knowledge. Dido is a sympathetic charac-Aeneid ter throughout the epic, though much of how Virgil de- scribes her would have brought to the Roman reader’sVirgil’s Aeneid is arguably the most influential and cel- mind the Egyptian queen Cleopatra (associated withebrated work of Latin literature. Written in the epic me- Mark Antony and the civil war).ter, dactylic hexameter, the Aeneid follows the journey of Interpretations of the Aeneid are numerous and farAeneas, son of Venus, after the fall of Troy. According from unanimous. The Aeneid’s composition coincidesto an ancient mythical tradition, Aeneas fled the burn- with the end of the civil wars and the beginning ofing city and landed in Italy, where he established a line Augustus’s regime. Virgil ostensibly endorses the newof descendants who would become the Roman people. princeps by referring to him as the man who will usher Virgil (70–19 b.c.e.) draws on the works of nu- in another golden age. Yet several elements of the epicmerous authors, such as Lucretius, Ennius, Apollonius might suggest that Virgil did not wholeheartedly sup-of Rhodes, and, especially, Homer. Virgil consistently port Augustus. Much of the debate centers on the waradopts Homeric style and diction (a good example of in Italy that occupies the second half of the epic, inthis is the first line of the poem: “I sing of arms and a which some scholars see a reference to the Battle of Pe-man . . .”). He also re-creates entire scenes from the Il- rusia in 41 b.c.e., an event Augustus would have pre-iad and the Odyssey. Books 1 to 6 of the Aeneid show ferred to forget. Scholars also point to the end of thesuch close parallels to the Homeric epics that they Aeneid, where Aeneas kills Turnus as he pleads for hisare often called the “Virgilian Odyssey.” Books 7 to life, as unambiguously criticizing the new leadership.12, meanwhile, closely echo the Iliad. Virgil’s use of This anti-Augustan view of the Aeneid has, however,Homeric elements goes beyond mere imitation. Virgil met with opposition.often places Aeneas in situations identical to those of Many scholars find more evidence of the Iliad thanOdysseus or Achilles, allowing Aeneas’s response to of Augustus’s campaign in the latter half of the Aeneid.those situations to differentiate him from (and some- Others suggest that in killing Turnus, Aeneas acted ap-times surpass) his Homeric counterparts. propriately for his cultural circumstances. The Aeneid Virgil constructs his epic in relation to the Roman has also been proposed to represent, not Virgil’s viewpeople and their cultural ideals. He defines Aeneas by of Augustus, but rather the condition of the Romanthe ethical quality of piety, a concept of particular im- people. Virgil seems to offer conflicting evidence for
  • 40. Aesop his perspective on Augustan Rome and may intention- in the Battle of marathon in 490 b.c.e., when theally leave the matter ambiguous so that the reader may invading Persians were successfully repelled by vastlydecide for him- or herself. outnumbered Greek forces, probably informed his ap- The Aeneid was highly anticipated even before proach. The Persians told the story of the battle andpublication and has since enjoyed immense popularity. was first performed 18 years later.Quintilian regarded Virgil as nearly equal to Homer Of Aeschylus’s 70-some plays, only seven survive.and credits him with having the more difficult task. They are the earliest known Greek tragedies, as heLatin epic writers after Virgil looked to the Aeneid as is one of only three tragedians (with Euripides andtheir model. Statius even acknowledges that his epic, Sophocles) whose works have survived to the modernthe Thebaid, cannot surpass that of Virgil. The Aeneid era. Seven against Thebes is another battle narrative,became a standard school text of the ancient world concerning that of “the Seven” mythic heroes againstand was a critical part of a good education. Virgil, Thebes in the aftermath of the death of the sons ofhowever, considered the work unfinished. At the time Oedipus. The Suppliants is a simpler story about theof his death he famously called for the Aeneid to be daughters of Danaus fleeing a forced marriage, whileburned rather than published. Augustus saved the Ae- the Oresteia is a trilogy of plays about the house ofneid from the flames and ordered its publication. Atreus, starting with the return of Agamemnon from See also Caesar, Augustus; Roman golden and sil- the Trojan War. The Oresteia has had enduring appealver ages; Roman pantheon and myth. in the modern world: 20th-century playwright Eu- gene O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra was basedFurther reading: Galinsky, Karl. Augustan Culture. Princ- on it, substituting the Civil War for the Trojan Wareton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996; ———. “The in the backstory of O’Neill’s trilogy. Composers Rich-Anger of Aeneas.” American Journal of Philology (v.109, ard Strauss and Sergey Taneyev each based operas on1988); James, Sharon L. “Future Perfect Feminine: Women the Oresteia, and many more writers and artists havePast and Present in Vergil’s Aeneid.” In Anderson, William found compelling the idea of the Furies who in Aeschy-S., and Lorina N. Quartarone, eds. Approaches to Teach- lus’s trilogy bring down the wrath of the gods uponing Vergil’s Aeneid. New York: Modern Language Associa- Orestes for having killed his mother.tion of America, 2002; Knauer, Georg Nicolaus.“Vergil’s In a sense the Oresteia is not just the earliest surviv-Aeneid and Homer.” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies ing trilogy of Greek plays. It is also one of the earliest5 (1964): 61–84; Putnam, Michael C. J. “Vergil’s Aeneid horror stories, with the Furies tracking Orestes by fol-and the Evolution of Augustus.” In Anderson, William S., lowing the scent of his mother Clytemnestra’s blood,and Lorina N. Quartarone, eds. Approaches to Teaching and the play’s emphasis on the idea, so resonant inVergil’s Aeneid. New York: Modern Language Associa- horror literature and ghost stories, of the supernaturaltion of America, 2002; Thomas, Richard F. Virgil and the exacting horrible justice on transgressors.Augustan Reception. New York: Cambridge University Legend claims that Aeschylus met his death underPress, 2001. the strangest of circumstances, when a passing eagle dropped a turtle on his head. Jeffrey M. Hunt Further reading: Aeschylus. Various works available online. URL: http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/a#a2825;Aeschylus Griffith, Mark, ed. Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound. Cam-(525–456 b.c.e.) Greek playwright bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983; Sommerstein, Alan H. Greek Drama and Dramatists. London: Routledge, 2002.The son of a wealthy family in sixth century b.c.e. At-tica, Aeschylus was a tragedian at a time when Greek Bill Kte’pitheater was still developing from its beginnings as aform of elaborate dance. In contrast to the first dra-mas, performed in honor of Dionysus and under the Aesopinfluence of copious amounts of wine, Aeschylus’s (c. mid-sixth century b.c.e.) Greek writerwork emphasized natural law and punishment at thehands of the gods, by examining the role of his char- A slave in ancient Greece in the sixth century b.c.e.,acters in a larger world. His participation as a soldier Aesop was the creator or popularizer of the genre of
  • 41.  African city-statesfables that bear his name. Little about him is known: Mauretania. However, apart from surviving second-More than half a dozen places have claimed him as a hand accounts from early travelers from Egypt or Car-native son, and although Herodotus records that he thage, knowledge of city-states in the rest of Africawas killed by citizens of Delphi, he gives no indica- relies entirely on archaeological evidence. Carthagetion of motive. ruled the area around its capital through direct rule, Aesop’s fables were brief stories, appropriate for and the remainder of its areas through client kingschildren and structured around a simple moral lesson. such as those of Numidia. The Numidians throwingMost of them featured anthropomorphized animals— their support behind the Romans at the Battle of Zamaanimals who spoke and acted like humans, often mo- in 202 b.c.e. saw the defeat of the Carthaginians, set-tivated by some exaggerated human characteristic. Un- ting the scene for the destruction of Carthage itself inlike the animal tales of many mythic traditions—the 146 b.c.e. Numidia had a brief period of independenceCoyote stories of North America, for instance—Aesop’s before it too fell under Roman control.animals did not represent spiritual or divine beings, nor The most well-known African city-states outsidedid they explain the nature of the world. They were North Africa are thought to have emerged in modern-comparable instead to modern children’s literature and day Sudan and Ethiopia, with many settlements nearcartoons, though with an educational bent. the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, and ancient The fables remain some of the best-known sto- megaliths were found in southern Ethiopia. Gradu-ries in the Western world, often lending themselves to ally two city-states, those of Meroë (900 b.c.e.–400proverbs. Some of the most famous include The Fox c.e.) and Axum (100–1000 c.e.), emerged, both trans-and the Grapes, from which the idiom sour grapes is formed from powerful cities to significant kingdomsderived, to refer to something that, like the grapes the controlling large tracts of land, relying heavily on thefox cannot reach, is assumed to be not worth the trou- early use of iron.ble; The Tortoise and the Hare, which concludes that The use of bronze and iron in war are also clearly“slow and steady wins the race” and has been adapted shown by the location of some of these settlements.to a number of media, including a Disney cartoon; The The remains of many ancient villages and small town-Ant and the Grasshopper, the latter of which suffers ships have been found in Sudan, which show that pro-through a harsh winter he had not prepared for as the tection from attack was considerably more importantant did; and perhaps most evocatively, The Scorpion than access to fertile arable land.and the Frog. In this tale a scorpion asks a frog to carry The other area that seems to have seen the emer-him across the river, and when the frog refuses out of gence of city-states in the ancient period was in sub-fear of being stung, the scorpion brushes the concern Saharan West Africa. The finding of large numbers ofaside, pointing out that should he sting the frog, both objects and artifacts at Nok in modern-day Nigeria,will die as the scorpion drowns. Nonetheless, the frog’s which flourished from 500 b.c.e., has demonstrated thefear proves warranted—when the scorpion stings him existence of a wealthy trading city on the Jos Plateau.partway across the river, he reminds the frog that such It seems likely that there would have been other settle-behavior is plainly the nature of a scorpion. ments and small city-states in the region, with people from that area believed to have started migrating alongFurther reading: Aesop. Aesop’s Fables. New York: Barnes the western coast of modern-day Gabon, Congo, andand Noble Books, 2003; Daly, Lloyd. Aesop Without Mor- Angola, and also inland to Lake Victoria. The majorals. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1961. African city-state emerging toward the end of this period was Great Zimbabwe. Its stone buildings, undoubt- Bill Kte’pi edly replacing earlier wooden ones, provide evidence of what the society in the area had developed into by the 11th century c.e.African city-states Further reading: Fage, J. D., ed. The Cambridge History ofThe emergence of African city-states began in North Africa: Volume 2: From c. 500 b.c.e. to c.e. 1050. Cam-Africa with ancient Egypt and then later the forma- bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978; ———. A His-tion of the Carthaginian empire. These civilizations tory of Africa. London: Routledge, 1997.are both heavily documented by written accounts, asare the other North African kingdoms of Numidia and Justin Corfield
  • 42. Ahab and Jezebel African religious traditions statuary found in places such as Nok, in modern-day northern Nigeria. Their carved stone statues of deitiesLittle contemporary written material has survived have survived, showing possible similarities with someabout religious traditions in ancient Africa, except in Mediterranean concepts of Mother Earth. However, itinscriptions by the ancient Egyptians about their beliefs seems more likely that ancestor worship was the mostand in accounts by Herodotus when he described the significant element of traditional African religion, asreligions and folklore of North Africa. it undoubtedly was for many other early societies. The Egyptian beliefs involved gods and the mon- Human figurines, as the hundreds of carved peoplesarchs as descendants of these deities and their represen- of soapstone from Esie in southwest Nigeria and thetatives on earth. Many of the Egyptian gods have dif- brass heads from Ife are thought to represent ances-ferent forms, with some like Horus and Isis being well tors, chiefs, or other actual people. At Jenné-jeno andknown, and changes in weather, climate, and the well- some other nearby sites, the bones of relatives werebeing of the country reflecting the relative power of par- sometimes interred within houses or burial buildings.ticular contending deities. Briefly during the eighteenth As Islam came into the area, this dramatically changedDynasty, the pharaoh Akhenaten (14th century b.c.e.) the religious beliefs of the area.tried to establish monotheism with the worship of the Islam led to the building of many mosques, withsun god Aten. The move eroded the power of the priests cemeteries located in the grounds of these mosquesdevoted to the sun-god Amun-Ra, who struck back. or on the outskirts of cities. The graves of holy men After establishing a new capital at Tel el Amarna, became revered and places of pilgrimage and venera-the pharaoh died under mysterious circumstances and tion. In some places Islam adapted to some of the localthe old religion was restored and continued until the customs, but in other areas, such as Saharan Africa,Ptolemies took over Egypt in the fourth century b.c.e., it totally changed the nature of religious tradition. Inwhich saw the introduction of Greek gods, and later some parts of West Africa there was a clash betweenRoman gods when Egypt became a part of the Roman the fundamental concepts of Islam and tribal customs,Empire. Although these concepts started in Egypt, but in most areas ancestor worship was replaced bysimilar ideas, almost certainly emanating from Egypt, filial respect for ancestors.can be found in Nubia and elsewhere. At Meroë inmodern­-day Sudan, there is evidence of worship of Further reading: Charles-Picard, Gilbert and Colette. Dailygods similar to the Egyptians’. It also seems likely that Life in Carthage at the Time of Hannibal. London: Georgesimilar ideas flourished for many centuries at Kush and Allen and Unwin, 1961; Fage, J. D. A History of Africa.Axum, the latter, in modern-day Ethiopia, influenced London and New York: Routledge, 1997; Lange, Dierk.by south Arabia and introducing into Africa some dei- “The Dying and the Rising God in the New Year Festival ofties from there. Ife.” In Lange, Dierk, ed. Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa. In Carthage many beliefs followed those of the Dettelbach, Germany: Roll, 2004.Phoenicians. The deity Moloch was also said to be sat-isfied only by human sacrifice, with some historians Justin Corfieldsuggesting that one of Hannibal’s own brothers wassacrificed, as a child, to Moloch. Modern historianssuggest that the Romans exaggerated the bloodthirsty Ahab and Jezebelnature of the worship of the Carthaginian deity Moloch (9th century b.c.e.) king and queen of Samariain order to better justify their war against Carthageand that the large numbers of infant bodies found by King Ahab and Queen Jezebel were the royal couplearchaeologists in a burial ground near Carthage may of Israel most vilified by later biblical writers, yet it ishave been from disease rather than mass human sacri- Ahab who made Israel and its army one of the stron-fice of small children. The kingdoms of Numidia and gest on the stage of Near Eastern nations and powersMauretania to the west of Carthage would have been in the early ninth century b.c.e. He fortified and beau-partially influenced by Carthaginian ideas but later tified the newly founded capital of Israel, Samaria. Ar-came to adopt Roman religious practices, both becom- chaeological excavations show that during his reigning parts of the Roman Empire. cities in various regions of his kingdom were built up Much can be surmised about religious practices so that Israel could withstand attack from neighbor-in sub-Saharan Africa during this period from the ing peoples. His reputation gained the attention of the
  • 43.  Akhenaten and NefertitiPhoenicians to the north so that one of their priest- In the biblical account Elijah, the prophet of Israel,kings offered his daughter Jezebel to Ahab in an ar- is the unadulterated light that casts the reputation ofranged political marriage. Ahab and Jezebel into dark shadows. Ahab stands as The Bible records that Ahab fought three or four a pragmatist who compromises his faith and coexistswars with the dreaded Aramaeans and won two of with idolatry, while Jezebel takes on the role of a self-them. The genius of Ahab’s foreign policy seems to be willed and idolatrous shrew whose drive for powerhis peacemaking with Judah to the south, the Philistine undermines divinely balanced government. In the Newstates to the west, and Phoenicia to the north. Con- Testament, Jezebel becomes a type of seductive falseserving his resources and limiting his battles allowed prophetess who gives license to immorality and idola-him to gain concessions from the Arameans. try under the cloak of religion. The real challenge came from the traditional hot- See also apocalypticism, Jewish and Christian;bed of imperial ambition, Mesopotamia. Here the Christianity, early; prophets.fierce Assyrians were mobilizing their forces to rees-tablish their empire in the western end of the Fertile Further reading: Becking, Bob. Fall of Samaria. Boston:Crescent. Only a makeshift alliance of all the king- Brill Academic Publishers, 1992; Thiel, Winfried. “Ahab.”doms could stand in Assyria’s way. In Anchor Bible Dictionary, pp. 100–104. New York: Dou- The Assyrian records tell of a battlefield victory bleday, 1992.at Qarqar (853 b.c.e.) in the Orontes Valley in thecoastal region of present-day Syria, but it was not de- Mark F. Whitterscisive enough for the victors to push on toward theirgoal. Phoenicia was not even touched, much less Is-rael. Other minor losses for Israel during this time are Akhenaten and Nefertitireported in the Moabite Stone: A small region far to (d. c. 1362 b.c.e. and fl. 14th century b.c.e.) Egyptianthe southeast (present-day Jordan) seceded from the rulershegemony. Ahab also knew how to run the internal affairs of Akhenaten, the pharaoh of the eighteenth Dynasty ofa state. He relied on the new capital of Samaria to inte- Egypt, was the second son of Amenhotep III (r. 1391–54grate the non-Israelite interest groups, chiefly the advo- b.c.e.) and Tiy (fl. 1385 b.c.e.). His reign ushered a rev-cates of Baal and Asherah worship, while the older city olutionary period in ancient Egyptian history. Nefertitiof Jezreel served as residence to the traditional elements was his beautiful and powerful queen. He was not theof Israelite culture. This balance suggests that Ahab al- favored child of family and was excluded from publiclowed the building of foreign temples, though he showed events at the time of his father Amenhotep III.some wavering attachment to the Israelite God. Akhenaten ruled with his father in coregency for The explanation for this double-mindedness, ac- a brief period. He was crowned at the temple of thecording to the Bible, was his increasing submission to god Amun, in Karnak, as Amenhotep IV. From hishis Phoenician wife, Jezebel. According to the geolo- fifth regnal year, he changed his name to Akhenatengies given in Josephus and other classical sources, she (Servant of the Aten). His queen was renamed aswas the great-aunt of Dido, banished princess of Phoe- Nefer-Nefru-Aten (Beautiful Is the Beauty of Aten).nicia and legendary founder of Carthage. She was an The pharaoh initiated far-reaching changes in theardent devotee to Baal, working behind the scenes to field of religion. He did away with 2,000 years of reli-achieve dominance for her religion and dynasty. She gious history of Egypt. In his monotheism, only Aten,tried to eliminate the all-traditional prophets in Israel the god of the solar disk, was to be worshipped. Theand plotted against the famous prophet Elijah. meaning of the changed names for himself and his She outlived her husband by 10 years and only queen was in relation to Aten.died when her personal staff turned against her in the Even the new capital that he constructed was givenface of a rebellious general. Her sons and daughter the name Akhetaton (Horizon of Aten). Making Atenwent on to rule: Ahaziah was king for two years after the “sole god” curbed the increasing power of theAhab’s death; then her son Joram ruled for eight years; priesthood. Earlier Egyptians worshipped a number ofher daughter Athaliah married the king of Judah, then gods represented in animal or human form. Particularruthlessly killed all offspring of her own son so that towns had their own gods. The sun god received theshe could rule for six years after her son died. new name Aten, the ancient name of the physical Sun.
  • 44. Akkad  The king was the link between god and the com- Making of the Past: The Egyptian Kingdoms. New York:­ ­mon people. Akhenaten was the leader taking his fol- E. P. Dutton, 1975; Freed, Rita, Yvonne Markowitz, andlowers to a new place, where royal tombs, temples, Sue D’Auria, eds. Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten, Nefer-palaces, statutes of the pharaoh, and buildings were titi, Tutankhamun. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1999;built. In the center of the capital city, a sprawling road Kemp, B. J. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization.was built. Designed for chariot processions, it was one New York: Routledge, 1989; Redford, Donald B. Akhenat-of the widest roads in ancient times. The capital city en: The Heretic King. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UniversityAkhetaton on the desert was surrounded by cliffs on Press, 1984; Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: Egypt’s Falsethree sides and to west by the river Nile. The tombs of Prophet. London: Thames and Hudson, 2001; Shaw, I.the royal family were constructed on the valley leading The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxfordtoward the desert. Near the Nile, a gigantic temple for University Press, 2000.Aten was built. The wealthy lived in spacious hous-es enclosed by high walls. Others resided in houses Patit Paban Mishra andbuilt between the walled structures of the rich. About Sudhansu S. Rath10,000 people lived in the capital city of Akhetatonduring Akhenaten’s reign. Artwork created during the reign of Akhenaten was Akkaddifferent from thousands of years of Egyptian artistic tra-dition by adopting realism. Akhenaten, possibly suffering Mesopotamia’s first-known empire, founded at thefrom a genetic disorder known as Marfan’s syndrome, city of Akkad, prospered from the end of the 24th cen-had a long head, a potbelly, a short torso, and promi- tury b.c.e. to the beginning of the 22nd century b.c.e.nent collarbones. Representations of the pharaoh did not Sargon of Akkad (2334–2279 b.c.e.) established hisfollow the age-old tradition of a handsome man with a empire at Akkad; its exact location is unknown butgood physique. The sculptor portrayed what he saw in perhaps near modern Baghdad. His standing army al-reality, presumably at the direction of Akhenaten. lowed him to campaign from eastern Turkey to western The background of the exquisitely beautiful and Iran. Although it is still unclear how far he maintainedpowerful queen Nefertiti is unclear. Some believe that permanent control, it probably ranged from northernQueen Tiy was her mother. According to others, she Syria to western Iran.was the daughter of the vizier Ay, who was a brother His two sons succeeded him, Rimush (2278–70of Queen Tiy. Ay occasionally called himself “god’s b.c.e.) and Manishtushu (2269–55 b.c.e.), who hadfather” suggesting that he was the father-in-law of military success of their own by suppressing rebellionsAkhenaten. She carried much importance in her hus- and campaigning from northern Syria to western Iran.band’s reign and pictures show her in the regalia of Yet it was Manishtushu’s son Naram-Sin (2254–18a king executing foreign prisoners by smiting them. b.c.e.) who took the empire to its pinnacle. He estab-According to some Egyptologists, she was a coregent lished and maintained control from eastern Turkey towith her husband from 1340 b.c.e. and instrumental western Iran. In contrast to his grandfather who wasin religious reforms. deified after his death, Naram-Sin claimed divinity Some Egyptian scholars believe that in the same year while he was still alive.she fell from royal favor or might have died. Nefertiti was The rule of Naram-Sin’s son Shar-kali-sharriprobably buried in the capital city, but her body has never (2217–2193 b.c.e.) was mostly prosperous, but by thebeen found. Some researchers think that she ruled for a end of his reign the Akkadian Empire controlled onlybrief period after the death of Akhenaten. She had no a small state in northern Babylonia. Upon Shar-kali-sons, but future king Tutankhamun was her son-in-law. sharri’s death anarchy ensued until order was restored Known as the “first individual in human history,” the by Dudu (2189–2169 b.c.e.) and Shu-Durul (2168–reign of Akhenaten forms an important period in Egyp- 2154 b.c.e.), but these were more rulers of a city-statetian history. Despite his revolutionary changes, Egypt re- than kings of a vast empire. The demise of the Akka-verted to earlier religious discourse after his death. dian Empire can be explained by internal revolts from See also Egypt, culture and religion. local governors as well as external attacks from groups such as the Gutians, Elamites, Lullubi, Hurrians, andFurther reading: Aldred, Cyril. Akhenaten, King of Egypt. Amorites. The Akkadian Empire set the standard to-London: Thames and Hudson, 1991; David, A. Rosalie. The ward which Mesopotamian kings throughout the next
  • 45.  Alcibiadestwo millennia strove. Because of this, much literature until 1500 b.c.e. when it was replaced with dating byappeared concerning the Akkadian kings, especially regnal years. There was also a standardized system ofSargon and Naram-Sin. weights and measures. Taxes were collected from all In the Sargon Legend, which draws upon his il- regions of the empire in order to pay for this central-legitimate birth, Sargon is placed in a reed basket in ized administration.the Euphrates before he is drawn out by a man named The Akkadian ruler appointed governors in the ter-Aqqi and raised as a gardener. From this humble be- ritories the empire controlled, but many times the localginning Sargon establishes himself as the king of the ruler was just reaffirmed in his capacity. The governorfirst Mesopotamian empire. would have to pledge allegiance to the Akkadian em- The King of Battle is another tale of how Sargon peror and pay tribute, but at times, when the empiretraveled to Purushkhanda in central Turkey in order was weak, the local rulers could revolt and assert theirto save the merchants there from oppression. After own sovereignty.defeating the king of the city, Nur-Daggal, the local This meant that the Akkadian rulers were con-ruler is allowed to continue to govern as long as he stantly putting down rebellions. But perhaps the mostacknowledges Sargon as king. Naram-Sin, however, important precedent started by the Akkadian Empireis often portrayed as incompetent and disrespectful was the installation of Sargon’s daughter Enheduannaof the gods. In The Curse of Akkad, Naram-Sin be- as the high priestess of the moon god Nanna at Ur. Shecomes frustrated because the gods will not allow him composed two hymns dedicated to the goddess Inanna,to rebuild a temple to the god Enlil, so he destroys making her the oldest known author in Mesopotamia.it instead. Enlil then sends the Gutians to destroy the This provided much needed legitimacy for the kingdomA­ kkadian Empire. in southern Babylonia and continued to be practiced by As we know, however, the Akkadian Empire contin- Mesopotamian kings until the sixth century b.c.e.ued to have 25 prosperous years under Shar-kali-sharri See also Babylon, early period; Babylon, later pe-after the death of Naram-Sin, and the Gutians were riods; Elam; Moses; Sumer.not the only reason for the downfall of the AkkadianEmpire. In fact, there is no evidence for the Gutians Further reading: Franke, Sabina. “Kings of Akkad: Sargoncausing problems for the Akkadians until late in the and Naram-Sin.” In Sasson, Jack, ed. Civilizations of thereign of Shar-kali-sharri. Although this story had an Ancient Near East. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,important didactic purpose, it shows that caution must 1995; Gadd, C. J. “The Dynasty of Agade and the Gutianbe used in reconstructing the history of the ­Akkadian Invasion.” In I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, and N. G. L.Empire from myths and legends. Hammond, eds. The Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd ed., In the Cuthean Legend, Naram-Sin goes out to Vol. 1, Part 2, pp. 417–463. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer-fight a group that has invaded the Akkadian Empire. sity Press, 1971.Naram-Sin seeks an oracle about the outcome of thebattle, but since it is negative, he ignores it and mocks James Roamesthe whole process of divination. As in The Curse ofAkkad, Naram-Sin’s disrespect of the gods gets him introuble as he is defeated three times by the invaders. AlcibiadesHe finally seeks another oracle and receives a positive (450–404 b.c.e.) Greek statesman and generalanswer. Naram-Sin has learned his lesson: “Withoutdivination, I will not execute punishment.” Despite Alcibiades was an Athenian who was influential in thethese tales, there are others that paint Naram-Sin in a creation of turmoil in his home city that went a longmore positive light as an effective king with superior way to explaining the defeat by Sparta in the Pelo-military capabilities. ponnesian War (431–404 b.c.e.). Alcibiades was a Along with a centralized government comes stan- controversial and divisive figure, and his legacy in partdardization. This included the gradual replacement of continues to be colored by his character flaws even mil-Sumerian, a non-Semitic language, with Akkadian, an lennia after his death. Thucydides, Plato, and PlutarchEast Semitic language, in administrative documents. recount the adventures of Alcibiades in their histories.Dating by year names, that is naming each year af- Alcibiades was born into a powerful family, and his fatherter a particular event such as “the year Sargon de- commanded the Athenian army at the battle in which hestroyed Mari,” became the system used in Babylonia was killed. Alcibiades was then only about seven years
  • 46. Alexander the Great old, and he became the ward of the statesman Pericles. val victories secured a decisive advantage, and theyHe subsequently entered into Athenian public life in the took the opportunity to cause the governor of Phrygia,political and military fields. Owing in part to his back- where Alcibiades had been taking shelter, to have himground, he quickly achieved high office and served with killed. Thus ended the life of one of the most vividdistinction. At the Battle of Delium, he assisted Socrates personalities of ancient Athens, who could surely havewho had been wounded and in turn benefited from the achieved genuine greatness if he could have marriedolder man’s advice. However, Alcibiades was too extra­ his gifts with some sense of personal integrity.vagant a personality to abide by the moral strictures that See also Greek city-states; Persian invasions.Socrates required of his pupils. Indeed, association withAlcibiades was later part of the charge brought against Further reading: Kagan, Donald. The Peloponnesian War.Socrates for corrupting the youth. New York: Penguin, 2004; Plutarch. Life of Alcibiades. Alcibiades was busy establishing himself as a lead- Trans. by John Dryden. Available online. URL: http://classics.ing personality in the Athenian assembly, the Ekklesia, mit.edu (March 2006); Thucydides. The History of the Pelo-while also becoming known as a budding socialite. His ponnesian War. Trans. by Rex Warner. New York: Penguinfamily had enjoyed personal relations with Spartan Classics, 1954.interests, and he had anticipated that he could call onthese connections to broker a peace agreement to end John Walshthe Peloponnesian War. However, Spartan leaders refused to countenancethis personal approach and insisted on formal arrange- Aleppoments. Subsequently, Alcibiades pursued an anti-Spar- See Damascus and Aleppo.ta policy that probably perpetuated the war, arguablyfrom a sense of pique. He organized the alliance withthe Peloponnesian city-states of Argos, Elis, and Manti- Alexander the Greatneia. The alliance was defeated at the Battle of Mantin- (356–323 b.c.e.) Macedonian rulereia in 418, which led to Spartan dominance of the landand forced the Peloponnesian League to seek new fronts Alexander the Great was born in a town called Pellain the war. in the summer of 356 b.c.e. His father was Philip It was the necessity of opening a new front that led of Macedon, and his mother was Olympias. Philipto the Syracusan campaign in Sicily. Alcibiades posi- II ascended to the throne in 359 b.c.e., at the age oftioned himself to be one of the leaders of this campaign, 24. Under Philip II, Macedonia thrived and emergedbut on the verge of the expedition leaving, statues of the as a strong power. Philip reorganized his army intogod Hermes were found to have been mutilated and, infantry phalanx using a new weapon known as theon rather circumstantial evidence, Alcibiades became sarissa, which was a very long (18-foot) spear. Thisaccused of violating the Eleusinian Mysteries. He sailed was a devastating force against all other armies usingwith the expedition, but inquiries continued during his the standard-size spears of the time.absence. When it was determined that he should return Alexander’s birth and early childhood are unclear,to Athens to answer the charges against him, Alcibiades related only by Plutarch, who wrote his Life of Alex-fled to Sparta and ensured his safety by providing the ander around 100 c.e., many centuries later. In hisSpartans with valuable military advice. He made him- youth Alexander had a classical education, with Ar-self less popular by supposedly seducing the wife of the istotle as one of his teachers. One of his tutors, Lysi-king of Sparta. machus, promoted Alexander’s identification with the Eventually the Spartans tired of Alcibiades, and he Greek hero Achilles. Later, Philip II took another wife,sought to make a new career for himself by courting Cleopatra, who bore him a son named Caranus andthe Persians, who saw the turmoil on the Greek main- a daughter. This created a second heir to the throne.land as a possible opportunity to expand their influ- Olympias was a strong-willed woman who jealouslyence. For several years Alcibiades switched sides from guarded her son’s right to succession. She had givenPersia, to Athens, to neutrality, depending on the po- Philip his eldest son, however, she was no longer inlitical winds. Brilliance of expression and savoir-faire favor with Philip.were combined with total lack of scruples as he sought At the age of 18, Alexander and his father led a cav-for the best advantage for himself. Finally Spartan na- alry against the armies of Athens and Thebes, which
  • 47. 10 Alexander the Greatwere fighting the last line of Greek defenses against returned to Thebes after his victories and faced strongPhilip’s conquest. Philip had set a trap with his maneu- opposition from the Thebans, but Alexander defeatedver and at the decisive moment, Alexander, with his them swiftly.cavalry, sprung the trap. This victory at the Battle ofChaeronea in August 338 completed Philip’s conquest CAMPAIGN AGAINST PERSIAof Greece. In 336 Philip was murdered by Pausanias, Alexander embarked on a campaign against Persia ina bodyguard. Upon the death of his father, Alexander the spring of 334. The Persians had attacked Athensand his mother, Olympias, did away with any of his in 480, burning the sacred temples of the Acropolispolitical rivals who were vying for the throne. Philip’s and enslaving Ionian Greeks. Alexander, a Macedon,second wife and children were slain. won great favor with the Greeks by uniting them against Persia. He set out with an army of 30,000ALEXANDER THE KING infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and a fleet of 120 warships.Alexander became king in 336. He was an absolute The core force was the infantry phalanx, with 9,000­ uler in Macedonia and king of the city-states of Ath-r men armed with sarissa. The Persian army had aboutens, Sparta, and Thebes. As a new king, he had to prove 200,000 men, including Greek mercenaries. Mem-that he was as powerful a ruler as his father, Phillip non, the Greek mercenary general, led the PersianII, had been. Revolts against his rule first occurred in force.Thrace. In the spring of 335, Alexander and his army Alexander had an excellent knowledge of Persiandefeated the Thracians and advanced into the Triballian war strategy from an early age. In the spring of 334kingdom across the Danube River. Alexander faced the he crossed the Hellespont (Dardanelles) into Persianchallenge of placating the recently conquered Greek territory. The Persian army stationed themselves up-city-states. While Alexander was in the Triballian hill on a steep, slippery rocky terrain on the easternkingdom, the Greek cities rebelled against the Mace- bank of the river Granicus. Here they met Alexander’sdonian rule. army for the first time in May 334. Alexander was at- The Athenian orator Demosthenes spread a ru- tacked on all sides but managed to escape, though hemor that Alexander had been fatally wounded in an was wounded.attack. News of Alexander’s death sparked rebellions The Persians left the battle, thinking they hadin other Greek states, such as Thebes. The Thebans at- claimed victory, and left behind only their Greek mer-tacked the Macedonian garrison of their city and drove cenaries to fight, resulting in a very high casualty rateout the Macedonian general Parmenio. Their victory on the Persian side. Alexander’s armies advanced southwas due to a Greek mercenary named Memnon of along the Ionian coast. Some cities surrendered out-Rhodes. Memnon defeated Parmenio at Magnesia and right. Greek cities, such as Ephesus, welcomed him aspushed him back to northwest Asia Minor. Alexander a liberator from the Persians. Memnon’s forces still presented a threat to Alexan- der. They stationed themselves at sea, and as Alexander did not wish to join in a sea battle, they were unable to stop his advances on land. In the city of Halicar- nassus, Alexander and Memnon met in battle again. Alexander took the city, burned it down, and installed Ada, his ally, as queen. The Persian cities Termessus, Aspendus, Perge, Selge, and Sagalassus were taken af- terward without much difficulty. This ease of conquest continued until he reached Celaenae, where he ordered his general Antigonus to placate the region. “DIVINE” RULER OF ASIA Throughout his military campaign people perceived Alexander to be divine. Even the ocean, according to legend, seemed to be servile toward him and hisPhoto of a mosaic in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Pompeii, armies. There was a legend involving a massive knotdepicting Alexander the Great battling the Persian king Darius. of rope, stating that he who could unravel the knot
  • 48. Alexandria 11would rule the world. Many had tried, while Alexan- a new, larger empire. He married Roxane, creating ader merely cut through the knot with his sword. Upon queen who was not Greek, and this lost some of hishearing this, King Gordius of Gordium surrendered his Greek supporters. Still he gathered enough military sup-lands. The story of this divine prophecy being fulfilled port to invade India in 327. After many conquests hespread quickly. Memnon’s death was also regarded encountered Porus, a powerful Indian ruler, who put upas proof of Alexander’s divine quality. This hastened a great battle near the river Hydaspes. After this his menAlexander’s progress through the Persian territories of were then reluctant to advance further into India. Alex-the eastern Mediterranean, which were long-held, con- ander was seriously injured with a chest wound, and hisquered Greek states. armies retreated from India. The Battle of Issus in the gulf of Iskanderun was a Alexander died on June 10, 323 b.c.e., at the agedecisive battle fought in November 333. The Persian of 33. Different scenarios have been proposed for theking Darius himself led the Persians forces. Darius cause of his death, which include poisoning, illness thathad a massive force, much larger than Alexander’s followed a drinking party, or a relapse of the malaria hearmy. Darius was brilliant, approaching Alexander’s had contracted earlier.army from the rear and cutting off the army’s sup- Rumors of his illness circulated among the troops,plies. The battle occurred on a narrow plain not large causing them to be more and more anxious. On Juneenough for the massive armies; it was fought across 9, the generals decided to let the soldiers see their kingthe steep-sided river Pinarus. This lost the advantage alive one last time, and guests were admitted to his pres-for the Persians, and Alexander emerged victorious as ence one at a time. Because the king was too sick toKing Darius III fled. speak, he just waved his hand. The day after, Alexander The Battle of Issus was a turning point. Alexander was dead.moved from the Greek states that he liberated to lands See also Persian invasions of Greece.inhabited by the Persians themselves. He conqueredByblos and Sidon unopposed. In Tyre he faced real Further reading: Fox, Robin Lane. Alexander the Great. Mal-opposition. The city fortress was on an island in the den, MA: Futura Publications, 1975; Green, Peter. Alexandersea, and his prospects were worsened by his lack of a of Macedon, 356–323 B.C.: A Historical Biography. Berke-fleet. To his aid came liberated troops, defected from ley: University of California Press, 1991; Hammond, N. G. L.the Persian fleet. The army and the people of Tyre Alexander the Great, King Commander and Statesman. Parkwere defeated­—most were tortured and slain, some Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press, 1980; Stoneman, Richard. Alexanderwere sold into slavery. Other coastal cities then read- the Great. New York: Routledge, 2004.ily surrendered. In 331 Alexander marched on to Egypt. Egyptians Nurfadzilah Yahayawelcomed him as he was freeing them from Persiancontrol, and the city of Alexandria was founded inhis name. Alexander took a journey across the desert Alexandriato the temple of Zeus Ammon, where an oracle toldhim of his future and that he would rule the world. Alexandria, also known by its Arabic name al-Iskan-From Egypt, Alexander corresponded with Darius, the dariyya, was named after Alexander the Great.Persian king. Darius wanted a truce, but Alexander Alexandria was built on the Mediterranean Sea coastwanted the whole of the Persian Empire. of Egypt at the northwest edge of the Nile Delta. The The same year he marched into Persia to pursue city lies on a narrow land strip between the sea andDarius. He conquered the lands around the Tigris and Lake Mariut (Mareotis in Greek). Alexander the GreatEuphrates Rivers. Alexander encountered Darius at founded the city in 331 b.c.e. He ordered Greek ar-Gaugamela and defeated the Persian army. Babylon chitect Dinocrates of Rhodes to build the city over theand Susa fell, and he reaped their riches. After con- site of the old village of Rakhotis that was inhabitedquering the Persian capital of Persepolis, he rested by fishermen and pirates. Alexander left the city un-there for a few months and then continued his pursuit der the charge of his general, Ptolemy (also known asof Darius. However, his own men had already assas- Ptolemy I). The city would later become Alexander’ssinated Darius. final resting place. Alexander started to adopt Persian dress and cus- After it was built, Alexandria evolved into an im-toms in order to combine Greek and Persian culture as portant economic hub in the region. It began by taking
  • 49. 12 Alexandrian literature libraries, with huge collections, one in a temple of Zeus, and the other in a museum. As early as the third century b.c.e., the libraries housed somewhere between 500,000 and 700,000 papyri (scrolls). A university was built near the libraries, attracting re- nowned scholars to Alexandria. One of them was the great Greek mathematician Euclid, a master of geom- etry, and author of the famous work Elements. After Cleopatra the queen of Egypt committed suicide in 32 b.c.e., the city of Alexandria came under the rule of Octavian, later known as Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Augustus installed a prefect in Alexandria, who governed the city in his name. Trade continued to flourish in the city under the Romans especially in the product of grain. The city went into decline under the Romans. A Jewish revolt in 116 c.e. weakened the city. It resulted in the decimation of the Jewish population residing there. Nearly a century later in 215 c.e., for reasons that are unclear, the Roman emperor Caracalla de- creed that all male inhabitants be massacred, perhaps as punishment. This further undermined the city’s im- portance in the region and was worsened by the rise of other important cultural, economic, and intellectualA sphinx and pillar from the temple of the Serapis in Alexandria, centers such as Constantinople, founded in 330 c.e.Egypt. Alexandria was the commercial center of the Mediterranean. by Roman emperor Constantine the Great. In both 638 and 646 c.e. Muslim Arabs invaded the city. During this time Cairo became another rival city. Alexandria soon weakened, and it was not resur-over the trade of the city of Tyre whose economic prom- rected until the 19th century.inence declined after an attack by Alexander. Alexan- See also Jewish revolts; libraries, ancient.dria soon surpassed Carthage as well, an ancient citythat was the center of civilization in the Mediterranean. Further reading: Forster, Edward M. Alexandria: A City andAlthough the city rose to great prominence under the a Guide. New York: Anchor Books, 1961; Parsons, EdwardPtolemaic rulers during the Hellenistic period, it was A. The Alexandrian Library, Glory of the Hellenic World;soon surpassed by the city of Rome. During its peak Its Rise, Antiquities, and Destructions. Amsterdam, ND:Alexandria was the commercial center of the Mediter- Elsevier Press, 1952; Vrettos, Theodore. Alexandria: A Cityranean. Ships from Europe, the Arab lands, and India of the Western Mind. New York: Free Press, 2001.conducted active trade in Alexandria, and this contrib-uted to its prosperity as a leading port in the Mediter- Nurfadzilah Yahayaranean Basin. The inhabitants of Alexandria consisted mainly ofJews, Greeks, and Egyptians. The Egyptians provided Alexandrian literaturethe bulk of the labor force. Alexandria was not onlya bastion of Hellenistic civilization; it occupied a very Alexandrian literature was very rich due to its multi-prominent position in Jewish history as well. The Greek cultural heritage, as Alexander the Great’s empiretranslation of the Old Testament in Hebrew was first encompassed Europe, Asia, and Africa. Alexander’sproduced there. Known as the Septuagint, the Hebrew conquests opened up trade and travel routes acrossBible took between 80 and 130 years to translate. his empire, and Alexandria developed as a center of Thus, Alexandria was a major intellectual cen- commerce between the Middle East, Europe, and India.ter in the Mediterranean. The city boasted two great The city was also known as a center of learning. Greek
  • 50. Ambrose 13was the lingua franca in Egypt for the people of dif- Archimedes of Syracuse (287–212 b.c.e.), the fa-ferent origins residing there. Due to the distinguished mous Hellenistic mathematician observed the rise andcommunity of intellectuals living within the borders of fall of the Nile, invented the screw, and initiated hy-Alexandria, Alexandrian literature is of high quality. drostatics. The basis of calculus began in Alexandria,The excellent libraries also attracted scholars of di- as it was where Archimedes started to explore the for-verse origins to further enrich intellectual life in the mula to calculate area and volume.vibrant city. Another brilliant scholar of Alexandria was the In 283 b.c.e. a synodos, formed by 30 to 50 librarian Eratosthenes who was a geographer and ascholars, set up a library with several wings, shelves, mathematician. Eratosthenes correctly calculated thecovered walkways, lecture theaters, and even a bo- duration of a year, postulated that the Earth is round,tanical garden. The library was built under the di- and theorized that the oceans were all connected.rection of a scholar-librarian who held the post of There was also Claudius Ptolemy whose great workroyal tutor appointed by the king. By the third cen- was Mathematical Syntaxis (System), usually knowntury b.c.e. the library had an impressive collection of by its Arabic name Almagest. It is an important work400,000 mixed scrolls and 90,000 single scrolls. The of trigonometry and astronomy.earlier scrolls on which scholars wrote were made of From the middle of the first century c.e., Christianpapyrus, a product monopolized by Alexandria for a hostility managed to push scholars away from Alexan-period of time. Later scholars switched to parchment dria. As a result the city declined as a city of learningwhen the king, in a bid to stifle competing rival li- in the Mediterranean. The library in Alexandria wasbraries elsewhere, stopped exporting papyrus. These destroyed during a period of civil unrest in the thirdscrolls, which constitute books, were stored in linen century c.e. In the fourth century not only were pa-or leather jackets. gan temples destroyed, but libraries were also closed In the library there were numerous translators, down under the orders of Theophilus, the bishop ofknown as charakitai, or “scribblers.” The translators Alexandria, further eroding Alexandria’s function as aperformed a vital function in transmitting the wis- bastion of literature.dom found in manuscripts that had been written in See also libraries, ancient.other languages in Greece, Babylon, India, and else-where. These manuscripts were meticulously copied Further reading: Battles, Matthew. Library, an Unquiet His-and stored in the libraries of Alexandria, as the kings tory. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003; El-Abbadi, Mostafa.wished to amass all the knowledge that was available The Life and Date of the Ancient Library of Alexandria.in the world of antiquity. This contributed greatly to Paris, France: UNESCO, 1990; Keeley, Edmund. Cavafy’sAlexandria’s position as a center of knowledge in an- Alexandria. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Unversity Press, 1996;cient civilization. Watson, Peter. Ideas: A History from Fire to Freud. New Among the eminent scholars based in Alexandria York: HarperCollins, 2005.were Euclid (325–265 b.c.e.), the famous mathema-tician who composed his influential masterpiece Ele- Nurfadzilah Yahayaments in the city in about 300 b.c.e. Euclid provideduseful definitions of mathematical terms in Elements.Apollonius of Perga wrote an equally seminal work in Ambrosemathematics known as Conics. In this work, Apollo- (c. 340–397 c.e.) bishop and theologiannius discussed a new approach in defining geometricalconcepts. Another Apollonius—Apollonius of Rhodes, Ambrose, bishop of Milan, was born in Trier of thewho was a mathematician and astronomer—wrote noble Aurelian family. His mother moved the family tohis epic Argonautica in about 270 b.c.e. The epic was Rome after the death of his father. Educated in rheto-dubbed as the first real romance and regarded as an en- ric and law, Ambrose was first employed in Sirmiumjoyable read as it was written for pleasure and not for and then in c. 370 c.e. as governor of Milan. Afterany explicitly didactical purpose. Alexandrian prose the death of the Arian bishop of Milan, a violent con-was often criticized for being pedantic, ornamental, flict broke out in the city over whether the next bishopand pompous; though some perceived Alexandrian lit- would be a Catholic or an Arian. Ambrose intervenederature to be erudite and polished. The novel is said to to restore peace and was so admired by all that bothbe an invention of Alexandrian writers. sides accepted him as a candidate for bishop, although
  • 51. 14 Andes: Neolithiche was not even baptized at the time. He was baptized Further reading: Deferrari, Roy. Early Christian Biog-and consecrated a bishop within a week. He immedi- raphies. Washington, DC: CUA Press, 1952; Dudden, F.ately gave his wealth to the poor and devoted himself Homes. Life and Times of St. Ambrose. Oxford: Claren-to the study of scripture and the Greek fathers of the don, 1935; McLynn, Neil B. Ambrose of Milan: Churchchurch. As a bishop, he was famous for his preach- and Court in a Christian Capital. Berkeley: University ofing, which was partly responsible for the conversion California Press, 1994.of the great theologian Augustine of Hippo, whomAmbrose baptized at Easter in 387. Gertrude Gillette Ambrose’s career was heavily involved with poli-tics. He was continually defending the position of theCatholic Church against the power of the various Ro- Andes: Neolithicman emperors during his episcopate: Gratian, Maxi-mus, Justina (pro-Arian mother of Valentinian II), and In order to impose temporal order on the variety ofTheodosius I. cultures and civilizations that emerged in the Andes in He was able to maintain the independence of the the millennia before the Spanish invasion (early 1530schurch against the civil power in his conflicts with c.e.), scholars have divided Andean prehistory intopaganism and Arianism. Regarding the former, Am- “horizons” and “periods,” with horizons representingbrose battled with Symmachus, magistrate of Rome, eras of relatively rapid change and periods being erasover the Altar of Victory in the Senate: The emperor of relative stasis:Gratian had removed the altar in 382, and after Gra-tian’s death Symmachus petitioned Valentinian II for Late Horizon 1400–1533 c.e. its restoration. Under Ambrose’s influence, the request Late Intermediate Period 1000–1400 c.e. was denied. Middle Horizon 600–1000 c.e. Arianism received a blow when Ambrose refused to Early Intermediate Period 100 b.c.e.–600 c.e. surrender a church for the use of the Arians. His deci- Early Horizon 700–100 b.c.e. sion was taken as sanctioned by heaven when—in the Initial Period 1800–700 b.c.e. midst of the controversy—the bodies of the martyrs Preceramic Period 3000–1800 b.c.e. Gervasius and Protasius were discovered in the church. Lithic Period >10,000–3000 b.c.e. Ambrose further strengthened the church’s authoritybefore the state in two incidents in which he took a firm The boundaries between these temporal divisions arestand against the emperor Theodosius I. fluid and are mainly a matter of scholarly convenience One incident involved the rebuilding of the syna- and convention. Spatially, the Andes region is gener-gogue at Callinicum in 388; the other had to do with ally divided into coast and highlands, with these sub-the emperor’s rash order that resulted in the massacre divided into northern, central, and southern, yieldingof thousands of innocent people at Thessalonica in the a total of six broad geographic zones.summer of 390. Ambrose refused to allow Theodosiusto receive the sacraments until he had performed public ÁSPEROpenance for this atrocity. The reconciliation took place The earliest evidence for the formation of complex so-at Christmas 390. One reason for Ambrose’s influence cieties in the Andes region dates to between 3200 andover Theodosius was that, unlike most Christian em- 2500 b.c.e. along the Pacific coast. Altogether moreperors who delayed their reception into the church until than 30 rivers cascade down to the Pacific from the Cor-their deathbed, he had been baptized and so fell under dillera Occidental of the Andes, many of whose valleysthe authority of the church in his private life. held the development of complex societies during the Ambrose’s knowledge of Greek enabled him to Preceramic Period.introduce much Eastern theology into the West. His One of the most extensively researched of theseworks include hymns, letters, sermons, treatises on the coastal zones is the North Chico, a 30-mile-wide rib-moral life, and commentaries on scripture and on the bon of coastland, just north of present-day Lima, en-sacraments. He was also a strong supporter of the mo- compassing the Huaura, Supe, Pativilca, and Fortalezanastic life in northern Italy. river valleys. See also Christianity, early; Greek Church; Latin Archaeological excavations in the North Chico be-Church; Monasticism. ginning in the 1940s have revealed evidence of at least
  • 52. Andes: Neolithic 1520 large settlements with monumental architecture, of these sites to date include Piedra Parada, Upaca,whose origins date to between 3200 and 1800 b.c.e. Huaricanga, and Porvenir and in the Casma Valley,The most intensively researched of these sites are Ás- the sites of Sechín Alto, Cerro Sechín, and Pampa depero, at the mouth of the Supe River, and Caral, about las Llamas-Moxeke. All fall within what is called the131⁄2 miles upstream from Áspero. Áspero tradition. Other major Preceramic Pacific coast It was his work at the site of Áspero that in 1975 traditions are the Valdivia tradition (on the coast ofprompted U.S. archaeologist Michael E. Moseley to contemporary Ecuador); the El Paraíso tradition (justpropose a hypothesis conventionally called the “mari- south of the Áspero sites); and the Chinchoros traditiontime foundations of Andean civilizations” (MFAC). (centered at the Chinchoro complex near the contem-According to the MFAC hypothesis, the initial forma- porary Peru-Chile border). Archaeological excavationstion of complex societies in the Andean region took at these and other Preceramic coastal sites continue, asplace along the coast and was made possible through do scholarly efforts to understand the civilizations thatthe intensive exploitation of maritime resources. This, created them.in turn, was made possible largely through the cultiva-tion of cotton, which was used to manufacture the nets HIGHLANDSneeded to harvest the coast’s abundant fish, especially A related arena of debate among Andean archaeolo-anchovies and sardines. gists concerns the relationship between the Pacific Evidence unearthed at Áspero and other sites in coast settlements and the formation of complex so-the North Chico since the 1970s strongly supports the cieties in the highlands. Most scholars agree thatMFAC hypothesis, though debates continue regard- complex societies began to emerge in the Centraling the origins and characteristics of these societies. and South-Central Highlands soon after the flores-The site of Áspero presents numerous anomalous fea- cence of complex societies in the North Chico andtures. It contains no pottery, only a few maize cobs, other coastal valleys. In the Central Highlands schol-and some 17 large earthen mounds, some nearly 16 ars have investigated what is called the Kotosh reli-feet tall. gious tradition at the Kotosh site. Not unlike those in The largest structure at the site, a flat-topped pyra- the North Chico, this site includes a series of raisedmid called Huaca de los Ídolos, covers some 16,145 mounds with platforms, sunken plazas, and an arraysq. feet, upon which, it is hypothesized, Áspero’s elite of small buildings. Sites exhibiting similar character-undertook ritual and ceremonial displays. The site also istics in the Central Highlands include Huaricoto, Lacontains some 30 to 37 acres of domestic middens (re- Galgada, and Piruru.fuse areas), along with evidence that its residents were In the South-Central Highlands the emergence ofcontinually rebuilding the mounds and other struc- complex societies evidently began in the Lake Titicacatures. This latter characteristic is also apparent at ­other Basin around 1300 b.c.e. Excavations at the site ofPacific coast sites. Chiripa (in present-day Bolivia) have revealed that by Upriver from Áspero, at the site of Caral, which this date there had emerged a nucleated settlement thatcovers some 150 acres, investigations have revealed included an array of small rooms, built of stone, withsome 25 pyramids or mounds, one reaching 82 feet in plastered floors and walls. By 900 b.c.e. the settlementheight and covering some 247,570 sq. feet; two large, of Chiripa included a ceremonial center surrounded byrounded, sunken ceremonial plazas; arrays of other residential complexes.mounds and platforms; extensive residential complex- Between 1000 and 500 b.c.e. complex societieses; and evidence of long-term sedentary inhabitation. had emerged throughout much of the Lake TiticacaRadiocarbon dates indicate that Caral was founded Basin. To the north the Qaluyu culture reached flo-before 2600 b.c.e. The same dating procedure applied rescence in the five centuries after 1000 b.c.e. Theto other sites in the North Chico indicates that most Qaluyu type site, covering 17 acres, includes a largewere founded between 3000 and 1800 b.c.e. ceremonial mound, sunken plazas, and extensive resi- Middens at Caral and other North Chico sites indi- dential complexes. Other Qaluyu sites in the northcate that maritime resources exploited through cotton Titicaca Basin include Pucará, Ayaviri, and Putina.cultivation and net manufacture were supplemented bya variety of cultigens, including legumes and squash, TITICACA BASINand by the gathering of diverse wild foods. In addition The overall trajectory of this period was marked byto Áspero and Caral, the most extensively researched the decline of North Coast polities and the rise of a
  • 53. 16 Andes: Neolithicseries of civilizations and culture groups in the Cen- or coastal regions during the whole of the preconquesttral and Southern Highlands and Central Coast. After period. This was also the case with the Inca.1000 b.c.e. the Titicaca Basin constituted one broad As Chavín declined around 400 b.c.e., therelocus of complex society formation. A second such emerged in the northern Titicaca Basin, in the six cen-locus emerged further north, in the Central High- turies between 400 b.c.e. to 200 c.e., a site and politylands and Central Coast, most commonly associated known as the Pucará, with architectural features similarwith the Chavín state and culture complex, which to those described above, and ceramic styles suggestingfirst emerged around 800 b.c.e. and declined some Chavín influence.six centuries later. At the Chavín type site, Chavín On the opposite side of the lake, in the southern Ti­de Huantar, excavations indicate a population of at ticaca Basin during roughly the same time period, thereleast several thousand in a settlement covering some emerged the settlement and state of Tiwanaku—again,104 acres. At the site’s core lie the ruins of a large with similar architectural features. By around 400 c.e.and imposing ceremonial temple, dubbed El Castillo, Tiwanaku had developed into a formidable state sys-built in the U shape characteristic of the North Chico tem. Scholarly debates continue on whether, during thearchitectural style. period under discussion here, these were true urban cen- The evidence indicates that Chavín de Huantar was ters or ceremonial sites intended principally for ritualthe political center of an expansive polity that extend- observances and pilgrimages.ed through much of the Central Highlands and CentralCoast. By this time exchange relations throughout the NAZCAAndes and adjacent coastal regions were highly de- Another enigmatic culture complex to emerge duringveloped. These exchanges were based less on markets the Early Intermediate Period was the Nazca, centeredthan on institutionalized reciprocal exchanges between in the southern coastal zone around the watersheds ofextended lineage groups tracing their descent to a com- the Ica and Nazca Rivers. Nazca pottery styles wentmon ancestor, called ayllu, as well as between political through at least eight distinct phases, until their declinenetworks resulting from the growth of state and impe- around 600 c.e. The Nazca are especially well knownrial power. for their geoglyphs, or large-scale geometric symbols Such exchanges were based on what anthropologist etched into the coastal desert. Further north, the MocheJohn Murra described in the 1970s as the “vertical ar- were another important coastal culture group and statechipelago,” a concept that has gained broad scholarly to emerge in the Early Intermediate.acceptance. In the simplest terms the basic idea is that The site of Moche, in the Moche River valley, hasthe Andes region consists of a vertical environment and been identified as the capital of the Moche polity. Ar-that exchanges of goods and services took place among chaeologists consider Moche to have been a true city;members of ayllus who lived in different “resource oa- perhaps South America’s first. The largest structureses” or “islands” in different altitudinal zones. From at the Moche type site, a pyramid dubbed Huaca delthe high plateau (or puna, elevation higher than 11,810 Sol, measures 525 by 1,115 feet at its base and standsfeet) came wool, meat, and minerals such as gold, silver, some 131 feet tall, making it one of the Western Hemi-and copper; from the upper mountain valleys (between sphere’s largest preconquest monumental structures.9,840 and 11,810 feet) came potatoes, grains, includ- All of these developments laid the groundwork for theing maize and quinoa, and other crops; and from the subsequent emergence of two other major state sys-lowlands (below 6,560 feet) came maize, cotton, coca, tems, or empires, toward the end of the period dis-legumes, and many fruits and vegetables. cussed here: the Huari and the Tiwanaku. Scholarly consensus holds that large-scale state sys- See also Maya: Classic Period; Maya: Preclassic Pe-tems such as the Chavín built upon these lineage-based riod; Mesoamerica: Archaic and Preclassic Periods;reciprocal exchange networks in order to extend their Mesoamerica: Classic Period.reach across vast expanses of territory without recourseto long-distance trade, as the concept of “trade” is gen- Further reading: Burger, R. Chavín and the Origins of Ande-erally understood. an Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995; Haas, For these reasons, “markets” and “trade,” as un- J., S. Pozorski, and T. Pozorski, eds. The Origins and Devel-derstood in European, Asian, and African contexts, opment of the Andean State. London: Cambridge Universityplayed little or no role in the formation and growth of Press, 1987; Haas, J., W. Creamer, and A. Ruiz. “Datingcomplex societies and polities in the Andean highlands the Late Archaic Occupation of the North Chico Region
  • 54. Anyang 17in Peru.” Nature 432 (2004); Moseley, M. E. The Incas perienced new rulers with an intervention in the bufferand Their Ancestors. London: Thames and Hudson, 2001; state of Armenia. Marcus sent Lucius, accompanied by——— The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. a number of Rome’s best generals, to deal with the Par-Menlo Park, CA: Cummings, 1975. thians. The Parthian war was successful but followed by a devastating plague and pressure from the German- M. J. Schroeder ic peoples across the Danube as the Marcomanni and Quadi actually made it as far as northern Italy. The relationship between the emperors was trou-Antonine emperors bled, as Marcus’s austere dedication to duty clashed with Lucius’s sometimes irresponsible hedonism. Lu-The four Antonine emperors of Rome—Antoninus Pius cius died on campaign against the Germans, however,(r. 138–161 c.e.), Marcus Aurelius (r. 161–180 c.e.), before any open break could occur, and Marcus re-Lucius Verus (r. 161–169 c.e.), and Commodus (r. 180– ferred to him fondly in his Meditations. Marcus’s long192 c.e.)—ruled over a time extending from the height of campaigns against the Germans were successful, butthe Pax Romana to one where the Roman Empire was he died before he could organize the conquered territo-having increasing difficulty carrying its many burdens. ries into Roman provinces, and his son and successor The founder of the dynasty, Antoninus Pius, was Commodus (who received the title of emperor in 177)born to a family that already numbered several consuls quickly abandoned his father’s conquests, returningamong its members. He served for many years in the to Rome in order to enjoy the perquisites of empire.Senate and as Roman official before being adopted as Commodus was the first son to succeed his natural fa-successor to the emperor Hadrian in 138 c.e. Part ther, rather than to be adopted by an emperor, sinceof the arrangement was that Antoninus would in turn Domitian.adopt two boys as his heirs. One was the nephew of The hedonistic and exhibitionistic Commodus con-his wife, Annia Galeria Faustina. This was Marcus trasted with his grim, duty-bound father. His policy ofAntoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius. The other was generosity made him popular among Rome’s ordinaryLucius Verus, the son of Hadrian’s previous choice as people, particularly in the early part of his reign, but thesuccessor, Lucius Aelius Caesar. When Hadrian died Senate despised him. Commodus was extraordinarilythe same year, Antoninus succeeded peacefully. An- arrogant, renaming the months, the Senate, the Romantoninus was more than 50 when he became emperor. people, and even Rome after himself. Unlike Marcus, The reign of Antoninus was marked by peace and Commodus had little interest in persecuting Christians,by an emphasis on Italy and Roman tradition that and subsequent Christian historians remembered hisbroke with the practices of the globetrotting philhellene reign as a golden age. In 192 he was removed in theHadrian. His dedication to traditionalism was one of traditional fashion for “bad emperors,” through an as-the qualities for which the Senate gave him the title of sassination plot—the first emperor since Domitian to“Pius.” Antoninus also cut back on the heavy spending be assassinated. Commodus left no heirs, and his deathon public works that had marked Hadrian’s reign. marked the end of the Antonine dynasty. Antoninus spent most of his time in Rome, by See also Hadrian; Roman Empire.some accounts never leaving Italy during his reign.The 900th anniversary of the city’s legendary founding Further reading: Birley, Anthony. Marcus Aurelius: A Biogra-took place in 147 c.e., and a series of coins and medal- phy. London: Routledge, 2000; De Imperatoribus Romanis:lions with new designs stressing Rome’s ancient roots An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Available online.were issued to commemorate the occasion. In foreign URL: http://www.roman-emperors.org (September 2006).policy Antoninus preferred peace to war and did notlead armies himself, but the empire waged war success- William E. Burnsfully on some of its borders. Antoninus’s death was followed by a dual succes-sion, the first in Roman history. Lucius Verus and Mar- Anyangcus Aurelius became co-emperors, although Marcuswas clearly the dominant partner in the relationship. Anyang is the modern town where the last capital (Yin)The new emperors faced many challenges. In the east, of the Shang dynasty (c. 1766–c. 1122 b.c.e.) of Chi-the king of Parthia hoped to take advantage of the inex- na was located. The discovery of inscribed oracle bones
  • 55. 18 apocalypticism, Jewish and Christianthere early in the 20th century and the scientific exca- a long period, but earlier evidence of writing has notvation of the site beginning in 1928 ended the debate been found. It is the ancestor of modern written Chi-on whether the Shang dynasty was historic. It is located nese and deciphering the characters and informationsouth of the Yellow River in present-day Henan Prov- provided from archaeological evidence has enabledince. The Shang dynasty, founded by Tang (T’ang) the historians to reconstruct Shang history.Successful moved its capital several times until it settled See also Wen and Wu.at Yin in 1395 b.c.e. and remained there until its endin 1122 b.c.e. The last phase of the dynasty is there- Further reading: Chang, Kwang-chih. The Archaeology offore also called the Yin dynasty. After the city was de- Ancient China, 4th ed. New Haven, CT: Yale Universitystroyed when the dynasty was overthrown by the Zhou Press, 1986; Creel, Herrlee G. The Birth of China, a Sur-­ ynasty (c. 1122–256 b.c.e.), the site was known asd vey of the Formative Period of Chinese Civilization. NewYinshu, which means the “waste of Yin.” York: Frederick Ungar, 1961; Keighytley, David N. Sources The discovery of the Shang era ruins at Anyang of Shang History: The Oracle-Bone Inscriptions of Bronzecame by accident. In Beijing (Peking) in 1900 an anti- Age China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.quarian scholar became ill, and among the ingredientsfor traditional medicine that were prescribed for him Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshurwere fragments of old bones carrying incised marks.The apothecary called them dragon bones. This scholarand his friend made inquiries on the bones’ origins and apocalypticism, Jewish and Christiantraced them to Anyang, where farmers had found themin their diggings. They began to collect the bones and The scholarly use and understanding of the worddecipher the writings on them, which they established as apocalypticism has varied much in the history ofthe earliest extant examples of written Chinese. research on these topics. The different words associ- Archaeological excavations around Anyang found ated with apocalypticism each possess their own sub-the foundations of palatial and other buildings but no tle connotations. The specific term, apocalypticism,city walls. They also found a royal cemetery with 11 and the many forms associated with it are derivedlarge tombs, believed to belong to kings, which had all from the first Greek word in the book of Revelation,been robbed in centuries past. This authenticates ancient apokalypsis (revelation). The noun apocalypse referstexts that identify 12 kings who ruled from Yin, but the to the revelatory text itself. The particular worldviewlast one died in his burning palace and so did not receive found within an apocalypse and the assumptions thata royal burial. In 1976 an intact tomb belonging to Fu it holds about matters concerning the “end times” isHao (Lady Hao), wife of King Wuding (Wu-ting), the referred to as “apocalyptic eschatology.” The nounpowerful fourth king to reign from Yin, was discovered. apocalypticism refers broadly to the historical andAlthough her body and the coffin had been destroyed social context of that worldview. When scholars useby time and water, more than 1,600 burial objects were the word apocalyptic, they typically assume a distinc-found, some with inscribed writing, which included her tion between the ancient worldview and the body ofname, on elaborate bronze ritual vessels. Bronze vessels, literature associated with it.jade, ivory, and stone carvings, and other objects show Apocalypticism refers to a worldview that gave risethe advanced material culture of the late Shang era. to a diverse body of literature generally dating from the More than 20,000 pieces of inscribed oracle bones time of the Babylonian exile down to the Roman perse-(on the scapulae of cattle and turtle shells) provide cutions. Characteristic elements of this literature includeimportant information on Shang history. Kings fre- a revelation of heavenly secrets to a privileged interme-quently asked questions and sought answers from the diary and the periodization of history. In these textshigh god Shangdi (Shang-ti) on matters such as war the eschatological perspective of the text reinforces theand peace, agriculture, weather, hunting, pregnancies expectation that the era of the author will reach its endof the queens, and the meaning of natural phenomena. very soon. This apocalyptic eschatology suggests thatThe questions, answers, and sometimes outcome con- the historical setting of these writings is one of crisis andtain dates, names of the rulers, and their relationship extreme suffering.to previous rulers, including those of the pre-Anyang Scholars who work in the area of ancient Jewishera. They were preserved in royal archives. The writing and Christian apocalypticism are aware that Jewishis already sophisticated and must have developed over apocalyptic literature survived due to ancient Christian
  • 56. Apostles, Twelve 19appropriation and interest in it. This is because Jewish sofar as it involves another, supernatural world.” Textsapocalypticism and the literature associated with it were associated with apocalypticism are characterized by angenerally viewed unfavorably by later forms of rabbinic understanding that salvation from a hostile world de-Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple. The pends on the disclosure of divine secrets.lack of a developed Jewish interpretive framework for The only example of an apocalypse from the He-these texts accounts for part of the scholarly problem brew Bible is the book of Daniel. Other well-knownin determining the precise origins and influences of this examples of apocalypses include the writings of Enochphenomenon. Many historical questions about the social and Jubilees and the traditions associated with them,context and the use of these Jewish apocalyptic writings 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, 3 Baruch, and Apocalypse of Abra-in ancient Jewish communities remain unclear and largely ham. Some texts from Qumran and the Dead Seatheoretical. What is certain is that Christian communities Scrolls present a worldview that is properly describedwere responsible for the preservation and transmission as apocalyptic but do not qualify as examples of theof these writings, and they appropriated the worldview literary genre (e.g., “Instruction on the Two Spirits”and the literary forms of Jewish apocalypticism. from the Community Rule text and the War Scroll). Scholars have long sought to identify the origins of The last book in the New Testament, known as theJewish apocalypticism with little consensus. Many have Apocalypse of John, is an example of a Christian apoca-presumed that Jewish apocalyptic eschatology grew lypse. The canonicity of this book was not accepted atout of earlier biblical forms of prophetic eschatology. first in the East. The book is a record of the visions ofOther scholars have proposed a Near Eastern Mesopo- John while he was exiled on the island of Patmos andtamian influence on Jewish apocalypticism. While there possesses a prophetic authority among Christian com-is no clear trajectory from Mesopotamian traditions to munities throughout history. Highly symbolic language,Jewish apocalyptic, and admittedly no Mesopotamian the presumption of a cataclysmic battle, and the dis-apocalypses exist, there exist some striking resemblances closure of heavenly secrets to a privileged intermediarybetween the two. Some shared characteristics include an make this text a classic example of the genre. Other ex-emphasis on the interpretation of mysterious signs and amples of Christian apocalypse outside the Bible includeon predestination. The motifs of otherworldly journeys the Ascension of Isaiah and the Apocalypse of Paul.and dreams are also prominent in both Mesopotamian See also Babylon, later periods; Christianity, ear-traditions and Jewish apocalypticism. ly; Fertile Crescent; Hellenization; Homeric epics; Other scholars have observed a Persian influence Judaism, early (heterodoxies); messianism; Persianupon Jewish apocalypticism. Present in both is the myth; prophets; Pseudepigrapha and the Apocrypha;struggle between light and darkness (good and evil) and Solomon; wisdom literature; Zoroastrianism.the periodization of history. Identifying the relationshipbetween Jewish apocalypticism and other traditions Further reading: Collins, J. J. “Introduction: Towards thehas been complex because some of these elements (e.g., Morphology of a Genre.” Semeia 14 (1979): 1–19; ———.­ therworldly journeys and revelatory visions) becomeo Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Rout-common to the Greco-Roman world as well. While ear- ledge, 1997; Hanson, P. D. The Dawn of Apocalyptic. Phila-ly Jewish apocalyptic was rooted in biblical prophecy, delphia: Fortress, 1975; VanderKam, J. C., and W. Adler, eds.later forms of apocalypticism from the Greek period The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity. Min-have more in common with wisdom literature. neapolis: Fortress Press, 1996; Yarbro Collins, A. The Com- bat Myth in the Book of Revelation. Missoula, MT: ScholarsLiterary Genre Press, 1976.Scholars often make a distinction between the generalphenomenon of apocalypticism and the literary genre Angela Kim Harkinsof “apocalypse.” A group of scholars led by J. J. Col-lins formulated the following frequently cited definitionof the literary genre of apocalypse in 1979: “‘Apoca- Apostles, Twelvelypse’ is a genre of revelatory literature with a narra-tive framework, in which a revelation is mediated by The word disciple is used most often in Greek philo-an otherworldly being to a human recipient, disclosing sophical circles to describe a committed follower of aa transcendent reality which is both temporal, insofar master (such as Socrates). Jesus (Christ) of Naz-as it envisages eschatological salvation, and spatial, in- areth had many such disciples, besides the 12 who
  • 57. 20 Apostles, Twelvebecame the apostles of the church. For example, Luke James the Greater to distinguish him from James, son6:13 hints at the existence of a larger circle of disciples: of Alphaeus) became the first of the apostles to be mar-“And when it was day, he called his disciples, and chose tyred under Herod Agrippa I. According to tradition,from them 12, whom he named apostles.” Among the James had preached in Spain before meeting his un-disciples who were not chosen as the 12 were women. timely death in Jerusalem. As for John, tradition claimsThis is noteworthy because few masters in the time of that he was the beloved disciple who wrote the GospelJesus had female disciples. of John, the three Epistles of John, and possibly also Beyond these disciples, many men and women the book of Revelation. Tradition also claims that John,were drawn to Jesus and followed him casually. The having survived a boiling cauldron of oil and banish-Gospels call them “crowds.” Jesus shared with the dis- ment to Patmos under Emperor Domitian for preachingciples thoughts that were kept from the crowds. For the Gospel in Asia Minor, died a natural death in Ephe-example, according to Mark, after Jesus had finished sus in the company of Mary, mother of Jesus. Moderntelling parables to the crowds, the disciples came to Je- critical scholarship rejects most of these claims.sus to learn their hidden meanings. The reason for this Philip is best remembered in the New Testamentprivate tutoring was that the disciples were expected for introducing Nathaniel to Jesus and for asking Je-to develop ears and eyes to discern the true and deeper sus to show him the Father. According to tradition,meaning of Jesus’ teachings. Philip’s ministry and martyrdom took place in Asia The 12 who were chosen, however, followed Je- Minor. Not much is known about Bartholomew insus even more fully than the other disciples by leaving the New Testament. According to tradition, he is thebehind everything they had, including their jobs and same person as Nathaniel in John 1:43–51, the manfamilies. The 12 were allowed to witness private de- whom Jesus said was without guile. Tradition claimstails of Jesus’ life not available to the other disciples. Bartholomew preached in Armenia and India, amongFor example, only the 12 were with Jesus on the night other places.of his arrest. According to the synoptic Gospels and Thomas, known also as Didymus (Twin), is best re-Acts, the names of the 12 were Simon Peter; James, membered as the cynical doubter who wanted to touchson of Zebedee; John; Andrew; Philip; Bartholomew; the scars on the hands and the body of the resurrected Je-Matthew; Thomas; James, son of Alphaeus; Thaddae- sus. Thomas is a prominent figure in the Syriac cultureus (Judas); Simon the Cananaean; and Judas Iscariot, and church, and according to tradition, he preachedwho betrayed Jesus. Unlike the other names, Simon in India, where he was martyred. He is also creditedPeter, Philip, and James, son of Alphaeus, consistently with the Gospel of Thomas (reportedly of the Gnostics),occupy the same positions (first, fifth, and ninth, re- which some scholars date to the middle of the first cen-spectively) on the list. Based on this observation, it has tury c.e. Matthew was a tax collector who, according tobeen suggested that the 12 were organized into groups ancient tradition, was the writer of the Gospel of Mat-of four and that Peter, Philip, and James, son of Alpha- thew. Many scholars reject this tradition, largely becauseeus, were their group leaders. This intriguing sugges- of Matthew’s apparent literary dependence on Mark.tion, however, has no hard evidence for support. The New Testament gives virtually no information As far as we know, the 12 were all from Galilee. about James, son of Alphaeus (known also as JamesPeter, Andrew, James, and John were fishermen, who, the Lesser). James and Matthew would be brothers ifexcept perhaps Andrew, constituted the innermost cir- Matthew is Levi who is also called son of Alphaeus incle of Jesus’ apostles. Simon Peter was the undisputed Mark 2:14. Tradition makes the questionable claim thatleader of the 12. Andrew was his brother and intro- James the Lesser was a cousin of Jesus. According toduced him to Jesus. According to tradition, Andrew one tradition, he preached in Palestine and Egypt, butpreached in Greece, Asia Minor (Turkey), and the ar- according to another, he preached in Persia. Thaddaeuseas north and northwest of the Black Sea. Tradition (of Mark 3) is probably the same figure as Judas, sonclaims that he was martyred in Patras. A late tradition of James (of Luke 6 and Acts 1). Not much is knownclaims him to be the founder of the church of Con- in the New Testament about this man. According tostantinople, the seat of the Greek Church. tradition, he preached in Armenia, Syria, and Persia. In James and John, sons of Zebedee, were also broth- some manuscripts, his name appears as Labbaeus.ers. Possessors of a fiery temper and ambition, they Simon the Cananaean is also called Simon theasked Jesus to appoint them to sit at his left and right Zealot. It is unclear whether he was a militant type.hand when his kingdom came. James (known also as According to some tradition, his missionary zeal took
  • 58. Arabia, pre-Islamic 21him to North Africa, Armenia, and possibly even Brit- Arabia, there was no central political authority, norain. Judas Iscariot, the treasurer for the 12, betrayed was there any central ruling administrative center.Jesus to the Jewish authorities who were seeking to Instead, there were only various Bedu (Bedouin)kill him. According to Matthew, Judas hanged himself tribes. Individual members of a tribe were loyal toafterward from guilt. After the death of Jesus, Matth- their tribe, rather than to their families.ias, a man about whom nothing is known in the New The Bedu formed nomadic tribes who moved fromTestament except the name, replaced Judas. Accord- place to place in order to find green pastures for theiring to Armenian tradition, however, Matthias evan- camels, sheep, and goats. Oases can be found alonggelized Armenia alongside Andrew, Bartholomew, the perimeter of the desert, providing water for someThaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean. The fact that plants to grow, especially the ubiquitous date palm.the disciples of Jesus felt compelled to replace Judas Since there was a constant shortage of green pasturesIscariot with Matthias to complete the number 12 for their cattle to graze in, the tribes often fought oneseems to indicate that the 12 were believed to be the another over the little fertile land available within Ara-heads of a newly constituted Israel. bia, made possible by the occasional desert springs. Simon Peter is also referred to as Cephas in Paul Since warfare was a part of everyday live, all menand John. It is perhaps his unaffected humanity, ac- within the tribes had to train as warriors.companied by unrefined manners, that endeared him By the seventh century b.c.e. Arabia was dividedto Jesus and the rest of the group. He appears to have into about five kingdoms, namely the Ma’in, Saba,been the spokesman for the 12. For example, on the Qataban, Hadramaut, and Qahtan. These civilizationsnight Jesus was transfigured, he offered to build huts were built upon a system of agriculture, especially infor Jesus as well as Elijah and Moses, who had come southern Arabia where the wet climate and fertile soilto visit Jesus. The leadership of the church, however, were suitable for cultivation. Of the five kingdoms Sabaeventually appears to have gone to James, the brother was the most powerful and most developed. Until 300of Jesus. According to ancient tradition, Peter went to c.e. the kings of the Saba kingdom consolidated the restRome, which eventually became the seat of the Latin of the kingdoms. Inhabitants of northern Arabia spokeChurch, and preached there and died a martyr, cruci- Arabic, while those in the south spoke Sabaic, anotherfied upside down. Semitic language. As Yemen lay along a major trade See also Christianity, early; Herods. route, many merchants from the Indian Ocean passed through it in south Arabia. The south was thereforeFurther reading: Goodspeed, Edgar J. The Twelve: The more dominant for more than a millennium as it wasStory of Christ’s Apostles. Philadelphia: John C. Win- more economically successful and contributed much toston Co., 1957; Wilkens, M. J. “Disciples.” In J. B. Green, the wealth of Arabia as a whole.S. Mc­Knight, and I. Howard Marshall, eds. Dictionary of By the seventh century b.c.e. the oases in ArabiaJesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity had developed into urban trading centers for the lucra-Press, 1992. tive caravan trade. The agricultural base of Arabia contributed to the economy of Arabia, enabling inhab- P. Richard Choi itants to switch to economic pursuits in luxury goods alongside an ongoing agrarian economy. The commer- cial network in Arabia was facilitated mainly by theArabia, pre-Islamic caravan trade in Yemen, where goods from the Indian Ocean Basin in the south were transferred on to camelArabia, which spans an area of 1.25 million sq. miles, caravans, which then traveled to Damascus and Gaza.is a rugged, arid, and inhospitable terrain. It consists Arabia dealt in the profitable products of themainly of a vast desert, with the exception of Yemen day—gold, frankincense, and myrrh, as well ason the southeastern tip, a fertile region with ample other luxury goods. The role of the Bedu, likewise,rain and well suited for agriculture. The southwest- evolved. Instead of just being military warriorsern region of Arabia also has a climate conducive to engaged in tribal rivalries, they were now part of theagriculture. The first mention of the inhabitants of caravan trade, serving as guardians and guides whileArabia, or “Aribi,” is seen in the ninth century b.c.e., caravans traveled within Arabia. These Bedu werein Assyrian script. The residents of northern Arabia different from other nomadic tribes, as they tendedwere nomads who owned camels. In pre-Islamic to settle in one place.
  • 59. 22 Aramaeans Assyrians, followed by the neo-Babylonians, and the would refer to those living in pre-Islamic Arabia as liv-Persians disturbed unity in Arabia. From the third cen- ing in jahiliyya, or “ignorance.”tury c.e. the Persian Sassanids and the Christian Byzan- See also Sassanid Empire.tines fought over Arabia. Later on, just before the riseof Islam, there emerged two Christian Arab tribal con- Further reading: Cleveland, William L. A History of thefederations known as the Ghassanids and the Lakhmid. Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000;The city of Petra in northwest Arabia was under the Imnadar, Subhash C. Muhammad and the Rise of Islam:control of the Byzantines (through the Ghassanids), fol- The Creation of Group Identity. Madison, WI: Psychoso-lowed by the Romans, while the northeastern city of cial Press, 2001; Mantran, Robert. Great Dates in IslamicHira fell under Persian influence (the Lakhmid). Under History. New York: Facts On File, 1996; Von Grunebaum,the Lakhmid and Ghassanid dynasties Arab identity Gustav E. Classical Islam: A History, 600 A.D. to 1258developed, as did the Arab language. A.D. Somerset, UK: Transaction Publishers, 2005. The central place of worship for the nomadic Bedutribes was the Ka’ba, a cubic structure found in the Nurfadzilah Yahayacity of Mecca, which houses a black stone, believed tobe a piece of meteorite. The Ka’ba was the site of anannual pilgrimage in pre-Islamic Arabia. Abraham first Aramaeanslaid the foundations of the Ka’ba. Over a millenniumthe function of the Ka’ba had drastically changed and The Aramaeans interest historians because of the twojust before the coming of Islam through Muhammad, sources of information about them: the archaeologicalidols were found within the shrine. The Bedu prayed and the biblical. Part of the challenge in understand-to the idols of different gods found within. Although ing the Aramaeans is in the effort to link both sets ofthe various nomadic Bedu tribes often formed warring data. According to the first citation, the people of an-factions, within the sacred space of the Ka’ba, tribal cient Israel and Judah consider themselves ethnicrivalries were often put aside in respect for the place Aramaeans who became a distinct religious group asof worship. Mecca became a religious sanctuary and a a result of their experience in Egypt. According to theneutral ground where tribal warfare was put on hold. second citation, the Aramaeans were a people who ex- By the seventh century c.e., besides being an impor- perienced the brunt of Assyrian aggression in the 12thtant religious site, the city of Mecca was also a signifi- century b.c.e.cant commercial center of caravan trade, because of The 1993 discovery of the Tel Dan Stela, an Ara-the rise of south Arabia as a mercantile hub. Merchants maic-language stone inscription that mentions Israelof different origins converged in the city. Just before and David and apparently was written by Hazael,the rise of Islam, the elite merchants of the Quraysh the king of Aram and the greatest Aramaean warrior,tribe led Mecca loosely, although it was still difficult brings these two strands together in a historical andto discern a clear form of authoritative government religious debate.in Mecca. Mecca, like southern Arabia, was home tomany different people of various faiths. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE Different groups of people had settled in Arabia, The historian is faced with the dilemma of determiningespecially in the coastal regions of Yemen, where a when this people first came into existence versus whenrich variety of religions had coexisted, having origi- there is a historical written record about them. The Ara-nated from India, Africa, and the rest of the Middle maeans presumably were a West Semitic–speaking peopleEast. This is because of its strategic location along the who lived in the Syrian and Upper Mesopotamian regionmerchant trade route from the Red Sea and the Indian along the Habur River and the Middle Euphrates for theOcean. They were Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians bulk of the second millennium b.c.e., if not earlier.who had migrated from the surrounding region. These Their first uncontestable appearance in the writtenmigrants were markedly different from the indigenous record occurred when Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser Iinhabitants of Arabia in that they adhered to mono- (1114–1076 b.c.e.) claimed to have defeated them nu-theistic faiths, recognizing and worshipping only one merous times. They very well may be connected to theGod. Thus, the inhabitants of pre-Islamic Arabia were Amorites who previously had been in that area beforefamiliar with other monotheistic faiths prior to the they spread out across the ancient Near East just as thecoming of Islam, however, subsequent Muslim society Aramaeans would do 1,000 years later.
  • 60. Aramaeans 23 The early stages of Aramaean history are known language was inadequate for the task. Centuries earlier,not through their own writings, but from what others perhaps around 1100 b.c.e., the Aramaeans had adopt-wrote about them. When the Assyrian Empire went ed the 22-letter Phoenician alphabet. Following the As-into decline, the Assyrian references to the Aramaeans syrian conquest of the Aramaeans, the latter’s languageceased. Presumably they continued to be the primar- was accorded special status within the empire and thenily pastoral people that the Assyrians had first encoun- became the lingua franca of the realm. Its usage contin-tered and lacked the urban-based political structure of ued for centuries including among the Jews.the major powers of the region. They used this time toestablish themselves in a series of small polities center- BIBLICAL EVIDENCEing in modern Syria. The writers of the Jewish Bible were of mixed opinion The void in the record changed in 853 b.c.e. when, concerning the origin of the Aramaeans. In some bibli-thanks to the Assyrians, the Aramaeans again appear cal translations they appear as Syrians, reflecting thein a historical inscription. They do so in the records of Greek-derived name for their land, a name that con-Shalmaneser III (858–824 b.c.e.), an Assyrian king who tinues to be used to this very day.sought repeatedly to extend his empire to the west all In Genesis 10:22, Aram is a grandson of Noahthe way to the Mediterranean Sea. His primary obstacle and son of Shem. This genealogy puts the Aramaeanto achieving this goal was a coalition of peoples includ- people in Syria on par with the Elamites (in moderning Arabs, Egyptians, Israelites, and Aramaeans. Ac- Iran) and the Assyrians (in modern Iraq). By contrast incording to the Assyrian inscriptions, it was Hadad-idr Genesis 22:19, the Aramaeans are grandsons of Abra-(Hadad-ezer, c. 880–843 b.c.e.) of Aram who led the ham’s brother Nahor and thus comparable to Jacob, thecoalition. The king was named after the leading deity grandson of Abraham. In Amos 9:7, the Aramaeans hadof the Aramaeans, Hadad, the storm god. That deity is their own exodus relationship with Yahweh from Kirprobably better known as Baal, a title meaning “lord,” (sometimes spelled Qir) west of the Middle Euphrates,than by his actual name. just as Israel had had from Egypt under Moses. Shalmaneser tried again in 849, 848, and 845 b.c.e. Just as the archaeological record of the Aramaeansto no avail. At that point the coalition crumbled, en- contains information involving Israel not found in theabling Shalmaneser to focus on the new ruler of Aram, Bible, the Bible contains information about the Ara-Hazael (c. 843–803 b.c.e.), a “son of a nobody” (mean- maeans during a time of minimal archaeological infor-ing a usurper). Even though Hazael now stood alone, mation about them. Biblical scholarship has struggledAssyria was unable to prevail in 841, 838, and 837 to integrate the archaeological and biblical data into ab.c.e. Shalmaneser then stopped trying. The withdrawal single story. Examples of points of contention includeof Assyria from the land provided Hazael with the op-portunity to expand his own rule. His success produced 1. Do the references to the Aramaeans in the storiesthe pinnacle of Aramaean political power during the re- of biblical Patriarchs better fit the circumstancesmaining years of the ninth century b.c.e. Hazael’s stat- of the 10th century b.c.e. in the time of David andure in the ancient Near East is attested by the Assyrian Solomon?use of “House of Hazael” for the Aramaean kingdom 2. What was David’s relationship with the Aramaeansin the eighth century b.c.e., and later Jewish historian particularly as recounted in II Samuel 8 and 10?Josephus’s discussion of Hazael’s legacy in Damascus 3. What was Israelite king Ahab’s relationship within the first century c.e. the Aramaeans particularly as recounted in I Kings Eventually Assyria did prevail over Aram. Around 20 and 22?803 b.c.e. Adad-nirari III (810–783 b.c.e.) attacked Aram 4. What was Hazael’s relationship with Israel duringand its new king, Ben-Hadad (c. 803–775 b.c.e.), the son the Jehu dynasty, given the contrasting commentsof Hazael. The weakening of Aram aided Israel, which by the Israelite prophet Elijah in I Kings 19:15–17enjoyed resurgence during the first half of the eighth cen- and his successor the prophet Elisha in II Kings 8:8–tury b.c.e. The political life of the Aramaeans soon ended 29? According to the biblical text, Elisha was rightwhen Tiglath-pileser III (745–27 b.c.e.) absorbed all the to weep when he names Hazael king of Aram, givenAramaean states into the Assyrian Empire. the devastation which the new king would wreak In a great irony of history the Assyrians required on Israel (see II Kings 10:32, 12:17–18, 13:3). Thesea more flexible and accessible language through which biblical accounts do agree with the Assyrian accountto govern their multi-peopled empire. Their cuneiform that Hazael was not heir to the throne.
  • 61. 24 Archaic Greece5. What is the solution to the double murder mystery economic growth to lead the charge against the old of Israelite king Jehoram and Judahite king Ahazi- aristocracy. In order to help solidify their positions ah: Was the murderer the Israelite usurper Jehu (II they often encouraged trade and business and spon- Kings 9–10) or the Aramaean king Hazael (Tel Dan sored ambitious building projects throughout their Stela)? city-state. Tyrannies did not last beyond the third generation as the sons and grandsons of tyrants typi- According to the biblical record, during the last centu- cally lacked the political skills and base of supportry of Aram’s existence, Ramot Gilead in the Transjordan enjoyed by their father and grandfather.and the northern Galilee appear to have been a ­continual The Archaic Period saw the continuation of Greeksource of contention between Israel and Damascus. The migration that had begun late in the Greek Dark Ages.biblical accounts in II Kings describe the ebb and flow to An increase in population and the resulting land short-ownership of the land, with Hazael representing the pin- age combined with economic growth, primarily innacle of Aramaean conquest, and Jeroboam II (c. 782– trade, spurred the movement in search of new lands,748 b.c.e.), the height of Israelite success. colonies, and trading posts. The economic expansion During this time Assyria occasionally ventured into brought the Greeks into extensive contact with otherthis arena generally to attack Aram, indirectly benefit- peoples and led to the development of Greek coloniesing Israel. All this political maneuvering came to an end throughout the Mediterranean, Ionia, and even intowhen Tiglath-pileser III ended the independent political the Black Sea region.existence of Aram in 732 b.c.e. Just over a decade later The growing economic prosperity of the ArchaicIsrael fell to the Assyrians. Period led to cultural changes as city-states viewed See also Bible translations; Elam; Syriac culture building projects, particularly of temples, as expres-and church. sions of their civic wealth and pride. During this pe- riod the Greeks used with greater frequency the moreFurther reading: Dion, Paul E. “Aramaean Tribes and Nations graceful Ionic style in their public buildings.of First-Millennium Western Asia.” In Jack M. Sassoon, ed. Colonization and trade had brought the GreeksCivilizations of the Ancient Near East. New York: Charles into more frequent contact with other great civili-Scribner’s Sons, 1995; Pitard, Wayne. “Aramaens.” In Alfred zations, such as Egypt. Some scholars give credit toJ. Hoerth, et al., eds. Peoples of the Old Testament World. Egypt and her development of large columned halls asGrand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998; ———. Ancient influencing the Greeks and their move toward monu-Damascus. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1987. mental architecture. The move toward monumental architecture was further encouraged as stone replaced Peter Feinman wood in public buildings such as temples, treasuries, and the agora as it transformed from a public meeting site to a local marketplace. In addition to the use ofArchaic Greece the Ionic column, relief sculptures illustrating mytho- logical scenes increasingly appeared on the pedimentsThe Archaic Period in Greek history (c. 700–500 and entablatures of late sixth century b.c.e. temples.b.c.e.) laid the groundwork for the political, economic, The seventh century b.c.e. saw the rise of lyricartistic, and philosophical achievements of the Classi- poetry, a song accompanied by a lyre. Unlike epiccal Period. Perhaps one of the greatest gifts to Western poetry (such as Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey), lyric po-civilization by the ancient Greeks was the beginning of etry is set in the present and tells the interests anddemocratic government and philosophy. The seventh passions of the author. Lyric poetry provides us withcentury b.c.e. witnessed the decline of the old aristo- a rare insight to the travails of an individual versuscratic order that had dominated Greek politics and the the epic sagas involving entire states.rise of the tyrant. The poet Archilochus wrote a poem wishing harm For the Greeks the term tyrant referred to some- to a man who had rejected the author as unsuitableone who had seized power through unconstitutional for his daughter. Sappho, a poetess from the island ofmeans. Tyrants were often accomplished men from Lesbos, wrote a hymn to Aphrodite asking for assis-aristocratic families who had fallen from political tance in a matter of love—her love for another wom-grace. They rode the tide of discontent and demand an. Both poems speak directly and passionately to thefor more opportunities spawned by population and audience on matters of a very personal nature.
  • 62. Archaic Greece 25An illustration depicts life in ancient Greece: A musician plays the lyre for his audience—the seventh century b.c.e. saw the rise of lyric poetry,the performance of a song accompanied by a lyre. Such lyric poetry is set in the present and tells the interests and passions of the author. In this period the Greeks took the creation of a cosmologists in sixth century b.c.e. Miletus. In addi-practical item, pottery, and turned it into such a beau- tion, the Archaic Greeks bequeathed to humanity thetiful piece of art that it spawned cheap imitations and concept of democratic government, wherein membersdemand for the pieces throughout the Mediterranean. of the polis (i.e., free men) enjoyed social liberty andGreek pottery in the seventh century b.c.e. was domi- freedom and willingly submitted to laws enacted di-nated by Corinthian pottery and its portrayal of ani- rectly by their fellow citizens.mal life. Athenian pottery and its portrayal of mythical See also Greek Colonization; Greek Drama; Greekthemes rose to prominence in the sixth century b.c.e. mythology and pantheon; Greek oratory and rhe­The same century also saw the shift from black figures toric.engraved on a red background to drawing red figureson a black background, which allowed for more detail Further reading: Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome:and movement in their figures. Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford Perhaps the greatest contribution made to Western University Press, 1999; Perry, Marvin, ed. Western Civiliza-civilization by the Archaic Greeks was in the realm of tion: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,ideas further developed during the Classical Period 2007; Pomeroy, Sarah B. Ancient Greece: A Political, Social,that continue to influence us, such as the search for a and Cultural History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.rational view of the universe, a “scientific” explana-tion for the world, and the birth of philosophy by the Abbe Allen DeBolt
  • 63. 26 ArianismArianism rallied together the orthodox side after clearing up mis- understandings due to terminology. This synod, alongArianism receives its name from Arius, a Christian with the efforts of the Cappadocians, theologians whopriest of Alexandria who taught that the Son of God, took up the banner of orthodoxy after Athanasius’sthe second person of the Trinity, is not God in the same death, paved the way for the Council of Constantinoplesense as the Father. He believed that the Son of God in 381, which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed and its con-did exist before time, but that the Father created him demnation of Arianism.and therefore the Son of God is not eternal like the Fa- See also Christianity, early; Ephesus and Chalce-ther. Arius was accustomed to say of the Son of God: don, Councils of; Greek Church; Latin Church.“There was a time when he was not.” When the bishop Alexander opposed Arius, he took Further reading: Ayres, Lewis. Nicaea and Its Legacy: Anhis case to Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia, who had Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitarian Theology. Oxford:the ear of Emperor Constantine the Great. In order Oxford University Press, 2004; Williams, Rowan. Arius:to put an end to the disputes that arose because of Ar- Heresy and Tradition. London: Darton, Longman andius’s teaching, Constantine called for a general council Todd, 1987.that met at Nicaea in 325 c.e. Arius and his followerswere condemned by 318 bishops at Nicaea who also Gertrude Gillettedrew up a creed laying down the orthodox view of theTrinity. Known as the Nicene Creed, it states that theSon of God is “God from God, Light from Light, True AristophanesGod from True God, begotten not made, consubstantial (450–388 b.c.e.) Greek playwrightwith the Father . . .” The term used to express the ideathat the Son of God is consubstantial, or of the “same Aristophanes was a leading dramatist of ancient Ath-substance,” as the Father, homoousios, became a ral- ens and, owing to the quantity and quality of his workslying cry for the orthodox side, expressing the unity of that have been preserved, is customarily recognized asnature between the Father and the Son of God. being the leading comic playwright of his society and The years following the Council of Nicaea were age. Greek comic drama passed through two mainturbulent, in which many groups opposed the teaching phases, referred to as Old Comedy and New Comedy.of the council. The reason Arianism continued to exert The transition between the two stages included Middleinfluence after its condemnation was due in large part Comedy, which is largely conjectural, although the lastto the emperors of this period. Some were openly sym- work of Aristophanes is often ascribed to this stage.pathetic to this heresy, while others—wanting political Old Comedy featured a chorus, which commented onpeace and unity in the empire—tried to force compro- the action in verse and song, mime and burlesque, asmises that were unacceptable to those fighting for the well as a sense of ribaldry, broad political satire, andSon of God’s equality with the Father. Some bishops farce. New Comedy dispensed with the chorus and ad-were orthodox in their understanding of the Son of God opted more of a sense of social realism, although thisas truly God, but they were opposed to the word homo- is still relative. As a representative of the end of oneousios because they could not find it in scripture. Others phase, Aristophanes was working in a time of innova-feared that the word smacked of Sabellianism—an earli- tion and change, and as might be expected, his workser heresy that had made no ultimate distinction between excited both favorable and unfavorable comment.the Father and the Son of God, holding that the divine The entire canon of Aristophanes’ works is notpersons were merely different modes of being God. known, but it is believed to have extended to per- The defender of the orthodox position was Athana- haps 40 works, of which 11 have survived in par-sius, the successor to Alexander in the diocese of Alex- tial or complete forms. His career coincided with theandria. Athanasius vigorously opposed all forms of Ari- Peloponnesian War, and this formed the backdropanism, teaching that the Son must be God in the fullest of many of his surviving major works. Aristophanes’sense since he reunites us to God through his death on most fantastical play is The Birds, which follows thethe cross. One who is not truly God, he argued, cannot adventures of a group of birds who become so dis-bring us a share in the divine life. Athanasius went into affected by life in their home city that they leave toexile five times for his indefatigable defense of Nicaea. establish their own, which is called Cloud CuckooA synod held under his presidency in Alexandria in 362 Land and is suspended between heaven and earth.
  • 64. Aristotle 27The Birds can be read as an attack on the rulers of developed works at this time, but much of what hasAthens and the idea that people would be better off been passed down through the ages was subsequentlyelsewhere. Acharnians is an earlier play, which more edited, and much of his work gives the impression thatdirectly addresses the misery of war. In Frogs the ac- it contains interpolated material and other notes. Histions of the gods are explicitly brought into the sphere works were translated into Latin and Arabic and be-of humanity as Dionysus descends into hell to retrieve came immensely influential throughout the Westerna famous tragedian to produce work that could en- world. Aristotle departed Athens for the island of Eu-lighten the lives of the people of Athens, given the boea in 322 b.c.e. and died that year.currently woeful state of that art in the city. See also Greek drama. SCIENTIFIC WORKS At the basis of Aristotle’s works is his close observationFurther reading: Aristophanes. Aristophanes: The Complete of the world and his astoundingly powerful attempts toPlays. Trans. and ed. by Paul Roche. New York: Penguin, understand and reconcile the nature of observed phenom-2005; Bowie, A. W. Aristophanes: Myth, Ritual and Com- ena with what might be expected. This is perhaps mostedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996; Strauss, easily witnessed in Aristotle’s scientific works, includingLeo. Socrates and Aristophanes. Chicago: University of Chi- the Meteorologica, On the Movement of Animals, andcago Press, 1996. On Sleep and Sleeplessness. Aristotle’s works were deeply rooted in the real world, since the establishment of fact John Walsh is central to the inquiry. This is the strand of Aristotle’s work that was later developed by scholars such as Roger Bacon and early scientific experimenters.Aristotle(384–322 b.c.e.) Greek philosopher CATEGORIES Aristotle’s classification of all material phenomena intoAristotle is one of the greatest figures in the history of categories is contained in his work of the same name.Western thought. In terms of the breadth and depth of According to this method, everything was part of sub-his thought, together with the quality and nature of his stance and could be classified as such, while some indi-analysis, his contribution to a variety of fields is almost vidual items would be classified as an individual item.unparalleled. His areas of investigation ranged from The latter are considered to be qualities rather than es-biology to ethics and from poetics to the categoriza- sential parts of substance. The ways in which Aristotletion of knowledge. Born in Stagira in northern Greece, organized these categories does not always appear in-with a doctor as a father, he studied under Plato for 20 tuitively correct, which reflects differences in methods ofyears until Plato’s death and then left to travel to Asia thinking and language. He also distinguished betweenMinor and then the island of Lesbos. form and matter. Form is a specific configuration of mat- He received a request in about 342 b.c.e. from King ter, which is the basis or substance of all physical things.Philip of Macedon to supervise the education of his Iron is a substance or representation of matter, for ex-son Alexander, who was 13 at that time. He consent- ample, which can be made into a sword. The sword is aed and prepared to teach Alexander the superiority of potential quality of iron, and a child is potentially a fullyGreek culture and the way in which a Homeric hero in grown person. It is in the nature of some matter, there-the mold of Achilles should dominate the various barbar- fore, to emerge in a particular form. If form can be saidians to the east. Alexander went on to conquer much of to emerge from no matter, then it would do so as god.the known world, although he failed to observe Aristot- Whether one thing is itself or another thing de-le’s instruction to keep Greeks separate from barbarians pends on the four causes of the universe. The mate-by pursuing a policy of intermarriage and adoption of rial cause explains what a thing is and what is its sub-eastern cultural institutions. Alexander proved to be an stance; the final cause explains the purpose or reasonobstinate student, and Aristotle’s influence was slight. for the object; the formal cause defines it in a specific Once this tutelage was completed, Aristotle retired physical form, and the efficient cause explains how itfirst to Stagira and then to Athens to establish his own came into existence. According to Aristotle’s thinking,academy. He continued to be accompanied by former all physical items can be explained and accounted forpupils of Plato such as Theophrastus. His academy be- fully by reference to these four causes. In a similar waycame known as the Lyceum. Aristotle wrote his most his exposition of the syllogism in all its possible forms
  • 65. 28 Aristotleand the definition of which of these are valid and to and religious environment and meant that some schol-what extent are an effort to establish a system that is ars were able to avail themselves of Aristotelian thoughtinclusive and universal and is both elegant and parsi- quite freely, while others were constrained from doingmonious in construction. The syllogism is Aristotle’s so and their insights were lost to history. Among theprincipal contribution to the study of logic. former are, notably, Thomas Aquinas (1225–74 c.e.), whose writings investigated the canon of Aristotle withPOETICS considerable intensity and clarity.Aristotle’s methods enabled him to make a number of Albertus Magnus (1200–80 c.e.), an importantinfluential contributions to language and to discourse. tutor of Aquinas, had achieved a great deal in inte-His Sophistical Refutations, for example, analyzes the grating Aristotelian thought and methods into theuse of language to identify the forms of argument that mainstream of Christian thought in terms of respon-are valid and discard false or disreputable discourse sible philosophical inquiry. Together with Roger Ba-that is aimed at winning an argument rather than seek- con (1220–92 c.e.), the Aristotelians made progressing the truth. Aristotle, like Socrates and Plato before toward experimental science that would eventuallyhim, was convinced of the primacy of the search for flourish with the scientific method.truth; no matter how uncomfortable this may prove In the Islamic world Aristotelianism is perhaps bestto be. This placed him in occasional conflict with the known in the person of Ibn Sina (980–1037 c.e.), theSophists, who were more willing to teach pupils to Persian physician and philosopher whose ideas perhapsuse philosophical discourse for self-­advancement. Ar- came the closest of all Muslim thinkers to uniting Is-istotle’s Posterior Analytics was aimed at determin- lamic belief with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle.ing the extent to which scientific reasoning rested on Ibn Sina shared Aristotle’s devotion to the systematicappropriately considered and evaluated premises that examination of natural phenomena and his ­ supportflow properly from suitable first principles. He ap- for logical determinism brought him into conflict withplied the same rigorous approach to his examination religious authorities. His religious beliefs tended to-of the Athenian polis and also to the study of tragedy ward the mystic, possibly as a means of resolving thein the Poetics. difficulties inherent in the gap between observable and The Poetics remains one of Aristotle’s most influen- comprehensible phenomena and divine revelations.tial works. It aims to outline the various categories of The eastern part of the Islamic world had enjoyed theplot and chain of cause and events that are appropriate infusion of ideas from the Hellenistic tradition for somefor the stage and the ways in which the various elements centuries and so was better able to integrate conceptsof theater should interact. His conception of the prop- more peaceably than in, for example, the western Is-erly tragic character as one whose inevitable downfall lamic states of the Iberian Peninsula. Consequently theis brought about by a character flaw, and that the an- beneficial impact of Aristotle’s protoscientific methodagnoresis, or reversal of fortune, was the plot device by may be discerned in many of the scholarly works of thewhich this most commonly was brought about, domi- medieval Islamic world. This also provided a route bynated the production of drama until the modern age. which ideas could be transmitted further east. See also Platonism; sophism.ARISTOTELIANISMA number or prominent scholars and thinkers of the me- Further reading: Aristotle. The Complete Works of Aris-dieval ages, called Aristotelians, seized upon Aristotle’s totle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Ed. by J. Barnes.methods. From the time of Porphyry (260–305 c.e.), the Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995; Aquinas,Aristotelian method of analysis was used as a weapon Thomas. Summa Theologica. Trans. by the Fathers of theto attack Christianity. This raised a theme that recurred English Dominican Province. Christian Classics, 1981;numerous times throughout western Europe, particu- Bernays, Jacob. “On Catharsis.” American Imago (v.61/3,larly in the subsequently developed universities. While 2004); Broadie, Sarah. “Virtue and Beyond in Plato andArabic scholars generally saw no problem in utilizing Aristotle.” Southern Journal of Philosophy (v.43, 2005);the dialectical method as a tool in helping to understand Clegg, Brian. The First Scientist: A Life of Roger Bacon.the ways in which the physical universe worked, those New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2003; Halliwell,from Christian countries faced opposition when Aristo- Stephen. Aristotle’s Poetics. Chicago: University of Chicagotelian thought was classified as irreligious or blasphe- Press, 1998; Morewedge, Parviz. Metaphysica of Avicenna.mous. This was determined by the prevailing political New York: Global Scholarly Publications, 2003; Shiff-
  • 66. Armenia 29man, Mark. “Shaping the Language of Inquiry: Aristotle’s had to take into account the kingdom of David andTransformation of the Meanings of Thaumaston.” Epoche: Solomon, the capital city of Jerusalem, and the ritu-A Journal for the History of Philosophy (v.10/1, 2005); als of temple and sacrifice. So the Ark became theWeishepl, James A., ed. Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: throne or the divine contact point for God’s rule overCommemorative Essays. Toronto, Canada: Pontifical Insti- the world. The Ark was no longer housed in a tent; ittute of Medieval Studies, 1980. had its own inner courtroom. The angelic representa- tion over the chest became a divine seat, or at least John Walsh a footstool. Ancient artistic representations of this concept have been discovered in other cultures of the Fertile Crescent: Human or divine kings are oftenArk of the Covenant depicted as sitting on a throne supported by winged creatures.The political and cult symbol of Israel before the de- The Ark disappeared from Jerusalem after the Bab-struction of the Temple was the Ark of the Covenant. ylonians invaded in the sixth century b.c.e., but it didThis cult object was constantly found with the Israel- not disappear from later popular imagination. Someites and treasured by them from the time of Moses un- believed that Jeremiah the prophet or King Josiah hidtil the time of the invasion of the Babylonians. It was it, others that angels came and took it to heaven; anda rectangular chest made of acacia wood, measuring 4 to this day, Ethiopian Christians believe that they havefeet long by 2.5 feet wide by 2.5 feet high. The Ark was it safeguarded in their country. That the Ark could falldecorated and protected with gold plating and carried into godless hands was considered to be more cata-by poles inserted in rings at the four lower corners. strophic than the destruction of the Temple. WhateverThere was a lid (Hebrew: kipporet, “mercy seat” or the cause, Josephus said that it was not present in the“propitiatory”) for the top of the Ark, and perched on rebuilt temple of Herod.top of the monument were two golden angels or cher- See also Babylon, later periods; Ethiopia, ancient;ubs at either end with their wings covering the space Greek mythology and pantheon.over the Ark. The first interpretations about the Ark were sim- Further reading: De Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel. Vol. 2:ple: It was simply the repository for the stone tablets Religious Institutions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965;of laws that Moses received on Mount Sinai. It was Price, Randall. In Search of the Ark of the Covenant. Newhoused in a tent and on pilgrimage alongside the chil- York: Harvest House, 2005.dren of Israel in the desert. Ancient peoples would pre-serve treaties or covenants in such a fashion. Mark F. Whitters Soon, however, the Ark became charged with deep-er latent powers and purposes. For one thing it was theplace where the divine being would choose to make Armeniasome revelation and communication with Israel. Mo-ses would go there for his meetings with God. So the Located at the flashpoint between the Roman and Per-Ark became more than a receptacle for an agreement; sian Empires, “Fortress Armenia” stretched throughGod’s presence filled the Ark. A parallel to this no- eastern Anatolia to the Zagros Mountains. Armeniation is the qubbah, the shrine that Arab nomads carry was a kingdom established during the decline of Se-with them for divination and direction as they search leucid control. Its independence ended with its incor-for campsites and water. In a similar way the Ark was poration into the Roman Empire in the third centurya supernatural protection—called a palladium—that c.e. The region was inhabited after the Neolithic Pe-ensured that Israel would never lose in battle. In this riod, and evidence of high culture is evident from thesense many Near Eastern cities and nations often had Early Bronze Age. Urartu was an important regionalsome token of divine protection. Similarly, the Greeks power in the eighth to the sixth centuries b.c.e.often symbolized their military invincibility through The Indo-Europeans arrived from western Ana-divine emblems such as Athena’s breastplate in Athens tolia in this period and formed a new civilization thatand Artemis’s stone in Ephesus. was Armenian-speaking and based on the local culture. When the Jerusalem temple was built under Solo­ The conversion of Armenia to Christianity is associ-mon, the Ark took on a more complex meaning. It ated with a number of stages or traditions. The most
  • 67. 30 Artaxerxesimportant one was the work of Gregory Luzavorich, Christian and classical works, translated from Greekthe “Illuminator” (d. 325 c.e.). Armenians greatly and Syriac into Armenian. During the Christologicaltreasure their heritage as the first nation that converted controversies of the fifth and sixth centuries, the Ar-officially to the Christian faith. menian Apostolic Church rejected the decisions of the Syriac Christianity first influenced Armenia: The Council of Chalcedon (451) and remains to this dayArmenian version of the Abgar legend makes Abgar an one of the non-Chalcedonian churches that adhere toArmenian king, and the evangelization of Addai is de- the strict interpretation of Cyril of Alexandria’sscribed as a mission to southern Armenia. The influence “one nature of the incarnate Logos” formula. For thisof Syriac literature and liturgy on Armenia ­remained reason, Armenians are often erroneously and polemi-strong even after the Greek influence, primarily from cally labeled “Monophysites.”Cappadocia, and increased in the third century c.e. See also cappadocians; Diadochi (Successors); Ephe-The Greek tradition states that Bartholomew was the sus and Chalcedon, Councils of; Medes, Persians, andapostle to the Armenians. The Abgar/Addai legend is Elamites; Oriental Orthodox Churches; Roman Em-earlier than that of Bartholomew. The traditions of the pire; Seleucid Empire; Syriac culture and church.female missionaries and martyrs Rhipsime and Gaianeare among the earliest accounts of the conversion of Further reading: Garsoïan, Nina G. Church and Culture inArmenia. Tertullian (c. 200 c.e.) also mentions that Early Medieval Armenia. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999;there were Christians in Armenia. Thomson, Robert W. Studies in Armenian Literature and The conversion of the royal house of Armenia Christianity. Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1994.dates officially to 301 c.e., predating the conversionof the Georgian king Gorgasali and the Ethiopian Robert R. Phenix, Jr.Menelik by a generation. In that year Gregory theIluminator persuaded King Tiridates III (Trdat theGreat, 252–330) to be baptized. Gregory is identi- Artaxerxesfied as the founder of the Christian Armenian na- (5th–4th centuries b.c.e.) Persian emperorstion and as the organizer of the Armenian Church.Gregory founded Ejmiatsin, the mother cathedral of The Persian Empire reached its greatest strength underthe ­ Armenian Church, after an apparition by Jesus Darius I; under the reign of the three Artaxerxes itChrist who descended from heaven at the site of a sig- began and concluded its decline, ending with Alexan-nificant pagan temple (Ejmiatsin means “The Only- der the Great’s conquests in 330 b.c.e. Artaxerxes I,­ egotten Descended”). Gregory’s original church wasb third son of Emperor Xerxes I, acceded to the throneat Vagharshapat. in 465 b.c.e. following the murder of his father and his The revelation to found the church at Ejmiatsin brother Darius, who was first in line to the throne. Ac-coincided with changing political circumstances. Po- cording to Josephus, the first century c.e. Jewish his-litically, Armenians were always at the mercy of the torian, Artaxerxes’ pre-throne name was Cyrus. Thegreat powers of Persia and Rome, and in 387 the Ro- first century b.c.e. Roman historian Plutarch adds thatman emperor Theodosius I and the Persian emperor he was nicknamed “long-armed” due to his right armShapur agreed to partition Armenia, thus ending its being longer than his left. Earlier kings of the Persianindependence. As the site of a dominical apparition, Empire, namely Cyrus II, Darius, and Xerxes, werethe place of Gregory’s Episcopal see, the residence of discussed in the comprehensive works of the near con-Armenian Catholicoi, and the most important admin- temporary Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnas-istrative center of the Armenian Church, Ejmiatsin is sus, but unfortunately Herodotus’s work did not coverfor Armenians a holy site on a par with the Church of much of Artaxerxes’ reign, and none of the reigns ofthe Anastasis (Resurrection) in Jerusalem or the Ba- later kings.silica of Bethlehem, where Jesus (Christ) of Naza-reth was born. ARTAXERXES I The second most important event of the forma- The Bible refers to Artaxerxes explicitly in Ezra 4:7, intive period of Armenian history was Mesrob Mash- reference to a letter written by the Jews’ enemies in Sa-tots’s (c. 400) invention of the Armenian alphabet, maria. Both Ezra and Nehemiah, significant figures inwhich resulted in the translation of the Bible and the the later history of the biblical Israelite people, arrivedliturgy into Armenian and a rapid introduction of in Judah in Palestine to serve the Jews there during the
  • 68. Artaxerxes 31reign of Artaxerxes. If this is accurate then it was Arta­ tilities broke out between Athens and Sparta, therebyxerxes for whom Nehemiah was cup bearer (Nehemiah beginning the long Peloponnesian War. Artaxerxes2:1), a position that gave him close access to the king, decided to take a position of noninterference and madeand it was to him that Nehemiah asked for permission no effort to slow the course of events, ignoring the en-to go to Jerusalem to oversee the rebuilding of the city treaties for support from both sides. Artaxerxes I diedwalls. A. T. Olmstead in A History of the Persian Em- of natural causes toward the end of 424 b.c.e.pire states the opinion that it was also Artaxerxes towhom Ezra went in 458 to ask permission to take a ARTAXERXES IIgroup of Jewish exiles back to Judaea in order to rees- Artaxerxes II, the grandson of Artaxerxes I, acceded totablish proper worship (Ezra 7:1, 8:1). the throne in March 404 b.c.e. on the death of his fa- During his reign Artaxerxes generally followed the ther, Darius II. However, the following year his youngeradministrative practices of his father Xerxes. However, brother Cyrus began plotting his overthrow. Cyrus gath-it was increasingly clear was that the empire, ­ having ered an army, significantly including 10,000 Greek mer-reached its maximum extent under Darius I, Arta­xerxes’ cenaries, and marched east. Finally battle was drawngrandfather, was weakening. Undoubtedly, a key cause in 401 against his brother’s army at Cunaxa in centralwas the high levels of taxation, which was stripping Mesopotamia, but despite initial success on Cyrus’sthe satrapies, the regions of the empire, of gold and part, his rashness led to a crucial mistake that resultedsilver, enriching Persia’s vaults, but fostering discon- in his death, and Artaxerxes won the day. This notwith-tent among the king’s subjects. In 460 ancient Egypt standing, the Greek mercenaries were allowed to marchrebelled, drove out the Persian tax collectors, and re- the thousand miles home, Artaxerxes not wanting toquested aid from Athens. The Athenians, who were tackle them. This “March of the Ten Thousand” fromlooking for a fight with Persia, sent a fleet; and by 459 the heart of the Persian territory became a symbol of thenearly all of Egypt was in the hands of the rebel alli- internal weakness of the Persian Empire at that time.ance. It was probably in this turbulent period that Ezra In 396 Sparta began a new war to take back controlmade his application to Artaxerxes to allow a contin- of the Greek cities of Asia Minor. While the Spartansgent of Jews to organize the worship of the returned played off one Persian satrap against another, Arta­exiles in Judaea. The Jews of Babylonia were prob- xerxes, aware of the empire’s military weakness, used itsably some of the more loyal citizens, and since Persian vast wealth to buy an alliance with Athens, Sparta’s lo-policy supported organized religion, Ezra’s appeal met cal rival. The Athenians aided the strengthened Persianwith sympathetic ears. navy, successfully countering the Spartan threat, with the In the meantime Artaxerxes sent money to the result that in 387–386 a peace was struck, which onceAthenians’ Greek rival, Sparta, in order to counter again required Sparta to give up any claims to sover-their support of the Egyptian rebellion. Consequently, eignty over the Greek cities in Asia Minor.Athens was defeated at Tanagra (457), and with Ju- In 405 Egypt had revolted and remained inde-daea quieted, Artaxerxes sent his general Megabyzus pendent from Persia throughout most of Artaxerxes’at the head of a huge army down through the Levant reign. In 374 Artaxerxes sent a force to retake Egypt.to Egypt, taking back the country after one and a half The attempt failed, reinforcing the impression that theyears of siege. The resultant defeat left Athens severely central authority was weakening. With rebellion rifeweakened and demoralized. In 449 the Callian trea- the situation seemed to be slipping out of control andty was agreed between Athens and Persia in Susa, in auguring the end of the empire. However, the rebels’which the parties accepted the maintenance of the sta- Egyptian ally, Pharaoh Nekhtenebef, died unexpect-tus quo in Asia Minor, namely that those Greek city- edly in 360, leaving Egypt in chaos and the satraps ofstates that were in either party’s control at the time of Asia Minor to face the wrath of the emperor alone.the treaty stayed under that party’s control. Rather than risk losing to the central authority, the A few years later the general Megabyzus resigned rebels made peace with Artaxerxes, and many were infrom the army and retired to the satrapy he governed, fact returned to their satrapies.“The land beyond the River,” namely modern-day Isra-el, Lebanon, and Syria—and there led a revolt. Possibly ARTAXERXES IIIit was the rebellious courage stirred up by Megabyzus’s In 358 b.c.e., after a long and moderately successfulactions that led local authorities to pull down the Jeru- tenure, though rife with revolts, Artaxerxes II died.salem walls lest there be another uprising. In 431 hos- His son Ochus acceded to the throne taking the name
  • 69. 32 Aryan invasionArtaxerxes III. Ochus’s bloodthirsty reputation—pos- up and began massive movements westward, south-sibly the worst in this regard of any of the Achaemenid ward, and southeastward to new lands around 2000kings—was compounded by the murder of all his re- b.c.e., conquering, ruling over, and in time assimilat-lations, regardless of sex or age, soon after his acces- ing with the local populations. Those who settled insion. However, his ruthless ferocity did not stop revolts Europe became the ancestors of the Greeks, Latins,from rocking the empire. Ochus made a fresh attempt Celts, and Teutons. Others settled in Anatolia andto take back Egypt in 351 but was repulsed, and this ­ ecame known as the Hittites. Another group settled bencouraged further rebellions in the western satrapies. in Iran (Iran is a cognate form of the English wordIn 339 Persia misplayed its hand with Athens by re- Aryan). The most easterly group crossed the mountainfusing Athenian aid to deal with the rising power of passes of the Hindu Kush into the Indus River valleyPhilip of Macedon. Persia took on Philip alone but on the Indian subcontinent.failed to defeat him, and in 338 Philip took overlord- Many tribes who called themselves Aryas (angli-ship of the whole of Greece. cized to Aryans) moved into India over several centu- Greece united under Philip proved impervious to Per- ries. While there are several theories on the decline andsian might, and within eight years Persepolis, the Persian fall of the Indus civilization, there is no doubt that theroyal capital and the whole empire, was to collapse at the Indus cities were destroyed or abandoned around 1500hands of Philip’s son, Alexander the Great. Ochus’s phy- b.c.e., at about the same time that the newcomers be-sician, at the command of the powerful eunuch Bagoas, gan to settle in the Indus region. These newcomers livedmurdered Ochus, and Bagoas made Ochus’s youngest in villages in houses that did not endure. Thus, there areson, Arses, king (338–336 b.c.e.). Arses attempted to kill few archaeological remains in India of the protohistoricthe too powerful Bagoas and was killed, allowing Darius age between 1500–500 b.c.e. Historians must thereforeIII to become king. Darius survived until his death in 330 rely in part on the literary traditions of the early Aryansb.c.e. at the hands of Alexander. for knowledge on the era. The earliest oral literature of See also Babylon, later periods; Greek city-states; the Aryans were hymns and poems composed by priestsHerodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon; Medes, Per- to celebrate their gods and heroes and used in religioussians, and Elamites; Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana; rites and sacrifices. They were finally written downPersian invasions; pharaoh. c. 600 b.c.e., when writing was created. This great collection of poems is called the Rig-Further reading: Fensham, Charles. The Bible: Books of Veda, and it is written in Sanskrit, an Indo-EuropeanNehemiah and Ezra. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1982; language. Although primarily focused on religion, thereOlmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire. Chicago: are references in the Rig-Veda to social matters andUniversity of Chicago Press, 1959; Yamauchi, Edwin epic battles that the invaders fought and won. SomeM. Persia and the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book of the gods might also be deified heroes. The Rig-VedaHouse, 1990. and other later Vedas remain part of the living Hindu tradition of India. Andrew Pettman The Aryans were initially confined to the north- western part of the Indian subcontinent but gradually spread across the north Indian plains to the GangesAryan invasion River basin. By approximately 500 b.c.e. the entire northern part of the subcontinent had become part ofThe conquest and settlement of northern India by Indo- the Aryan homeland, and Aryans dominated the ear-Europeans began c. 1500 b.c.e. The event marked the lier population.end of the Indus civilization and altered the civiliza- See also Vedic age.tion of the subcontinent. In ancient times seminomadicpeoples lived in the steppe lands of Eurasia between Further reading: Bryant, Edwin. The Quest for the Ori-the Caspian and Black Seas. They were light skinned gins of Vedic Culture, The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate.and spoke languages that belong to the Indo-European Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004; Sharma, Ramor Indo-Aryan family. They were organized into patri- Sharan. Advent of the Aryans in India. New Delhi, Mano-lineal tribes, herded cattle, knew farming, tamed hors- har Publications, 1999.es and harnessed them to chariots, and used bronzeweapons. For reasons that are not clear, the tribes split Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur
  • 70. Assyria 33Ashoka Ashoka lightened the laws against criminals,(269–232 b.c.e.) ruler and statesman though he did not abolish the death penalty. He also exhorted his people to practice virtue, be honest,Ashoka (Asoka) was the third ruler of the Mauryan obey parents, and be generous to servants. He for-Empire. Under his long rule the empire that he inher- bade some amusements as immoral and appointedited reached its zenith territorially and culturally. Soon morality officers to enforce proper conduct amongafter his death the Mauryan Empire split up and end- officials and the people, allowing them even to pryed. He is remembered as a great ruler in world history into the households of his relatives. Little is knownand the greatest ruler in India. of his last years. It is also unclear who succeeded him; Chandragupta Maurya founded the Mauryan dy- some sources even say that he was deposed aroundnasty in 326 b.c.e. Both he and his son Bindusara were 232 b.c.e. In any case the Mauryan Empire soon fellsuccessful warriors, unifying northern India and part into chaos and collapsed. History honors Ashoka as aof modern Afghanistan for the first time in history. remarkable man and great king. Present-day India hasAshoka was not Bindusara’s eldest son, and there is his lion and the wheel of Buddha’s law that adorneda gap of time between his father’s death and his suc- the capital of his inscribed pillar as symbols of thecession, due perhaps to war with his brothers. Ashoka nation.continued to expand the empire by conquering south- See also Megasthenes.ward. One war against Kalinga in the southeast wasparticularly bloody and filled him with remorse. As a Further reading: Bhandarkar, D. R. Asoka. Calcutta, India:result he converted to Buddhism (from Vedic Hindu- University of Calcutta Press, 1969; Dutt, Romesh Chander.ism) and renounced war as an instrument of policy. A History of Civilization in Ancient India Based on San-He became a vegetarian, prohibited the killing of some skrit Literature. New Delhi, India: Cosmo Publishers, 2000;animals, and discouraged hunting, urging people to Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind. Asoka Maurya. New York:go on pilgrimages instead. He also built many shrines Twayne Publishers, 1966.in places associated with Buddha’s life. However, hehonored all religions and holy men. Ashoka’s son and Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshurdaughter became Buddhist missionaries to Ceylon(present-day Sri Lanka); Indian missionaries to the is-land also brought the people the advanced arts and Assyriatechnology of India. Around 240 b.c.e. he called theThird Buddhist Council at Pataliputra, his capital The country of Assyria encompasses the north ofcity, which completed the Buddhist canons and dealt Mesopotamia, made up of city-states that were po-with differences among the monastic orders. litically unified after the middle of the second mil- A great deal is known about the personality and lennium b.c.e. Assyria derived its name from thepolicy of Ashoka because he ordered many of his edicts, city-state Ashur (Assur). This city was subject to thelaws, and pronouncements engraved on stone pillars Agade king, Manishtushu, and the Ur III king, Amar-and rock surfaces throughout his empire and ordered Sin. During the Ur III period, Ashur also appears ashis officials to read them to the public periodically as the name of the city’s patron deity. Scholars have sug-instruction. Most of the inscriptions that survived used gested that the god derived his name from the citythe Brahmi script, precursor of modern Hindi, but some and, indeed, may even represent the religious ideal-were in other languages, depending on the vernacular of ization of the city’s political power.the district. Ten inscribed pillars survive. Different ani-mals associated with Buddhism adorned the capital of The Old Assyrian periodeach pillar; the one with lions (the roar of lion, heard far The Old Assyrian period (c. 2000–1750 b.c.e.) beganand wide, symbolized the importance of the Buddha’s when the city of Ashur regained its independence. Itsteaching) is the symbol of modern India. Ashoka called royal building inscriptions are the first attested writ-the people of the empire his children and said: “At all ing in Old Assyrian, an Akkadian dialect distinct fromtimes, whether I am eating, or in the women’s apart- the Old Babylonian then used in southern Mesopota-ments . . . everywhere reporters are posted so that they mia. This period also saw the institution of the limmu,may inform me of the people’s business. . . . For I regard whereby each year became named after an Assyrianthe welfare of the people as my chief duty.” official, selected by the casting of lots. The sequence
  • 71. 34 Assyriaof limmu names is not continuous for the second mil- be a “Great King,” on equal footing with the importantlennium b.c.e., but has been completely preserved for rulers of Egypt, Babylonia, and Hatti.the first millennium b.c.e. A solar eclipse (dated as- Mitanni remained in the unenviable position oftronomically to 763 b.c.e.) has been dated by limmu warfare on two fronts: the Hittites from the north-and thus provides a fixed chronology for Assyrian west and Ashur-uballit’s successors from the east.and—by means of synchronisms—much of ancient Adad-nirari I annexed much of Mitanni, extendingNear Eastern history. Assyrian’s western frontier just short of Carchemish. During the Old Assyrian period Ashur engaged ex- Shalmaneser I turned Mitannian territory into the As-tensively in long-distance trade, establishing merchant syrian province of “Hanigalbat,” governed by an As-colonies at Kanesh and other Anatolian cities. Ashur syrian official. His reign also witnessed the first seedsimported tin from Iran and textiles from Babylonia of Assyria’s policy on deportation: Conquered peoplesand, in turn, exported them to Kanesh. Due to politi- were relocated away from their homeland in order tocal upheavals, Kanesh was eventually destroyed, and crush rebellious tendencies as well as to exploit newAssyria’s Anatolian trade was disrupted. Before this agricultural land for the empire.disaster, moreover, Ashur itself had been incorporated Tukulti-Ninurta I conquered Babylon and deposedinto the growing empire of Eshnunna. the Kassite king, Kashtiliash IV. He appointed a se- Around the end of the 19th century b.c.e., the ries of puppet kings on Babylon’s throne, but a localAmorite Shamshi-Adad I attacked the Eshnunna empire rebellion soon returned control to the Kassites. Thisand conquered the cities of Ekallatum, Ashur, and Shekh­ Assyrian monarch also set a precedent by foundingna (renamed Shubat-Enlil). With the defeat of Mari in a new capital, naming it after himself (“Kar-Tukulti-1796 b.c.e., Shamshi-Adad could rightfully boast that Ninurta”). Tukulti-Ninurta was eventually assassi-he “united the land between the Tigris and the Euphra- nated by one of his sons, and the rapid succession oftes” in northern Mesopotamia. The Assyrian King List the next three rulers suggests violent contention forwas manipulated so as to include Shamshi-Adad in the the throne.line of native rulers, despite his foreign origins. Stability returned to Assyria with the ascension In the new empire Shamshi-Adad reigned as “Great of Ashur-resha-ishi I. Around this time the increasedKing” in Shubat-Enlil, delegating his elder son, Ishme- use of iron for armor and weapons greatly influencedDagan, as “king of Ekallatum” and his younger son, the methods of Assyrian warfare. His son, Tiglath-Yasmah-Adad, as “king of Mari.” Government officials pileser I, achieved great victories in the Syrian regionwere frequently interchanged among the three courts. and even campaigned as far as the Mediterranean.This mobility had the effect of homogenizing admin- He was the first to record his military campaigns inistrative practices throughout the kingdom, as well as chronological order, thus giving rise to the new genrecreating loyalty to the central administration instead of “Assyrian annals.”of to native territories. Shamshi-Adad’s empire, unfor- To the south conflict between Assyria and Babylo-tunately, did not survive him for long. A native ruler, nia was temporarily halted by the advent of a commonZimri-Lim, reclaimed Mari and King Hammurabi of enemy: the Aramaeans. They were a nomadic SemiticBabylon eventually subjugated northern cities such as people in northern Syria, who ravaged MesopotamiaAshur and Nineveh. in times of famine. Under this invasion Assyria lost its The four centuries after Ishme-Dagan are referred territory and may have been reduced to the districts ofto as a “dark age,” when historical records are scarce. Ashur, Nineveh, Arbela, and Kilizi.During this time the kingdom of Mittani was founded.As it expanded its territory in northern Mesopotamia, Neo-Assyrian Kingdomthe city-states once united under Shamshi-Adad became The Neo-Assyrian kingdom (934–609 b.c.e.) beganseparate political units. The Middle Assyrian kingdom with Ashur-dan II, who resumed regular military cam-(1363–934 b.c.e.) began when Ashur-uballit I threw off paigns abroad after more than a century of neglect.the Mitannian yoke. Whereas former rulers had iden- He and his successors focused their attacks on thetified themselves with the city of Ashur, Ashur-uballit Aramaeans to recover areas formerly occupied by thewas the first to claim the title “king of the land of As- Middle Assyrian empire. Adad-nirari II set the prece-syria,” implying that the region had been consolidated dent for a “show of strength” campaign, an officialas a single territorial state under his reign. In his cor- procession displaying Assyria’s military power, whichrespondence to the pharaoh, Ashur-uballit claimed to marched around the empire and collected tribute from
  • 72. Assyria 35the surrounding kingdoms. This monarch also installed ern Khorsabad). After a prolonged struggle, includ-an effective network of supply depots to provision the ing a defeat by the Elamites at Der (720 b.c.e.), Sar-Assyrian army en route to distant campaigns. gon eventually wrested the Babylonian throne from Ashurnasirpal II has been considered the ideal ­ erodach-baladan II. In 705 b.c.e., however, Sargon’s MAssyrian monarch, who personally led his army in a body was lost in battle, prompting speculation aboutcampaign every year of his reign. He subjected Nairu divine displeasure. Sargon’s successor, Sennacherib,and Urartu to the north, controlled the regions of Bit- eventually decided to move the capital to Nineveh.Zamani and Bit-Adini to the west, and campaigned all During his 701 b.c.e. campaign in Palestine, Sen-the way to the Mediterranean. Shalmaneser III contin- nacherib became the first Assyrian monarch to attackued his father’s tradition of military aggression. From Judah. He also attempted various methods of control-his reign to Sennacherib’s (840–700 b.c.e.), the annual ling Babylonia. When direct rule failed, Sennacheribcampaigns were so regular that they served as a second- installed a pro-Assyrian native as puppet king. There-ary means of dating (i.e., the “Eponym Chronicle”). At after, he delegated the control of Babylonia to his son,Qarqar on the Orontes River in 853 b.c.e., Shalmane- who was later kidnapped by the Elamites. Finally, inser fought against a coalition led by Damascus, which 689 b.c.e. he razed Babylon to the ground. Sennach-included “[King] Ahab, the Israelite.” erib was assassinated by two of his sons, a crime later Under Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III mili- avenged by another son, Esarhaddon. The latter wastary strategy was honed to great effectiveness: When successful in his overtures to achieve reconciliationenemies refused to pay regular tribute, a few vulnerable with Babylon. Esarhaddon may have overstretchedcities would be taken and their inhabitants tortured by Assyria’s limits, however, when he invaded Egypt andrape, mutilations, beheadings, flaying of skins, or im- conquered Memphis in 671 b.c.e.palement upon stakes. This “ideology of terror” was At his death Esarhaddon divided the empire be-designed to discourage armed insurrection, lest Assyria tween two sons: Ashurbanipal in Assyria and Shamash-exhaust its resources. As a last resort, however, the for- shuma-ukin in Babylonia. Egypt proved troublesome toeign state would be annexed as an Assyrian province. hold, and Ashurbanipal eventually lost it to Psammeti-The strategy of forced deportations was employed with chus I. Moreover, civil war broke out between Assyriareasonable success. and Babylonia. The Assyrians conquered Babylon by For the next century Assyria experienced a decline 648 b.c.e. and invaded Elam, which had been Baby-due to weakness in its central government, as well as the lon’s ally. Although successful, the civil war had takenmilitary dominance of its northern neighbor, Urartu. its toll on Assyrian forces. Also, the crippled Elam wasTiglath-pileser III (biblical “Pul”), however, restored no longer a buffer between Assyria and the expand-prestige to the monarchy by curtailing the power of local ing state of Media. In 614 b.c.e. the Medes conqueredgovernors. Instead of levying troops annually, he built the city of Ashur. Two years later, in coalition with theup a standing professional army. Tiglath-pileser defeat- Babylonians and Scythians, they overthrew Nineveh.ed the Urartians and invaded their land up to Lake Van. The defeated Assyrian forces fled to Haran, but theIn the west an anti-Assyrian coalition was crushed, and allied armies pursued them there and effectively endedthe long recalcitrant Damascus was annexed. He also the Neo-Assyrian kingdom in 609 b.c.e.adopted a new policy toward Babylonia. The Assyrian See also Babylon, early period; Fertile Crescent;monarchs had traditionally restrained their efforts to Egypt, culture and religion; Israel and Judah.control Babylonia, in deference to the latter’s antiquityas the ancestral origin of Assyria’s own culture and reli- Further reading: Grayson, A. Kirk. “Mesopotamia, Historygion. In 729 b.c.e., however, Tiglath-pileser established of: History and Culture of Assyria,” In The Anchor Biblea precedent by deposing the Babylonian king and unit- Dictionary, vol. 4, edited by David N. Freedman, 733–755.ing Assyria and Babylonia in a dual monarchy. New York: Doubleday, 1992; Oates, David. Studies in the Hebrew tradition credits Shalmaneser V with the Ancient History of Northern Iraq. London: Oxford Univer-fall of Samaria in 722 b.c.e., the very last year of his sity Press, 1968; Oppenheim, A. Leo. Ancient Mesopotamia.reign. Two years later, however, Sargon II still had Rev. by Erica Reiner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,to crush a coalition led by Yaubidi of Hamath, who 1977; Saggs, H. W. F. The Might That Was Assyria. London:had fomented rebellion in Arpad, Damascus, and Sa- Sidgwick and Jackson, 1984.maria. The victory was depicted on relief sculpturesin the newly founded royal city, Dur-Sharrukin (mod- John Zhu-En Wee
  • 73. 36 AthanasiusAthanasius ing across North Africa, and he was reinstated on Feb-(c. 300–373 c.e.) theologian and bishop ruary 1. He remained bishop until his death in 373. Athanasius’s theology must be reconstructed fromProbably first a deacon (311–328 c.e.) ordained by the his works, which were composed for specific occasionsbishop Alexander, and Alexander’s personal secretary such as sermons or specific problems such as commen-at the Council of Nicaea (325 c.e.), Athanasius was taries, apologia, or polemical tracts particularly againstelected bishop in 328 c.e. His tenure was marked by the Arians. Athanasius described the qualities of God inhis conflict with the Meletian Church in Egypt, and apophatic terms (such as inconceivable and uncreated)with the pro-Arian bishops within and outside his ju- and rejected anthropomorphism, which reflected the Al-risdiction. Alexander did not enforce the canons of exandrine tradition and its debt to Platonist philosophy.Nicaea with respect to the Meletian bishops in Egypt, God is the source of all creation by his will. God createdand Athanasius met with strong resistance upon his and governs the world through his Logos with whominsistence on the Council of Nicaea’s decisions. The he is united from before all time. The Logos becameMeletians made cause with Arianism, whose strength united with humanity through the incarnation into anin the East was supported by the pro-Arian Constan- individual body. This incarnation was real, but Christtine the Great. Athanasius was dismissed from his did not possess the human weaknesses (such as fear andsee by a synod of bishops in Tyre in 335, and Emperor passion). The incarnation was the union of the LogosConstantine exiled him to Trier. After Constantine’s with a human body; the Logos did not assume a humandeath (July 22, 337) the pro-Orthodox emperor Con- soul. Athanasius attempted to solve the problem of thestantine II reinstated Athanasius. human soul in the incarnated Logos through inclusions Athanasius’s main opponents were now the Ari- of this human soul and human “psychic” qualities in hisans, in part because of the support they enjoyed definition of the human body.among the conservative anti-Nicaean bishops of the See also Greek Church; Latin Church; Neopla-East as well as in the imperial court of some of the tonism; Philo.emperors. Indeed, Athanasius’s periods of exile cor-respond to pro-Arian emperors or caesars of the East Further reading: Anatolios, Khaled. Athanasius: The Coher-exercising their religious policy. Athanasius was ex- ence of His Thought. New York: Routledge, 1998; Drake,iled again in 339 because of resentment of bishops H. A. Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intoler-in the east, led by Eusebius of Nicomedia, to Con- ance. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.stantine II’s rejection of the decision of the Synod ofTyre and because these bishops were supported by the Robert R. Phenix, Jr.emperor of the east, Constantius II. Following officialrecognition by Pope Julius I of Rome and the Councilof Sardica (343), which had been convoked by Con- Athenian predemocracystans, the emperor of the West, Constans himself ex-erted pressure on Constantius II, and Athanasius was Ancient Athens underwent a series of governments andreinstated in 346. reforms before it became the well-known democratic Constantius II became sole emperor after the as- city-state that epitomized the ideals and the culture ofsassination of Constans in 350, and Constantius was ancient Greece. During the Archaic Period, a historicalfree to enforce his pro-Arian policy. Synods and let- time period lasting from 8000 to 1000 b.c.e., Athensters denouncing Nicaea and its strongest supporter led was a city-state governed by a king, known as a basi-Athanasius to flee from arrest. From 356 to 361 he hid leus. Due to Athens’s geographic position on a beauti-among the monks of Egypt, although he remained in ful harbor surrounded by agriculturally rich lands, thecontrol of the pro-Nicene clergy through an intelligence city was able to resist invasion and to maintain andnetwork. Emperor Julian the Apostate recalled him expand its influence. As Athens’s trade and influencein 361 and because of his popularity and success in uni- expanded, the king’s powers diminished. The Areopa-fying the pro-Nicene parties in Egypt he was forced to gus, a council of Athenian nobles, slowly usurped theleave Alexandria in 363 until the death of Julian the king’s power. The council, called Areopagus for thesame year permitted his return. The pro-Arian emperor name of the hill upon which they met, was filled withValens (364–378) exiled Athanasius in 365 but in 366 nobles who gained wealth and influence from control-sought his support against the Goths who were sweep- ling the city’s wine and olive oil markets. With their in-
  • 74. Augustine of Hippo 37creased wealth they were able to exert more influence government, allowing all male citizens to participateover Athens and the king. and to vote for a council made up of elected male citi- Over time Athens became a de facto oligarchy, con- zens over the age of 30. In order to ensure that am-sisting of the Areopagus and nine elected rulers, known bitious Athenians were controlled, the council wasas archons, who were selected by the Areopagus. The allowed to “ostracize” citizens by majority vote, ban-archons tended to all matters of state but always had ishing them from Athens for at least 10 years. Withto receive approval for their decisions and actions from these reforms Cleisthenes effectively engineered Ath-the Areopagus. Upon the end of their term archons be- ens’s transition to democracy.came members of the Areopagus. See also Greek city-states. Since rule was controlled by the wealthy, Atheniangovernment ineffectively addressed the issues facing Further reading: Hooker, Richard. “Ancient Greece: Ath-commoners. Since members of the Areopagus domi- ens.” Available online. URL:http://www.wsu.edu (Septembernated olive oil and wine production, everyday wheat 2005); Sinclair, R. K. Democracy and Participation in Ath-farmers were unable to break into these markets. Even- ens. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1991.tually, wheat prices dropped as Athens began to tradefor cheaper wheat, leaving Athenian farmers in debt Arthur Holstand often in partial slavery. With the city-state ripe for reform, prominent Athe-nians and members of the Areopagus agreed to appoint Augustine of Hippoa dictator in order to reform the government and the (354–430 c.e.) bishop and theologianeconomy. Together, they selected Solon, a prominentAthenian lawmaker, poet, and former archon. Solon Born in 354 c.e. to a pagan father and a Christianvoided outstanding debts, freed many Athenians from mother, (St.) Monica, in Tagaste in North Africa, Au-slavery, banned slavery loans, and promoted wine and gustine received a classical education in rhetoric on theolive production by common farmers. path to a career in law. During his studies at Carthage In the constitution that he created Solon established in his 19th year, he read Cicero’s Hortensius and wasa four-tier class structure. The top two tiers, based on immediately converted to the pursuit of wisdom andwealth, were able to serve on the Areopagus, while the truth for its own sake.third class was able to serve on an elected council of In this early period at Carthage he also became400 citizens, if selected. This council effectively acted involved with the ideas of Mani and Manichaeanism,as a check upon the Areopagus. The lowest class was which taught that good and evil are primarily onto-permitted to assemble and to elect some local lead- logical realities, responsible for the unequal, tension-ers. Judicial courts were reformed, and trial by jury filled cosmos in which we live. However, the inabilitywas introduced. As soon as the constitution was final- of their leaders to solve Augustine’s problems eventu-ized Solon gave control of the government back to the ally led the young teacher to distance himself from the­ reopagus.A group. Leaving the unruly students of Carthage in 383, Although the overwhelming majority of Athenians Augustine attempted to teach at Rome only to aban-praised his governmental reforms, Solon failed to im- don the capital in favor of a court position in Milanprove the economy. Peisistratus, a military general, the following year.took control and began reforming not just the econo- This step brought him into contact with the bishopmy but also religion and culture. He supported Solon’s of Milan, Ambrose, whose preaching was instrumen-constitution, as long as his supporters were chosen. tal—along with the writings of the philosophers ofUpon his death Peisistratus’s son, Hippias, was unable Neoplatonism—in convincing Augustine of the truthto maintain control, and the Athenian ruler was over- of Christianity. He could not commit himself to thethrown by Sparta, whose government placed their own moral obligations of baptism, however, because of hissupporters in Athenian posts. The Spartans selected Is- inability to live a life of continence. His struggle foragoras to lead Athens, but he began disenfranchising chastity is movingly told in his autobiographical worktoo many Athenians, leading to rebellion. Confessions: Hearing of the heroic virtue of some con- Opposed by Cleisthenes, Isagoras was eventually temporaries who abandoned everything to becomeforced to flee. Cleisthenes enfranchised all free men in monks, Augustine felt the same high call to absoluteAthens and the surrounding areas and reformed the surrender to God but was held back by his attachment
  • 75. 38 Aurelius, Marcusto the flesh. However, in a moment of powerful grace sentially good, is capable of good and holy acts on itswhich came from reading Romans 13:12–14, he was own. In his thought grace is only given by God as anable to reject his sinful life and to choose a permanent aid to enlighten the mind in its discernment of goodlife of chastity as a servant of God. and evil. This decision led him first to receive baptism at For Augustine, whose own conversion was due toAmbrose’s hands (Easter 387 c.e.) and then to return an immense grace of God, the attribution of goodnessto North Africa to establish a monastery in his native to the human will was tantamount to blasphemy. Godtown of Tagaste. In 391 he was ordained a priest for the and only God was holy. If humanity could accomplishtown of Hippo, followed by his consecration as bishop any good at all, it was because God’s grace—wonin 395. In his 35 years as bishop Augustine wrote nu- through the merits of Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth—merous sermons, letters, and treatises that exhibit his was freely given to aid the will in choosing good. Gracepenetrating grasp of the doctrines of the Catholic faith, strengthens the will by attracting it through innate lovehis clear articulation of difficult problems, his charita- to what is truly good. Thus Christ’s redemption notble defense of the truth before adversaries and heretics, only remits the sins of one’s past but continually gracesand his saintly life. the life of the believer in all his or her moral choices. In Augustine’s theology was largely shaped by three the midst of this long controversy (c. 415–430) Augus-heresies that he combated during his episcopacy: Man- tine also developed a theology of the fall of Adam, oficheanism, Donatism, and Pelagianism. As a former original sin, and of predestination.Manichee himself, he was intent on challenging their Augustine is probably best known for his Confes-dualistic notion of god: He argued that there is only one sions, his autobiography up to the time of his return toGod, who is good and who created a good world. Evil is North Africa, and for the City of God, undertaken asnot a being opposed to God but a privation of the good, his response to both the pagans and the Christians afterand therefore has no existence of itself. Physical evil is the sacking of Rome in 410, the former because theya physical imperfection whose causes are to be found in attributed it wrongly to divine retribution and the latterthe material world. Moral evil is the result of a wrong because their faith was shaken by the horrific event.use of free will. In fighting Donatism, Augustine dealt See also Christian Dualism (Gnosticism); Christi-with an ingrained church division that held that the cler- anity, early; Nicaea, Council of; Rome: decline andics of the church had themselves to be holy in order to fall.perform validly the sacraments through which holinesswas passed to the congregation. Further reading: Augustine of Hippo. Confessions. New York: In rebutting the Donatists, Augustine laid the foun- Knopf, 1998; Brown, P. St. Augustine of Hippo: A Biography.dation for sacramental theology for centuries to come. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.He insisted that the church on earth is made up ofsaints and sinners who struggle in the midst of tempta- Gertrude Gillettetions and trials to live a more perfect life. The church’sholiness comes not from the holiness of her membersbut from Christ who is the head of the church. Christ Aurelius, Marcusimparts his holiness to the church through the sacra- (121–180 c.e.) Roman emperorments, which are performed by the bishops and priestsas ministers of Christ. In the sacraments Christ is the Marcus Aurelius was the only Roman philosopher king,main agent, and the ministers are his hands and feet on author of Meditations and last of the “good” emper-earth, bringing the graces of the head to the members. ors. The Pax Romana began its slow collapse during Augustine’s last battle was in defense of grace. Pe- his reign. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus waslagius, a British monk, believed that the vast majority born on April 26 in 121 c.e. His father, praetor Mar-of people were spiritually lazy. What they needed was cus Annius Verus, died when Aurelius was only threeto exert more willpower to overcome their vices and months old, and his mother, Lucilla, inherited greatevil habits and to do good works. Pelagius denied that family wealth. Emperor Hadrian felt great empathyhumans inherit original sin of their ancestor Adam, toward Aurelius, and Hadrian became his mentor. Hethe legal guilt inherent in the sin, or its effects on the made Aurelius a priest of the Salian order in 128. Bysoul, namely a weakening of the will with an inclina- age 12 Aurelius began to practice Stoicism and becametion toward sin. He believed that human nature, es- extremely ascetic, scarcely sleeping and eating. Hadrian
  • 76. Axial Age and cyclical theories 39controlled his education, having Rome’s brightest citi- the East. Excessive and repeated flooding destroyed thezens tutor Aurelius. He studied rhetoric and literature granaries, leading to starvation. Avidius Cassius (130–under M. Cornelius Fronto, who taught him Latin and 175), believing Aurelius was dead, unsuccessfully at-remained a mentor for life. In 136 Aurelius met Apol- tempted to seize the throne in 175. He had little supportlonius the Stoic. Hadrian adopted Aurelius in 138, and once people realized Aurelius was still alive. His ownhe was given the title caesar in 139. Realizing his death men murdered him. Realizing the tragedy of Cassius’s er-was approaching, Hadrian arranged for the future em- ror, Aurelius would allow no harm to come to Cassius’speror Antoninus Pius (86–161 c.e.) to adopt Aurelius family. The troops that Cassius had commanded oncealong with Lucius Verus (130–169 c.e.), who became again brought plague back from the East.Aurelius’s adoptive brother, making them joint heirs to During his campaigns Aurelius wrote his 12 bookssuccession. of Meditations in Greek, detailing his reflections of life. Aurelius was betrothed in 135 to Annia Galeria His wife Faustina died in 175 at age 45. By 177 he al-Faustina, the younger daughter of Antoninus Pius and lowed the self-indulgent Commodus full participation inAnnia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They married in 141 his government. Aurelius died on March 17, 180 c.e., inand had 14 children in 28 years of marriage. Only five Vindobona, present-day Vienna, at age 58.of their children, one son, the weak and unstable Com- See also: Antonine emperors; Rome: decline andmodus (161–192), and four daughters would survive fall.to adulthood. By 147 Aurelius gained the power of tribunicia Further reading: Briley, Antony. Aurelius: A Biography.potestas, and he shared these powers with Pius. Aure- New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987; Farquharson,lius was admitted to the Senate and held consulships Arthur S. L. Aurelius: His Life and Times and His World.in 140, 145, and 161 c.e., a rare honor for a private Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1951; Grant, Michael. The Romancitizen. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus became co- Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Imperialemperors on March 7, 161. As co-emperors, Verus Rome, 31 BC–AD 476. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,conducted battles in the east while Aurelius concen- 1985; Long, George. The Meditations of Emperor Aureliustrated on fighting the ever-increasing threat from the Antoninus. New York: Avon, 1993.German tribes in the north. Aurelius spent the major-ity of his reign fighting against the encroachment of Annette Richardsonthe formidable German tribes that opposed Romanrule. Aurelius fought the Marcomanni and the Quadi,who settled in northern Italy, and the Parthenians, who Axial Age and cyclical theoriesmoved into the east of the Roman Empire. Marcus Aurelius instituted positive reform in various The Axial Age is known as a pivotal period in historyelements of Roman society, including changes to Roman that dates from 800 to 200 b.c.e. Coined in the 20thcivil law. Upon the advice of the revered jurist Quintus century by the philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883–1969),Ceridius Scaevola he abolished inhumane criminal laws the Axial Age refers to the period of history when theand severe sentencing. In family law he alleviated the ab- following major figures, among others, emerged: Con-solute patriarchy fathers held over their children. Aure- fucius; Laozi; Gautama Buddha; Zarathustra; thelius granted women equal property rights and the right Jewish prophets Elijah, Isaiah, and Jeremiah; the Greekto receive property on behalf of children. He created the thinkers Parmenides, Heraclitus, Plato, Socrates, andequivalent of modern-day trust companies enabled to Archimedes; as well as the Greek tragedians. What thedistribute parental/family legacies at the age of majority. aforementioned individuals all have in common areRealizing the value of children in Roman society, Aure- their respective articulations of what have been calledlius endowed orphanages and hospitals. In the military transcendental visions—articulations that differedhe allowed promotion only through merit. During the greatly from the cosmological understandings of theirnumerous economic crises of his reign Aurelius refused time.to raise taxes and used his own wealth many times to The various prophets, philosophers, and sages be-cover the financial stress caused by continuous warfare. gan to ask a rather common set of ultimate questionsHe also debased the silver coinage several times. regarding the nature and origin of the cosmos and all Returning legions serving under the command of its various components, including themselves and their­ erus (who died in 169) brought plague to Rome fromV respective communities. Their inquiries and experiences
  • 77. BBabylon, early period many parallels with laws in the Jewish scriptures. In Hammurabi’s first 28 years only three campaigns areBabylon was the most famous Mesopotamian city in recorded. Most of his time was spent building Babylon’santiquity, located along the Euphrates River, 55 miles military defenses, economic infrastructure, and temples,southwest of modern Baghdad. Major excavations be- as well as establishing diplomacy with foreign powers.gan in 1899 by the Germans and, in recent times, have After Shamshi-Adad died in 1782 b.c.e., Assyrian pow-been continued by Iraq’s Department of Antiquities. er slowly declined. Hammurabi, nonetheless, continued The city is first mentioned by the Agade king, a defensive coalition with Rim-Sin, motivated by theShar-kali-sharri (2217–2193 b.c.e.), who built two proximity between their respective territories. He alsotemples in Babylon. During the Ur III period (2112– formed friendly relations with Zimri-Lim, the native2004 b.c.e.), various officials bore the title “governor ruler who reclaimed Mari’s throne from Yasmah-Adadof Babylon.” In the following centuries Mesopotamia (Shamshi-Adad’s son).experienced a large influx of west Semitic nomads, From 1764 b.c.e. Hammurabi began to adopt awho settled into new cities or populated existing more aggressive military stance. A coalition of troopsones. The Sumerians designated these migrants as from Elam, Assyria, and Eshnunna was defeated byMartu (the west), from which the Akkadians derived Babylon. The very next year, aided by Mari and Esh-Amurru (Amorites). nunna, Hammurabi turned against his ally, Rim-Sin. In 1894 b.c.e. the Amorite Sumu-abum founded With Larsa subjugated, the southern cities under itsa dynasty at Babylon. His successor, Sumu-la-el, ex- control capitulated to Babylon. For the first time sincetended Babylon’s power by capturing the city-states of the great third-millennium empires, both Sumer andSippar, Kish, and Dilbat. Others, however, were also Akkad were united under one kingdom. Conscious ofexpanding their kingdoms. Shamshi-Adad I succeeded the significance of this, Hammurabi took for himselfin conquering all of Upper Mesopotamia, including the Naram-Sin’s title “King of the Four Quarters (of theimportant cities of Ashur and Mari. Rim-Sin of Larsa World).” Despite changes in ruling dynasties, Babylondominated the south, eventually annexing the longtime would remain the region’s capital until the time of Al-rival kingdom of Isin. The balance of power further de- exander the Great. Indeed, all of south Mesopota-pended on major city-states such as Eshnunna, Qatna, mia would later be named “Babylonia.”and Yamhad (Aleppo). Hammurabi’s ambition now turned toward Upper The Old Babylonian period began in 1792 b.c.e., Mesopotamia. He betrayed Zimri-Lim and conqueredwith Hammurabi’s ascent to Babylon’s throne. He is Mari in 1761 b.c.e. The prologue to Hammurabi’sperhaps best known for his Law Code, which contains Law Code mentions that northern cities such as Ashur, 41
  • 78. 42 Babylon, later periodsNineveh, and Tuttul were united under his control. whom pharaoh regarded as equals were addressed asBabylon’s hegemony, however, did not survive Ham- Great Kings and included the leaders of Babylonia, Hat-murabi for long. Barely a decade after his death his son ti, Mittani, Assyria, Alashiya (Cyprus), and ArzawaSamsu-iluna was threatened by the invasion of the Kas- (in southwest Anatolia). Their courts kept in contactsites, whose homeland was in the Zagros Mountains. by direct messenger service, using the Babylonian dia-To the south the rise of the First Sealand dynasty en- lect as the lingua franca. During the reign of the Kassitecroached on Babylon’s territories. For one and a half king Kurigalzu I, so much gold was being imported fromcenturies Hammurabi’s successors clung to a dynasty Egypt that, for the only time in Babylonian history, goldthat was a mere shadow of its former glory. In 1595 replaced silver as the standard for transactions. In turn,b.c.e. Murshili I, king of the Hittites, sacked Babylon, Babylonia was sought after for its trade in lapis lazuliterminated its dynasty, and marked the end of the Old and fine horses.Babylonian period. Assyria achieved its independence with the decline of See also Fertile Crescent; Ur. Mitanni, and a succession of particularly capable kings ruled Assyria in the 14th and 13th centuries b.c.e.. Un-Further reading: Frayne, Douglas R. Old Babylonian Period derstandably, Babylon began to express concerns about(2003–1595 BC). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto the growing power of this near neighbor. The KassitePress, 1990; Oates, Joan. Babylon. London: Thames and king implored the pharaoh not to recognize AssyrianHudson, 1986. independence and renewed alliances with the Hittites against this common enemy. Nonetheless, in less than John Zhu-En Wee a century the Assyrian monarch Tukulti-Ninurta I con- quered Babylon and deposed King Kashtiliash IV. A se- ries of puppet kings was appointed in Babylon, untilBabylon, later periods local rebellion returned control to the Kassites. Eventu- ally, however, the Elamites raided Babylonia and plun-Shortly after Murshili I, king of the Hittites, sacked dered such national treasures as Naram-Sin’s VictoryBabylon in 1595 b.c.e., political intrigue in the Hittite Stela, Hammurabi’s Law Code, and even Marduk’s cultcourt compelled him to return to Hatti. Two contenders statue from Babylon. In c. 1155 b.c.e., the Elamites de-filled the sudden power vacuum in southern Mesopota- posed King Enlil-nadin-ahi, hence terminating the long-mia. In the southern marshlands was a kingdom later lasting Kassite dynasty.known as the First Sealand dynasty. Its kings adopted The following period is noteworthy as the only timenames that suggest a proclivity to revive the ancient cul- in Babylonian history when native dynasties ruled theture of Sumer. In the north were the Kassites, a tribal region. Situated in the south, the city of Isin perhapsgroup originating from the Zagros Mountains. Already evaded Elamite devastation in northern Babylonia. Aknown from the time of Hammurabi, their dynasty last- second Isin dynasty (1157–1026 b.c.e.) was quick toed an unprecedented 576 years. ascend Babylon’s throne. The most famous of its rul- By c. 1475 b.c.e. the Kassites defeated the Seal- ers was Nebuchadnezzar I (r. 1124–03 b.c.e.), who wasand dynasty and ruled over all of Babylonia (southern celebrated as a national hero for avenging Elam’s raidMesopotamia), which they called “Karduniash.” The on Babylon and for recovering Marduk’s cult statue.remarkable stability of Kassite rule consolidated the When the Babylonian Marduk-nadin-ahhe raided Ekal-region’s identity as a single territorial state (rather than latum, the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser I retaliated byindividual city-states), a unity that persisted even after attacking Babylon and burning its royal palaces. Ani-Kassite times. Although foreigners in origin, the Kas- mosity between Assyria and Babylonia, however, wassites assimilated well into the local culture, adopting temporarily halted by the rise of a common threat: thenative Babylonian customs, language, and religion. Sev- Aramaeans. These were a nomadic Semitic people ineral scholars have dated the Babylonian creation epic northern Syria, who ravaged Mesopotamia during timesEnuma Elish to the Kassite period. This epic elevates of famine, eventually contributing to the demise of theMarduk, the patron deity of Babylon, to the head of second Isin dynasty. Some scholars think that the civilthe Mesopotamian pantheon, thus reflecting the politi- upheavals narrated in the Epic of Erra describe condi-cal primacy of the city of Babylon. tions resulting from Aramaean invasions. Under the Kassites, Babylonia became an interna- Northwest Babylonia was the area most debili-tional power. During c. 1500–1200 b.c.e. the rulers tated by the Aramaeans, and perhaps it was natural
  • 79. Babylon, later periods 43that native resurgence should now find its strengthfrom the south. In any case the Second Sealand dy-nasty, 1026–1005 b.c.e., followed by the Kassite Bazidynasty (1004–985 b.c.e.) and even an Elamite dy-nasty (984–979 b.c.e.). The few written records of979–814 b.c.e. seem to indicate good relations be-tween Babylonia and Assyria, which were ratified bytreaty agreements. During 814–811 b.c.e., however, the Assyrian kingShamshi-Adad raided Babylonia, deported two Babylo-nian rulers, and reduced the region to a state of anarchy.When Assyria declined after his reign, the Chaldeansreadily filled the power vacuum in Babylonia. Thesewere a tribal people in southern Babylonia, who weremore sedentary than the Aramaeans and had well as-similated into Babylonian culture. Under the leadershipof Eriba-Marduk from the Bit-Yakin tribe, the Chal- By the first century b.c.e., most of the city of Babylon was indeans seized Babylon from the Assyrians. ruins. This basalt lion was photographed in 1932 in modern-day The ascension of Nabonassar (747–734 b.c.e.) Iraq.marks the point when the Babylonian Chronicle andthe Ptolemaic canon begin their systematic accountof Babylonian history. It is questionable whether this asserted Assyrian supremacy and chased the Chaldeansmonarch himself was Chaldean, as he appeared in con- back to the south.flicts with both Aramaeans and Chaldeans. According The Assyrian king Sennacherib experimented withto Hellenistic tradition, the Nabonassar Era was the various methods of governing Babylonia. Shortly aftertime when astronomy became highly developed and the his ascension to Babylon’s throne in 703 b.c.e., he wasname Chaldean became synonymous with the avoca- ousted in another coup by Merodach-baladan. Aftertion of astronomer. Nabonassar received strong mili- defeating the Chaldean, Sennacherib tried to install atary support from the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser III, and pro-Assyrian native on Babylon’s throne. When thisBabylonia may actually have come under vassalage to failed, the Assyrian king entrusted the control of Baby-Assyria during this time. The growing power of the lonia to his son, Ashur-nadin-shumi. Unfortunately, theNeo-Assyrian empire resulted in a polarization of Baby- crown prince was kidnapped by the Elamites, and a cer-lonian opinion: Cities in northern Babylonia, closer to tain Nergal-ushezib replaced him. This Elamite stoogethe Assyrian border, tended to be pro-Assyrian. By con- was, in turn, replaced by Mushezib-Marduk, a ruler oftrast, the Chaldeans and other southern tribes tended to the Bit-Dakkuri tribe. In 689 b.c.e. Sennacherib razedbe anti-Assyrian. Babylon, plundered its temples, and removed Marduk’s The reign of Tiglath-pileser saw a change in Assyr- cult statue to Assyria.ian policy toward Babylonia. With the exception of Tu- Esarhaddon (680–669 b.c.e.) preferred a strategy ofkulti-Ninurta I, the Assyrian monarchs had traditionally conciliation. He attained a measure of peace with the Bab-restrained their efforts to control Babylonia, in defer- ylonians by rebuilding Babylon and undoing his father’sence to the latter’s antiquity as the ancestral origin of damage. At his death Marduk’s statue was returned toAssyria’s own culture and religion. In 729 b.c.e., how- Babylon, and the empire was divided between two sons:ever, Tiglath-pileser established a precedent by deposing Ashurbanipal in Assyria and Shamash-shuma-ukin inthe Babylonian king and uniting Assyria and Babylonia Babylonia. Civil war, however, soon broke out betweenin a dual monarchy. Merodach-baladan II, an impor- the two kingdoms. By 648 b.c.e. the Assyrians were oncetant sheikh from the Bit-Yakin tribe, took over Babylon again in control of Babylon. Moreover, numerous tab-after Shalmaneser V (Tiglath-pileser’s son) died. This lets and writing boards were bought or confiscated fromChaldean had succeeded in buying an alliance with the Babylonian scholars to stock Ashurbanipal’s library atElamite army. He was to prove a recurring threat to Nineveh. Among the texts were literary masterpiecesAssyria and remembered as a hero of Babylonian na- such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Babylonian cre-tionalism. It was only after 710 b.c.e. that Sargon II re- ation epic (Enuma Elish).
  • 80. Bamiyan Valley 45satrap (governor) of Bactria, Bessus, fought with Dar- Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer-ius III against Alexander at the Battle of Guagamela, sity Press, 1951.then fled with the Persian ruler. Bessus eventually killedDarius III and tried to rally his army against Alexander. Vickey KalambakalAfter Alexander’s conquest of Bactria in 328 b.c.e. Bes-sus was maimed and crucified. Upon Alexander’s death only five years later, Bac- Bamiyan Valleytria—like most of his kingdom—endured civil war andstrife, eventually becoming part of the Seleucid Empire The modern-day Bamiyan Valley was part of ancientset up by Alexander’s military heir, Seleucus I, and his Indian culture. It is one of the 34 provinces of modern-son, Antiochus I. Greek cities with temples and gym- day Afghanistan and lies in the geographic center of thenasiums were built, and mints were established. Likely, country. Its capital city is also called Bamiyan. Bamiyanthe indigenous tribes were nomadic, probably ancestors became one of the largest cities along the Silk Road.of the Tajik people. Before the rise of Islam in the seventh century c.e., cen- They coexisted with the Greeks. In 255 b.c.e. Di- tral Afghanistan thrived from the Silk Road merchantsodotus, satrap of Bactria, overthrew the Seleucids and who passed through the valley on their way to tradeestablished his own dynasty, the Diodotids. They were with the Roman Empire, China, and India. The Bami-in turn overthrown by Euthydemus I and his descen- yan Valley provided an important passageway for cara-dents, the Euthydemids. vans and merchants attempting to cross the Hindu Kush The Seleucids attempted a reconquest, described by mountain range. Xuan Zang (Hsuan Tsang), a Chinesethe Greek historian Polybius, which ended in 206 b.c.e. monk traveling through the valley in 634 c.e., reportedwith a marriage between the Bactrian king’s son, De- that it contained a large population and was a center ofmetrius, and a daughter of the Seleucid ruler, Antiochus Buddhist thought and theology. He described specifi-III. At about the same time Sogdiana in the north be- cally the events and rituals he witnessed there.came independent of Bactria. As a result Bamiyan city became the center of a When he assumed the Bactrian throne around 185 melting pot of cultures and religious influences. Inb.c.e., Demetrius I conquered parts of Iran, Pakistan, Bamiyan elements of Greek, Persian, and Buddhist cul-Punjab, and northern India. Demetrius I was killed tural influences merged into a new expression knownby Eucratides, who may have been a cousin of the Se- as Greco-Buddhist art. Buddhism spread outside Indialeucids. Eucratides came out the victor in a civil war along the Silk Road to Bamiyan city where it thrived inbetween Bactria and the recently conquered Bactrian the fourth and fifth centuries c.e. A Buddhist monasteryprovinces in India. The last Greek ruler of Bactria was founded, along with many sculptures and carvingswas probably a descendant of Eucratides named He- including several giant Buddha statues carved along theliocles, who was driven away by nomadic tribes from cliffs overlooking Bamiyan Valley. During the third andthe north and east. These tribes then absorbed Bactria fourth centuries c.e. and before the introduction of Is-into their Kushan Empire. Demetrius I’s Indo-Greek lam to this region, a large Buddhist colony inhabitedprovinces remained independent for another 140 the valley. At one time more than 1,000 monks livedyears, until 10 c.e. and prayed there in caves carved into the cliffs. Under the Kushans, Bactria was known as From the second century c.e. until the introduc-Tokharistan, after the Western name (Tocharian) of the tion of Islam, a period of approximately five centuries,Yuezhi nomads, who had emerged from central China Bamiyan Valley was a western Buddhist cultural center.centuries before. In the third century c.e. the Sassa- Islam overtook the region and dominated the valley fornids of Persia gained control. Several other changes in hundreds of years, but the statues remained until Marchownership took place until Arabs conquered the land 2001 when the Taliban in Afghanistan destroyed themin the seventh century c.e. with explosives. Historians marveled at their enormous See also Sogdians; Zoroastrianism. size, some more than 180 feet in height, which were probably the largest representations of Buddha in theFurther Reading: Holt, Frank L. “A History in Silver and world at the time of their creation.Gold.” Saudi Aramco World (May/June 1994); ———. Bamiyan Valley was the most far-flung colony ofThundering Zeus: The Making of Hellenistic Bactria. Berke- Buddhism that took root in India with a substantiallyley: University of California Press, 1999; Tarn, W. W. The large following. The artistic and architectural remains
  • 81. 46 Ban Biaoof Bamiyan Valley and its importance as a Buddhist cen- tises, and 70 of biographies and bibliography. Althoughter on the Silk Road, are outstanding representations critics think the prose style of this work is drier and lessof the complex combination of Indian, Hellenistic, Ro- elegant than Sima Qian’s work, subsequent historiansman, and Sassanian ancient cultural influences. have admired the two and have aspired to follow their See also Buddhism in China; Gandhara; Hellenistic examples.art. Ban Zhao was educated at home, married, had chil- dren, and was widowed young. In addition to complet-Further reading: Baker, Piers H. B., and Allchin, F. Raymond. ing her father and brother’s unfinished history, she wasShahr-I Zohak and the History of the Bamiyan Valley, Afghan- often summoned to the palace by the emperor to lectureistan. Ankara, Turkey: B.A.R. International Series, 1991; to the empress and ladies of the court. She lectured onDupree, Nancy Hatch. The Valley of Bamiyan. Afghan Tour- classical writings, history, astronomy, and mathematics.ist Organization, 1967; Holt, Frank L. Discovering the Lost She became adviser to the empress regent and was so in-History of Ancient Afghanistan (Hellenistic Bactria). Ancient fluential that the empress fired her own powerful brotherWorld, 1984; Payhnak, Rahman. Afghanistan (Ancient Ary- on the basis of Ban Zhao’s memorial indicting him. Theana): Brief Review of Political and Cultural History and the same empress regent was so saddened by Ban Zhao’sModern Development of the Country. Unpublished, 1959; death that she ordered the court into mourning. BanRaychaudhuri, Hemchandra. Political History of Ancient Zhao wrote poetry, edited, and added to a first-centuryIndia, from the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of c.e. work titled Biographies of Eminent Women and athe Gupta Dynasty. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. short book of seven chapters titled Lessons for Women on proper behavior for ladies that was intended for her Steven Napier young daughters but became widely read and circulated during her lifetime and later. She was the first thinker to formulate a complete statement on feminine ethics andBan Biao (Pan Piao) the idea of relative ethics. Significantly, she advocated(3–54 c.e.) historian giving girls an education up to the age of 15 to ensure intellectual compatibility between husbands and wives.The Ban family was famous during the first century of After her death her daughter-in-law compiled and pub-the Common Era under the Eastern Han dynasty in lished her collected writing, some, including poetry andChina for producing famous historians (one of them the memorials, have survived.most famous female historian and intellectual in ancient The fourth member of this distinguished familyChina) and a great general. Ban Biao, the father, began was Ban Chao (Pan Ch’ao, 32–102 c.e.), who was thewriting a monumental history titled the Hanshu (Han- twin brother of Ban Gu. A man of action who distin-shu), Book of Han or History of the Former Han Dy- guished himself as a young officer, Ban Chao was a keynasty. It was commissioned and produced under court general who established Chinese supremacy in modernpatronage and was the first historical work devoted to a Chinese Turkestan across to Central Asia. In 92 c.e.dynasty (the Western Han, 202 b.c.e.–23 c.e.). Although he was appointed protector-general of the Western Re-Ban Biao died long before its completion, his essay on gions (the Chinese name for Central Asia). As bothsovereignty, which was included in the work, became general and diplomat he supervised affairs and pro-a basic document on political ideas. However, most of tected Chinese interests in the oasis states and guardedthe 100 chapters (divided into 10 volumes) of this work commerce along the Silk Road for three decades.belonged to his son Ban Gu (Pan Ku, 32–92 c.e.). His In 97 c.e. he led an army all the way to the Caspianyounger sister Ban Zhao (Pan Ch’ao, c. 48–116 c.e.) fin- Sea and sent forward units further west that reachedished the history. She was the outstanding female intel- either the Black Sea or the Persian Gulf before turninglectual in early imperial China. back. In the same year he also sent an officer under his The classic historical work followed the organiza- command to proceed to Da Qin (Ta Ch’in), the Chinesetional pattern set by the first great Chinese historian, name for the Roman Empire. But the mission was inter-Sima Qian (Ssu-ma Ch’ien), who wrote the Shiji (Shih- cepted in Parthia (modern Iran) and forbidden to pro-chi), or Records of the Historian, but applied to events ceed further. Parthia lay along the Silk Road betweenof a single dynastic period. Its 100 chapters were orga- China and Rome and benefited from trade between thenized into separate sections consisting of 12 chapters of two empires. It naturally wanted to thwart any directbasic annals, eight of chronological tables, 10 of trea- relations between China and Rome. As the author of
  • 82. Baruch 47the Hou Hanshu (Hou Han-shu), or History of the Lat- emiah. This latter scroll may be the core of the bibli-er Han Dynasty, wrote: cal book of Jeremiah. Baruch’s role as Jeremiah’s scribe “During the Han period, however, Chang Ch’ien . . . may be why he is cited as author in several sequels toand Pan Ch’ao . . . eventually succeeded in carrying out the book of Jeremiah. When Jeremiah was forced toexpansion to the far west and in bringing foreign territo- flee from Jerusalem to Egypt (582 b.c.e.) in the after-ries into submission. Overawed by military strength and math of the Babylonian invasion, Baruch accompaniedattracted by wealth, none [of the rulers of the states of him. This is the last mentioned abode for Baruch in thethe Western Regions presented] strange local products as Hebrew Bible, though Jeremiah elsewhere in his booktribute and his loved sons as hostages . . . Therefore . . . promises that Baruch would survive the general turmoilthe command of the protector-general was established but live the life of a refugee.to exercise general authority. Those who were submis- According to Christian biblical scholar Jerome, Ba-sive from the very beginning received money and official ruch shared the fate of Jeremiah, who presumably diedseals as imperial gifts, but those who surrendered later in Egypt. Later Jewish sources disagree. Rabbinic au-were taken to the capital to receive punishment. Agri- thorities assume that Baruch went to Babylon. It is herecultural garrisons were set up in fertile fields and post that the deuterocanonical book of Baruch (accepted bystations built along the main highways. Messengers and Catholic and Orthodox Christians) locates him. Thisinterpreters traveled without cessation, and barbarian book consists of several distinct parts and is probablymerchants and peddlers came to the border for trade an assortment of writings intended to encourage theeveryday.” scattered people of Israel in the centuries following the After three decades of service in Central Asia, for Babylonian invasion. An even later book called Secondwhich he had been elevated to the rank of marquis, the Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (parts of whichaged general asked to retire and returned to the capital are accepted by the Syriac Christians) shows the scribecity, Luoyang (Loyang), where he died a month later. speaking, praying, and writing mainly in the environs of Jerusalem just as the Babylonians are on the verge ofFurther reading: Dubs, Homer H. The History of the Former conquering Jerusalem.Han Dynasty by Pan Ku, a Critical Translation with Anno- In this text Baruch overshadows his master. He com-tations. Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press, 1938–55; Grousset, mands Jeremiah to depart and encourage the exiles inRené. The Empire of the Steppes, A History of Central Asia. Babylon. Afterward the stage is empty except for Ba-Trans. by Naomi Walford. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Uni- ruch, who dominates the rest of the book with his vi-versity Press, 1994; Swann, Nancy Lee. Pan Chao, Foremost sions, prayers, and instructions. The focus of Baruch’sWoman Scholar of China, First Century A.D. New York: ministry in Jerusalem is the training of the surviving el-Century, 1932; Twitchett, Denis, and John K. Fairbank, eds. ders, but he increasingly addresses larger audiences, firstThe Cambridge History of China, Volume I, The Ch’in and the remaining residents of the city and then the peopleHan Empires 221 B.C.–A.D. 220. Cambridge: Cambridge scattered in the Diaspora. The latter group he reachesUniversity Press, 1986. through a letter that concludes the book. The tradition of Baruch survived outside the rab- Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur binic Jewish tradition. Spurious books (parts of books) attributed to Baruch have appeared in many languages, including Latin, Greek, Syriac, Hebrew, and Arabic.Baruch Other names for Baruch in Hebrew are Berechiah and(Sixth century b.c.e.) religious scribe and prophet Barachel. His name has been found on a clay seal im- pression, or bulla, reading, “[belonging] to Berechiah,The Bible portrays “Baruch, son of Neriah” as the com- son of Neriah, the scribe,” a relatively rare referencepanion and secretary to Jeremiah, the famous prophet to a biblical person from a contemporary non-biblicalat the time of the Babylonian deportation of Judah (587 source.b.c.e.). His dedicated service to Jeremiah brought him See also Apocalypticism, Jewish and Christian;into the same ignominy and hardship as his master, Babylon, later periods; Christianity, early; Israel andthough most likely he was born an aristocrat and re- Judah; prophets; Syriac culture and church.ceived the benefit of education. He compiled two scrollsof prophecies, one for the king of Judah, which was Further reading: Whitters, Mark F. The Epistle of Secondburned later, and the other for the possession of Jer- Baruch. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2008; Wright,
  • 83. 48 Basil the GreatJ. E. Baruch Ben Neriah: From Biblical Scribe to Apoca- included corporate and private prayer, obedience to alyptic Seer. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, spiritual superior, voluntary poverty, charitable outreach,2003. and manual labor. In spite of its ascetical origins, com- munity life was valued more than solitary life, and mod- Mark F. Whitters eration, more than extreme individual exercises. These ideas became the core of the Rule of Basil, and they had a profound effect on Benedict and the Benedictines, theBasil the Great Latin Church counterpart to Greek monasticism.(c. fourth century c.e.) religious leader He became bishop in 370 and so had to divide his time between monastic and more active life. He becameBasil attained a reputation in the early church for his influential among his pastoral charges for his socialefforts in liturgy, monasticism, and doctrine. The hon- programs and charitable work. For example, he builtors extended to him single him out among the greatest a complex of buildings to serve the sick, the poor, theChristian teachers of his age: one of the “Three Holy pilgrims, and strangers, thus he became the championHierarchs” (the others are John Chrysostom and Greg- of the common person. Even the emperor Valens, anory Nazianzus), one of the three “Cappadocian Fa- advocate for Arianism and not Orthodox Christianity,thers” (the others are his brother Gregory of Nyssa and supported Basil’s outreach to the disadvantaged of hisGregory Nazianzus), and generally referred to as Basil region. Toward the end of his life Basil became morethe Great. Among the achievements credited to him and more absorbed in ecclesial disputes. He workedare the Liturgy of St. Basil (commonly used in Greek hard at building unity between the Greek and LatinChurch services), the Philokalia (spiritual sayings of Churches, as well as giving direction to theological dis-Origen, compiled by Basil and Gregory Nazianzus), cussions on the nature of the Trinity and the divinity ofand the Rule of Basil (the constitution followed by many Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth. He died in 379 c.e.Orthodox monasteries), to say nothing of his untiring See also Cappadocians; monasticism; pilgrimage.efforts to unite Greek culture with the Christian Churchemerging from the darkness of persecution and isolation Further reading: Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. Newof Semitic origins. York: Penguin, 1990; Smith, Richard Travers. St. Basil the He was born into a wealthy and devout Christian Great. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2003.family in Pontus (modern Kayseri, Turkey) around 330c.e. His privileged status allowed him to receive the Mark F. Whittersbest classical education: He sat at the feet of Libanius,a celebrated teacher of Neoplatonism in Constanti-nople and rubbed shoulders with the likes of Julian Benedictthe Apostate. His family, however, did not cling to (c. 480–c. 547 c.e.) religious leadertheir social status for they became leaders in the asceti-cal movement, a trend among Christians to deny them- Benedict was born in Norcia, Italy. What is known ofselves worldly comfort and status in order to return this Christian hero is drawn almost entirely from histo spiritual priorities. Consequently, his grandmother biographer, (St.) Gregory the Great, who records theMacrina, his parents Basil and Emilia, his sister Ma- life and miracles of the great monastic founder in thecrina, and his younger brothers Gregory and Peter all second book of his Dialogues. Although Benedict be-are venerated as saints by Christians. Though Basil had gan higher studies at Rome, the depraved lives of histhe learning of a scholar, he chose the ascetical life. fellow students led him to abandon the city and to seekHis upbringing, the influence of an early teacher, and solitude in the nearby mountains of Subiaco. For threehis pilgrimages to the Holy Land induced him to start years he lived in a cave as a hermit until disciples camehis own community in Cappadocia. His brilliant friend and a community eventually formed around him. Greg-Gregory Nazianzus and many others joined Basil in ory relates that the community grew into 12 monaster-this life, attracted by young Basil’s zeal and spiritual ies of 12 monks each.reflection. The jealousy of a neighboring priest, however, forced The new way of life begun by Basil was not intended Benedict to leave Subiaco and to establish a monasteryfor the spiritually elite or mystical individual. Rather at Monte Cassino (c. 523 c.e.). The hill on which thisBasil wanted it for all Christians, not just monks. The ideals monastery was established is at a strategically impor-
  • 84. Bhagavad Gita 49tant position beside the road that leads from Rome to house, and had in its commitment to the scriptures andNaples. Since no one could have occupied such a site the liturgy the cultural element Charlemagne neededwithout government approval, Benedict must have had for his reform. The emperor and his successor, Louisconnections at court. His fame also spread to the invad- the Pious, then imposed the Rule of St. Benedict on alling barbarians, as we learn from the story of his meet- the monasteries (c. 816). Benedictine monasteries flour-ing with Totilla, the king of the Goths, who stopped to ished and spread throughout the world.visit the man of God on his way to sack Rome. Totilla See also Christianity, early; Jesus (Christ) ofwas impressed by the holiness and prophetic gifts of the Nazareth; Latin Church; monasticism; Rome’s fall.abbot, which may account for his subsequent entranceinto the Eternal City without destroying it. When Bene- Further reading: Gregory the Great. Dialogues. Trans. bydict first took possession of Monte Cassino, he found at The Fathers of the Church. Washington, DC: The Catholicthe summit a temple to Apollo, whom the local inhabit- University of America Press, 1983; Kessler, Sister Ann, O.S.B.ants at the foot of the mountain were still worshipping. Benedictine Men and Women of Courage: Roots and His-The holy abbot tore down the altar to Apollo, turned tory. Sioux Falls, SD: Pine Hill Press, 1996.the temple into a chapel dedicated to the famous saintMartin, and converted the local inhabitants. Gertrude Gillette Gregory also relates that Benedict had a sister, (St.)Scholastica, who—also consecrated to virginity—wouldvisit him once a year. When she died, Benedict laid his Bhagavad Gitasister to rest in a tomb he had prepared for himself andwhich he would soon (within 40 days) come to share The Bhagavad Gita is regarded as one of the most beau-with her in death (c. 547). Benedict’s greatest gift to tiful and influential of Hindu poems. The translationposterity is his Rule, which outlines a way of life found- from Sanskrit is the “Song of God.” It forms part ofed on the Holy Scriptures and on several monastic rules chapter 6 of the Mahabharata (epic of the Bharataprior to Benedict. Benedict’s life spanned a time of po- dynasty). It was probably written in the first–secondlitical upheaval in Italy, as the barbarian tribes slowly century c.e., which is later than that of the remaindergained control of the peninsula. Within 30 years of his of the Mahabharata and has an unknown author or au-death the Lombards destroyed Monte Cassino. (The thors. It consists of 18 verse chapters with a total of 700monastery would undergo several destructions and re- verses in the Sanskrit language, each of which consistsbuildings in its history, down to a famous World War II of 32 syllables. As part of one of the great epics of Indi-bombing and subsequent reconstruction.) an thought expressed in the Sanskrit language (together The Rule of St. Benedict was followed in other with the Ramayana), the Bhagavad Gita has gone onmonasteries at first in a mixed form, alongside other to inspire a large number of adaptations to contem-monastic rules. It began, however, slowly to supersede poraneous settings in both oral and written forms. Itsother rules, due primarily to its intrinsic wisdom and characters have become deeply loved by millions, manymoderation but also to its relation to Gregory the Great of whom consider them to be exemplars for everydayand thus to Rome and to the authority of the pope. This action.was the case in England, which has the oldest extant The subject matter of the Bhagavad Gita is a lengthycopy of the Rule dating to the first half of the eighth conversation between Prince Arjuna, an important fig-century. And it was also an Anglo-Saxon, the mission- ure in the Mahabharata, and Krishna, who is his chari-ary Boniface, who promoted the Rule of St. Benedict in oteer and also the incarnation of the god Vishnu onthe Frankish kingdom at the “German Council” of 743 Earth. Krishna uses the opportunity to expound onon the continent. A year later Boniface founded the ab- many important theological topics for the education ofbey of Fulda in Bavaria, which is the first known abbey both Arjuna and the audience. The exposition is cen-to follow only the Rule of St. Benedict. tered on, but not limited to, the concept of duty and the Its rise to universal prominence, however, was the role that humankind is expected to play in the world.work of Benedict of Aniane who convinced Emperor Arjuna, at the moment when the dialogue begins, isCharlemagne—who was looking for a way to unify and standing in the ranks of soldiers about to stage the cru-reform the monasteries of his realm—that Benedict’s cial battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. HeRule was the most balanced and moderate of all the ex- is unsure whether the forthcoming carnage is worth-isting rules, capable of being adapted by each monastic while and whether he should throw down his weapons
  • 85. 50 Bible translationsand surrender himself to fate. Krishna advises him that tively Christian scriptures. The ancient texts of theseit is appropriate for man to take part in a virtuous enter- two parts developed in different ways, into the Hebrewprise being mindful of God and without seeking earthly Bible and New Testament.rewards or power as the price for participation. The lesson expands into the ways in which human- HEBREW BIBLEity can know and understand God. The Hindu concept The text of the Bewish Bible, which includes both He-of mystic union with God is presented as a threefold brew and a little Aramaic, is preserved chiefly in theapproach to transcendence, through merging with the Masoretic text (MT), a product of the mainstreamimmanent spirit of the universe, through understand- ancient Judaism. The Hebrew Bible attained its finaling God as the ultimate state of nature, and through the form sometime in the first or second century c.e., buttranscendence of the human spirit. the MT was not recorded until about 1,000 years later. The physical world, in which Krishna is addressing The MT includes the consonants with which HebrewArjuna, and Arjuna’s interaction with the universe are and Aramaic are primarily recorded, along with a set ofboth real and also a reflection of the spiritual realm in markers or diacritical signs indicating the vowels andwhich he is expected to undertake his duties. Lord Krish- the singing pattern associated with each word. The MTna speaks of the variety of Yogas, which are the forms reflects liturgical usage, both as a sung text and in itsof unity between self and the universe that are the true use of various euphemisms and clarifying notes.goal of the individual. The role of the individual is to During the European Renaissance, with its em-become closer to union with the universe through yogic phasis on the need to return to the sources of learningpractices and meditation. and culture, other forms of the Hebrew text began to Many cogent commentaries on the work have added be studied, and this study has continued to the pres-to the significance of the Bhagavad Gita. One of the most ent time. Renaissance scholars realized that the versionwell known is that provided by Mohandas Gandhi, who of the Pentateuch used in the tiny Samaritan religiousprovided a series of talks to followers over a period of communities in the Holy Land was an independent an-some months in 1926. He used the poem to enthuse his cient witness to part of the Hebrew Bible. (A few ofaudience with the delights and fulfillment to be found the differences between the MT and the Sam are thein the true performance of duty. Many Western scholars result of doctrinal changes introduced by the Samari-and academics have also found inspiration in the work, tans.) In the middle of the 20th century a series of cavesincluding Carl Jung, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Aldous in Qumran near the Dead Sea were found to contain aHuxley, and Hermann Hesse. It continues to have an im- large number of scrolls (the Dead Sea Scrolls, or DSS),portant inspirational influence on believers in yogic faiths many of them containing parts of the Bible. Some of theand for those who wish to continue the Indian tradition Qumran texts were identical to the MT, and some, wit-of argumentative discourse in the search for truth. ness to a slightly different text. The DSS biblical text is See also Hindu philosophy. sometimes identical to that behind the Septuagint. The ancient versions or translations fall into twoFurther reading: Dass, Ram. Paths to God: Living the Bhaga- groups. One group includes those that are based en-vad Gita. New York: Harmony, 2004; Gandhi, Mohandas. tirely or in part on a Hebrew text. These are the GreekThe Bhagavad Gita According to Mahatma Gandhi. Edited (Septuagint, or LXX), the Latin (Vulgate), the Targums,by John Strohmeier. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Hills Books, and the Syriac (Peshitta). All other ancient versions are2000; Mascaro, Juan, trans. Bhagavad Gita. New York: Pen- daughter versions of one of these. The versions used inguin Classics, 2003; Sen, Amartya. “Argument and History.” the east are based on the Greek; these include variousNew Republic (v.233/6, 2005). translations in Coptic, Classical Ethiopic or Geez, Ar- menian, and Georgian. Nearly all the pre-Reformation John Walsh European versions are based on the Vulgate. Of the four major ancient versions, the Septuagint is the most important. It is the oldest and most inde-Bible translations pendent; both the Vulgate and the Peshitta are based on the Hebrew text but show some familiarity withThere are two major parts to the Bible: the Jewish scrip- the Septuagint. Bilingualism, the regular use of two (ortures, or Tanakh (largely identical to the Christian Old more) languages by one person, was common in the an-Testament), and the New Testament (NT), the distinc- cient world, among merchants, scribes, and even com-
  • 86. Bible translations 51mon people. The bilingual presentation of a single text is Syriac, and the Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bibleis found throughout the ancient Near East. There are is known as the Peshitta, or Simple, text. Some portionsbilingual teaching texts from ancient Mesopotamia and of the Peshitta reflect knowledge not only of the HebrewAnatolia; there are bilingual public inscriptions from Bible but also of the Targums.every corner of the Near East, including Egypt. The dis-tinctive feature of the Septuagint is that it is the earliest NEW TESTAMENTtranslation that is very long (thousands of times longer In contrast to the Hebrew Bible, which is completelythan any other ancient translation), that is purely reli- attested in only one form, the Greek New Testamentgious in orientation (rather than educational or propa- is attested in many forms, in thousands of ancient andgandistic), and that can claim to be literary. medieval manuscripts. The study of these manuscripts The translation of the Septuagint began in the third began with the 16th-century Dutch scholar Desideriuscentury b.c.e. A legend preserved in various forms, in- Erasmus, who attempted to find the best form of the textcluding the Letter of Aristeas, attributes the work to by looking for the one most commonly used. Now schol-the desire of the Greek Ptolemies of Egypt to have a ars identify the oldest text (rather than the most com-complete library of all world thought and literature. This mon) as the best form. From Erasmus’s work emergedlegend also claims that the work was done under direct the earliest NT Greek text developed after the Reforma-divine inspiration. Scholars believe rather that Jews un- tion. This was based largely on minuscule manuscriptsdertook the work for Jews, for use in the liturgy. The (late antique and medieval texts written with lower-caseportion translated in the third century c.e. was the Penta- letters). This text, the basis of the NT in the King Jamesteuch, consisting of the five books of Moses (also known Version, is known as the textus receptus and has largelyas the Torah), and the term Septuagint strictly applies to been superseded by later textual study.this portion only. (Thus some scholars use the term Old The earliest witnesses to the Greek NT include exten-Greek for the rest of the ancient translation.) After the sive quotations in the works of the fathers of the churchrise of Christianity, which largely used the Septuagint in and early translations. Translations into Syriac and Latinworship, Jews prepared various revised versions of it for go back to the second century c.e.; the Syriac traditionstheir own special use. These revisions, associated with include both the Diatessaron (a harmony of all fourthe scholars Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, are Gospels) as well as translations of the separate Gospels.closer to the Hebrew than the Septuagint proper, some- Coptic translations emerge in the third century c.e.; thetimes so close that they are unintelligible in Greek. Ori- earliest are in the Sahidic dialect. Other ancient versionsgen collected all these Greek versions in his Hexapla. (Ethiopic, Armenian, Georgian, Old Church Slavonic) The Christian community in western Europe devel- are sometimes of value for the text traditions.oped out of the earlier, Eastern community and took over The best large texts of the Greek are uncial manu-its scripture in a direct translation from the Septuagint. scripts (those written entirely in capital letters), dating(In the Greek Church the LXX is still the officially used to the fourth and fifth centuries. The intensive study ofversion of the Old Testament.) This direct translation, these during the 17th–19th centuries led to the recogni-the Old Latin, was largely replaced by the Vulgate trans- tion of various families of texts, into which individuallation of Jerome. Scholars consult the surviving portions manuscripts can be grouped. The Byzantine manu-of the Old Latin as a witness to the Septuagint and for script group provided the basis for the textus receptus,clues to the earliest Latin Church understanding and but this is inferior to the Alexandrian and Caesareanuse of scripture. The language culturally closest to ancient groups, which have been the basis for NT editions andHebrew was Aramaic, which was the common language translations since the late 19th century. The most im-of the ancient Near East for more than a millennium, portant uncials, most of which are complete Bibles andfrom the seventh or sixth centuries b.c.e. until the rise thus include the LXX as well as the NT, are Vaticanusof Islam. There are various ancient Aramaic translations and Sinaiticus, from the fourth century c.e., and Alex-of the Bible. Those made by and for Jews are called the andrinus and Bezae, from the fifth century c.e.Targums. They are written in literary forms of Aramaic During the late 19th and 20th centuries about 100that would have been understood throughout the Jewish NT papyri were discovered. These were nearly all olderworld prior to the rise of Islam. There are many Targums than the uncials and thus closer to the time of the origi-(translations), and some of the later Targums used elab- nal composition of the NT. They generally confirmedorate paraphrases and offer extensive additions to the the patterns of manuscript distribution proposed dur-text. The chief form of Aramaic used among Christians ing the 19th century. The papyri can be dated to the
  • 87. 52 Boethiussecond and third centuries c.e. None can be taken as works and the depth of his Christian convictions, strongidentical to the autograph of any part of the NT; all evidence for his sympathies with the faith appear in fiveshow various changes. compositions (the Opuscula sacra, or Theological Trac- See also Aramaeans; Armenia; Christianity, early; tates) written before 520. All these works show freshEthiopia, ancient; Georgia, ancient; Judaism, early vocabulary and borrowing of Greek philosophies, per-(heterodoxies); libraries, ancient; Oriental Orthodox haps even excelling the ideas of Augustine of Hippo.Churches; Syriac culture and church. The tract De fide catholica (On the Catholic Faith) tells of his objections to Arianism, the Sabellians, and ManiFurther reading: Barrera, Julio Trebolle. The Jewish Bible and the Manichaeans, while it confirms the ecclesialand the Christian Bible: An Introduction to the History of the teachings. Because of its clear-cut support for the LatinBible. Trans. by W. G. E. Watson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerd- Church, its authorship is often called into question.man, 1998; Metzger, Bruce M. The Canon of the New Testa- Consolation of Philosophy was mandatory readingment. Oxford: Clarendon, 1987. for every respectable intellectual for the next 1,000 years after Boethius. He imagines Lady Philosophy, the hero- M. O’Connor ine of such religious works as the biblical book of Prov- erbs, consoling him in his dark night of the philosophical soul. She helps him to realize the fickleness of success andBoethius the faithfulness of divine providence. She tells him that(480–c. 526 c.e.) philosopher true happiness flows from being at peace with God. If success will not crown present virtuous efforts, the bal-Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius was ance will be restored in the next life. God stands outsidea statesman and philosopher during the reign of The- of time and is present at all of our time (past, present,odoric, Ostrogothic emperor of Rome. Boethius had and future) and offers eternal life simultaneously withouta good classical education (educated in Athens and Al- impeding our free will to choose virtue.exandria) and was particularly influenced by Neopla- Though Consolation does not bring up such Chris-tonism, Aristotle and Aristotelianism, and Stoicism. tian mysteries as the incarnation, the crucifixion, andHe was in the midst of a project to translate and even the resurrection, its fundamental premises are in lineunite Aristotle and Plato when he broke off his academic with orthodox Christian teaching. It is anchored incareer in order to serve as an imperial consul in 510 c.e. Augustinian foundations and may subtly show biblical Power had shifted away from Italy to Constanti- and liturgical allusions.nople, leaving the Italian emperor a weak rival. When Historians view Consolation, together with theBoethius was unfairly condemned for a conspiracy al- Opuscula sacra, as evidence that Boethius turned to-lied with the Constantinople authorities, he was impris- ward religion and particularly the Christian faith as heoned for a couple of years and then executed sometime got older. He is the first one to use the word theologybetween 524 and 526. as a technical Christian term denoting the study of the Because his writings were circulated and appreciated nature of God.by many later intellectuals, Boethius has been called the Because the emperor that he served was an Arian,pioneer of medieval thought and founder of the early Boethius was regarded as a Christian martyr and inMiddle Ages. His knowledge of Greek made him a natu- Italy especially is regarded as a Catholic saint. His writ-ral link with Greco-Roman civilization at a time when ings were some of the first translations made into thethe West was losing its knowledge of Greek. His transla- “vulgar” tongues (Anglo-Saxon, German, Greek, andtion of Aristotle was one of the few that the West had French—all before 1300), and many great scholars ofuntil the days of Thomas Aquinas. His attempts to uti- the Middle Ages continued to debate his arguments uplize Aristotle for the advantage of theology were 550 until the time of Thomas Aquinas.years ahead of the Scholastics. He composed Consola- See also Christianity, early; martyrologies; wisdomtion of Philosophy while he brooded and waited for his literature.execution in prison. He also wrote on true education(trivium and quadrivium), translations of Porphyry, Further reading: Green, Richard H. The Consolation of Philos-and commentaries on Cicero, and his own treatises on ophy: Boethius. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1962.logic, mathematics, and theology. Although questionshave been raised about the authorship of several of his Mark F. Whitters
  • 88. Boudicca 53Book of the Dead ally were combinations of hieroglyphics representing spells and other uses of language and illustrations.The Egyptian Book of the Dead is a collection of texts Pyramid texts most commonly featured praise for thethat were used to accompany the souls of corpses into sun god Ra, while coffin texts generally favored Osiris.the afterlife and assist them in finding a satisfactory The concept of the field of reeds was also subsequentlyresting place. It should be distinguished from the Ti- introduced; in which the soul that was granted contin-betan Book of the Dead, which is a Vajrayana Buddhist ued happy life would be expected to labor on agriculturalset of texts aimed at achieving personal enlightenment. tasks for eternity. This in turn led to the creation of magi-The Egyptians were the first people to conceive of an af- cal ushabtis, which were small statuettes that were en-terlife in which human souls were judged on a primarily chanted, it was hoped, so that they would come to life andmoralistic basis rather than on the basis of adherence to take responsibility for this labor, leaving the soul to enjoysome particular religious dogma, which was more com- an eternity of ease. The belief was that the soul could bemon in later peoples. alive within the burial chamber while still laboring in the In Egyptian belief the soul progresses into the pres- field of reeds and also touring the heavens in the companyence of the god of the dead, Osiris, when its heart is mea- of the gods. It was considered possible for these multiplesured against the scales of truth (maat). If found want- forms of reality to be experienced at the same time.ing, the Eater of the Dead (Am-mut) awaits; if found to See also Egypt, culture and religion; Pyramids ofbe virtuous, then the soul enters a place where eternal Giza.bliss awaits. Both coffin texts and pyramid texts wereused to assist the soul to reach the court of Osiris and Further reading: Hornung, Erik. The Ancient Egyptian Booksto pass through the truth-testing process. These texts of the Afterlife. Trans. by David Lorton. Ithaca, NY: Cor-might be inscribed onto stone in the tomb or sarcopha- nell University Press, 1999. Seleem, Ramses. The Egyptiangus, painted onto coffins, or else written onto papyrus Book of Life: A True Translation of the Egyptian Book of theto accompany the corpse. A total of some 200 different Dead, Featuring Original Texts and Hieroglyphs. London:verses or chapters of this sort have been discovered and Watkins/Duncan Baird Publishers, 2004; Wallis Budge, E. A.have been combined to make the Book of the Dead. The Book of the Dead. New York: Random House, 1995.However, no individual cache of texts has been foundthat contains all of the verses, and Egyptian thinkers John Walshconceived of no official canon of the Book of the Dead.Instead, individual bodies were accompanied by per-sonalized selections of texts determined on a case-by- Boudiccacase basis. Sufficiently wealthy or powerful individuals (c. 30–c. 61 c.e.) Celtic military leadercould have new verses or spells written for their partic-ular use, while others made do with existing texts. Boudicca (Boadicea) was born into the aristocracy. Lit- Pyramid writings were the first of these texts and tle otherwise is known of her—some researchers evenare most notably found at Saqqarah, where they were say that her true name is unknown, that her followerscreated in approximately 2400 b.c.e. The first pharaoh named her Boudiga for the Celtic goddess of victory,to receive these texts was Unas, who was the last king of which the Romans Latinized as Boudicca.the Fifth Dynasty. The texts included hymns of praise, Around 48 c.e., she became the wife of Prasutagus,magical spells, and invocations of various sorts to as- king of the Iceni (50–60 c.e.), a Celtic tribe in modernsist the dead king. They also include valuable historic East Anglia in eastern Britain. Boudicca bore Prasuta-records, including a battle scene against the Bedouins, gus two daughters. The Iceni were among the tribestrade with Syria and Phoenicia, and the transportation that had submitted to Julius Caesar after his invasionsof granite blocks to help build the pyramids. Subsequent of 55 and 54 b.c.e. The Iceni prospered through tradepyramid texts also combine religious beliefs with what with the Roman Empire between 65 b.c.e. and 61 c.e.are presumed to be contemporaneous historical beliefs. The Romans invaded Britain in 43 c.e. and madeCoffin texts were painted onto coffins and are first re- Prasutagus a client. In 60 c.e., with Roman forces busycorded during the First Intermediate Period (c. 2130– fighting the Druids in Wales, the Iceni rebelled. Claudius,1939 b.c.e.). They are similar in nature to pyramid texts needing a quick popularity boost at home, sent 60,000but denote a widening of the possibilities of obtaining troops to Gaul. The Iceni reaffirmed their submission,access to the afterlife to more social classes. Texts gener- and Prasutagus kept his crown. Rome gave him military
  • 89. 54 Brendan the Navigatorprotection, funding and loans, employment, and educa- lated among explorers and navigators of late Middletion—as well as serfdom, slavery, and subordination. Ages Europe. Some historians speculate that Christopher The daughters’ names are unknown, but they were Columbus might have relied on maps with St. Brendan’steens when Prasutagus died in 60 c.e. Boudicca became Isle on it, located somewhere in the Atlantic off to theeither queen or regent of the Iceni and guardian of the far west. Others say that the 10th-century Hiberno-Latindaughters’ inheritance. romance called the Voyage of Brendan might have been Prasutagus left his daughters half his wealth, enough on Columbus’s reading list before he did his travels to theto cover dowries plus Roman taxes, tributes, and other New World. The life of Brendan is mostly based on leg-expenses. He gave half his wealth to Rome to fulfill his ends and secondhand reports. Thus, it is difficult to stateclient-ruler obligation. Nero seized all his property be- with confidence many of the facts of his life. He was acause it was illegal to will to others over the emperor. native Irishman, born at a time when Celtic ChristianityRome also drove Iceni nobles from their lands, enslaved was beginning to flourish as the Roman Empire receded.and plundered, and demanded return of money given His mother supposedly was Ita, an Irish saint, in Countyfor the upkeep of the Iceni court. Boudicca protested. Kerry on the west coast. He was educated by Irish saintsThe Romans took her hostage, stripped her, and “put and ordained by a famous Irish bishop around the yearher to the rods.” Meanwhile, Roman soldiers raped the 512 c.e. Then he began his vocation as an explorer anddaughters. Once freed, Boudicca led the Iceni, Trini- missionary in Ireland and Scotland and the hinterlandsvantes, and several tribes in a rebellion that lasted sev- of western Europe.eral months. The Iceni minted large numbers of silver According to legend he founded many monas-coins to finance the rising of 60–61 c.e. teries and achieved a high place in the honor roll of Boudicca was ruthless. Her army of 100,000 proud Celtic spirituality, which values its heroes on the basisand warlike Celts gave no quarter. Men and women of supernatural feats and sanctity. One of his monas-together, they had fought the Romans for centuries and teries was Cluain Fearta in Clonfert (559 c.e.), whichearned Roman respect. Reportedly, one Roman legion reportedly had 3,000 members. His own home mon-refused to fight her. Boudicca’s forces destroyed Lond- astery was on Mt. Brandon, Ireland’s second highestinium (London), Verulamium (St. Albans), and Camu- peak, which today shows a ruined oratory and cellslodunum (Colchester) and killed thousands before the for monks.Roman governor, Suetonius Paullinus, crushed the ris- Consistent with Celtic spirituality Brendan deviseding. In the final battle the Romans massacred Celtic his own discipline and structure for his monasteries.warriors and camp followers alike. Boudicca took poi- He called his monks to a life of missionizing, seafar-son. The rebellion killed more than 100,000 people. ing, and exploring, an ideal for which the Irish were After the defeat the Romans relocated the Iceni to already known. One of the ancient Hiberno-LatinCaistor-by-Norwich (also Caistor St. Edmunds) on the chroniclers, Adamnan (c. 10th century), corroboratesriver Tas. this adventuresome spirit when he writes that Brendan was a fellow crew-member with Columba of Iona whoFurther reading: “Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni, led a revolt sailed to the “Isles of the Blessed”—perhaps the Danishagainst the Roman military in AD 60–61.” Athena Review Faeroe Islands or Iceland. He is also mentioned in an(v.1/1). Available online. URL: http://www.athenapub.com/ ancient church litany of St. Aengus the Culdee (eighthboudicca.htm (May 2007); Wilson, S. “Boadicea: Queen century) as sailing with some (perhaps dozens) of hisBoudicca and the Events Leading to the Iceni Rebellion of fellow monks.60 A.D.” Available online. URL: http://members.tripod.com/ The account mentioned above, Voyage of St. Bren-~ancient_history/boad.html (May 2007). dan, is a travel adventure story like Sinbad the Sailor or the Odyssey. Historians have collected many such John H. Barnhill Irish tales and suggest that Voyage is a deliberate Chris- tian imitation of the Virgil’s great travel adventure, the Aeneid. Most likely Voyage was originally written toBrendan the Navigator teach Irish monks about discipline and monastic ideals(c. 484–577 c.e.) explorer and church leader but soon was translated into the European vernacular languages and read for entertainment.For centuries the legend of an Irish monk named Bren- The natural trajectory of his travels following windsdan (also called Brenainn, Brandan, or Borodan) circu- and currents may well have landed Brendan in Canadi-
  • 90. Buddhism in China 55an Newfoundland 1,000 years before Columbus. The sheer size and degree of diversity within China meanttypes of adventures that the Voyage describes can easily that variations in interpretation inevitably occurred.be situated in the North Atlantic and in the New World. Since most Chinese Buddhists had little knowledge ofThe trip was replicated in modern times with a boat Pali or Sanskrit, the rituals in which all monks recitedbuilt in Celtic fashion. Even more recently claims have in unison the accepted Buddhist canon had less effectbeen made that Celtic symbols and alphabetical charac- than it did in India.ters were found in the New World farther south in New At times Buddhism was suppressed as a foreign re-Hampshire, Vermont, and even West Virginia. ligion that was interfering with native Chinese beliefs. See also Celts; monasticism; Patrick; Roman Forced underground during such periods, the rate atEmpire. which variations in philosophy developed accelerated be- cause of difficulties in communicating with other com-Further reading: Adam, David. Desert in the Ocean: The munities of believers. A number of different schools ofSpiritual Journey According to St. Brendan. Mahwah, NJ: Buddhist thought have consequently emerged in China.Paulist Press, 2000; Severin, Tim. The Brendan Voyage. NewYork: Modern Library, 2000. TIANTAI (T’IEN T’AI) Tiantai Buddhism was founded on Mount Tiantai in Mark F. Whitters southeastern China by the monk Chiyi (Chih-I, 538–597 c.e.), during the Sui dynasty. It focused on the Lotus Su- tra (Saddharmapundarika-sutra, or Fahua-ching in Chi-Buddha nese) as its central text. The Tiantai school taught thatSee Gautama Buddha. existence was real but impermanent and insubstantial and the need to adhere to the middle path in the search for personal enlightenment. Chiyi’s belief was that Saky-Buddhism in China amuni knew the entire canon of Buddhist thought at the time of his enlightenment, but it has only subsequentlyThe practice of Buddhism spread in the centuries after been released into human awareness because of the in-the death of Gautama Buddha through the actions of ability of people to comprehend the entirety of the mes-pilgrims, wandering evangelists, and strong believers sage. Tiantai Buddhism was introduced into Japan at thewho wished to spread the faith to remote lands and beginning of the ninth century under the name Tendai byalso through observation of Buddhist practices by those the monk Saicho.who traveled overseas from India and Sri Lanka. Thevarious routes that composed the Silk Road were im- HUAYAN (HUA-YEN)portant conduits for Buddhism making its way into The Avatamsaka school of Buddhist thought is knownChina, more so than the maritime routes that were as Huayan in China and Kegon in Japan. It is basedmore influential in the transmission of the belief into on the Avatamsaka-sutra, which is also known as theSoutheast Asia. Buddhism was recorded as being pres- Garland Sutra or Wreath Sutra. Huayan Buddhism isent in China from the time of the Han dynasty, and ac- associated with the monk Fazang (Fa-tsang, 643–712cording to legend, the emperor Mingdi (Ming-ti , 57–75 c.e.), also known as Xianshou (Hsien-shou), the thirdc.e.) received a divine vision that inspired him to seek patriarch who did much to develop the lessons of theout knowledge of the Buddha from India. school. The basis of Huayan Buddhism is that all ele- Chinese monks and scholars were dispatched at ments of reality depend on each other and arise becauseregular intervals to seek out Indian knowledge and of each other, spontaneously. At every moment an in-texts that could be brought back to China and trans- finite number of possibilities exist, and it is possible,lated into the Chinese language. In nearly every case, therefore, for an infinite number of Buddhas (who canwhen Buddhist concepts were introduced to China they internalize all of the possible variations within a har-were combined with preexisting Chinese religious con- monious whole) to emerge into the world. Advancedcepts or else were subsequently modified. training of the mind and meditation are necessary to be Notably, Buddhism was combined with the Daoist able to comprehend the nature of reality and of how to(Taoist) philosophy of Laozi (Lao Tzu), both to show strive for enlightenment.respect to the latter and also to make the new, foreign Fazang was born into a Sogdian family fromconcepts more intelligible to a Chinese audience. The Chang’an (Ch’ang-an), and the system he established
  • 91. 56 Buddhist councilsis often regarded as one of the most advanced and com- Zan Buddhism is centered on the belief that allplete of all the schools of Buddhism to be created in living creatures have within themselves an aspect ofChina. It continues to be influential in Japan even in the Buddhahood and that it is possible, through intensivemodern age. meditation, to realize this existence, which results in In China itself the Huayan form lost popularity as wu, or enlightenment. Similar to the teaching of thea result of the general suppression of Buddhism dur- historical Buddha, it teaches that the realization ofing the later Tang (T’ang) dynasty. It reemerged in part the presence of the internal Buddha aspect can by noin the fostering of Neo-Confucianism, which flourished means be taught or explained by anyone else but canfrom the 11th century c.e. only be appreciated through internal cultivation of con- sciousness. An intensive regimen of meditation was notPURE LAND something that many people had the opportunity toThe Pure Land form of Buddhism, known in Chinese pursue, which is one reason why the Pure Land schoolas Qingtu (Ching-tu), is based on the Pure Land Su- achieved a greater level of popularity. After the deathtra (Sukhavativyuha-sutra), which was created in the of the fifth patriarch of the Zan school, a split occurrednorth of India in the second century c.e. The sutra between northern and southern adherents. The south-concerns the process of a monk who sought enlight- ern tendency, which was named after Huineng (Hui-enment by, in part, vowing to create a pure land in neng), taught that enlightenment through meditationwhich all could live happily to a long and fulfilled could be achieved much more swiftly and immediatelyage. Those who practice Pure Land Buddhism commit than was proposed by the northern tendency. Huinengthemselves to various vows that are believed to help was more successful than the gradualist approach ofthem achieve enlightenment. the northern school, which eventually disappeared The 18th vow in particular is significant and holds from China.that pronouncing the name of the Buddha at the point See also Buddhist councils; Daoism (Taoism);of death is sufficient to ensure that the soul will be re- Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.born in the Pure Land. This form of Buddhism becamevery popular, largely because it offered the opportu- Further reading: Cleary, Thomas F. Entry into the Inconceiv-nity for ordinary people to aspire to enlightenment able: An Introduction to Hua-Yen Buddhism. Honolulu: Uni-within their own lifetime. The belief is that the monk versity of Hawaii Press, 1995; Gernet, Jacques. A History ofin the Pure Land Sutra, whose name was Dharmaka- Chinese Civilization. Trans. by J. R. Foster and Charles Hart-ra, did achieve enlightenment and now resides in the man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996; Gernet,Pure Land in the form of the Buddha Amitabha, or, in Jacques. Buddhism in Chinese Society. New York: ColumbiaChinese, O-mi-to-fo. There, together with the goddess University Press, 1998; Kieschnick, John. The Impact of Bud-Guangyin (Kuan Yin) and Mahasthamaprapta, he as- dhism on Chinese Material Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princetonsists humans to achieve their goal of being reborn in University Press, 2003; Wright, Arthur F. Buddhism in Chinesethe Pure Land. History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959. Clearly the teachings of Pure Land Buddhism di-verge considerably from the other forms of Buddhism John Walshtaught in the past. Instead of the historical Buddha’sinsistence that only what can be personally evaluatedand experienced can be used in the struggle for enlight- Buddhist councilsenment, which is the single ultimate goal of human ex-istence, people can rely on the benevolence of the trinity After the death of Gautama Buddha (483 b.c.e.),led by Amitabha and have as an ultimate goal rebirth in monks and scholars concerned with practicing the les-the paradise of the Pure Land. sons he taught met several times at formal councils at which the canon of Buddhist thought was established,ZAN (CH’AN) the rules of monastic life were agreed, and matters ofZan Buddhism focuses on the role of meditation in the dogma and ideology were debated and confirmed. Thesearch for enlightenment. It is known as Dhyana Bud- exact number, location, and importance of the coun-dhism in Sanskrit and zen in Japan, where it reached cils have been contested, but it is commonly consid-its greatest level of popularity. The Indian monk Bodhi- ered that there were three early councils that were ofdharma brought it to China in 520 c.e. particular importance.
  • 92. Buddhist councils 57THE FIRST COUNCIL sion between Theravada and Mahayana forms of Bud-The First Buddhist Council convened shortly after the dhism has little to do with the regimen to be followed bydeath of the Buddha. The council was attended by 500 their practitioners. The Chinese version of the originalarahants, who had already achieved nirvana, the path to Sanskrit report created by the Mahasanghika school,enlightenment. The council wished to itemize and sys- which later became the Mahayana Buddhist tradition,tematize the teachings of the Buddha and was held at records that the debate concerned the nature of the ara-Rajagha, in the modern Indian state of Bihar. Of those hant and the relationship with the physical universe.present one of the most prominent was Ananda, who There is little agreement as to the exact nature of thehad attended the Buddha as companion and assistant for debates that took place. However, it is clear that afterthree decades. It is believed that since the monks con- the second council, Buddhists divided into a number ofcerned were consistent practitioners of yogic disciplines, different sects, and unity among them was no longer pos-their memories were enhanced and, thus, their ability to sible because there was no agreement on Buddha’s teach-recall lengthy speeches and lessons with some accuracy. ings, nor of the order in which they were to be recited. Ananda, for example, is said to have recited notonly every word he heard from the Buddha but also the THE THIRD COUNCILlocation and circumstances under which each was ut- The Third Buddhist Council was held under the auspic-tered. Others who had also been present then confirmed es of the great Buddhist patron King Ashoka (Asoka)Ananda’s responses, where possible. The main achieve- at Pataliputra, which is the modern-day Patna in In-ments of the first council were the assembly of the aph- dia, in or around 247 b.c.e. The purpose of the counciloristic sutras under the supervision of Ananda and the convened under Ashoka’s direction was to resolve thecollection of the vinayas, the rules to be followed by the differences between the numerous Buddhist sects thatsangha, or monkhood, under the elder Upali. At the first had flourished since the second council.council, the Tripitaka was established and continues to The council resulted in the creation of the Katha-be used today. The three Pitakas, or baskets, were sepa- vatthu, which has become the fifth book of the Ab-rate receptacles in which the Buddha’s teachings were hidhamma Pitaka. A version of the Buddha’s teaching,categorized into discourse, discipline, and expressions royally approved as the Vibhajjavada, was declaredof higher knowledge. to be appropriate for the monks to learn and to recite once they sought out converts. This doctrine followedTHE SECOND COUNCIL the Theravadin school of thought. The sending out ofThe Second Buddhist Council was held approximately monk evangelists under Ashoka was of considerable100 years after the death of the Buddha. It was held at importance in the dissemination of the religion.Vaisali, also in the modern Indian state of Bihar. It was The councils represented the attempt to resolveconvened to settle the conflict that had arisen out of an different interpretations of dogma through discussionideological difference among the sangha. This difference rather than violence, and in this, they were largely suc-was not resolved and resulted in the creation of the two cessful. By causing the assembled monks to recite themajor schools of Buddhist thought, the Mahayana and canon they held in common in unison, they focusedthe Theravada. on what united the sangha rather than what set them Controversy is thought to have arisen over the 10 apart.rules (vinayas) monks were obliged to follow. These See also Buddhism in China; Theravada andincluded whether it was acceptable to drink sour milk Mahayana Buddhism.after the midday meal, using a rug of an inappropriatesize, accepting gold and silver as alms, and the storage Further reading: Barua, Sumangal. Buddhist Councils andof salt. The debate centered on two interpretations of Development of Buddhism. Calcutta, India: Atisha Memori-the vinayas, one of which was much stricter than the al Publishing, 1997; Prebish, Charles S. “A Review of Schol-other. arship on the Buddhist Councils.” Journal of Asian Studies It is said that the Vaisali monks were practicing a (v.33/2, 1974); Seneviratna, Anuradha. King Asoka and Bud-more relaxed regime of vinayas than the remainder of dhism. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1995;the sangha, and after debate their lifestyle was ruled Thomas, Edward Joseph. The History of Buddhist Thought.unlawful. In return, the Vaisali faction created its own New York: Routledge, 1996.school. This explanation ignores the issues of dogmathat must have underpinned this conflict and the divi- John Walsh
  • 93. 58 ByblosByblos whom it surrendered and was spared. After Alexan- der’s conquest the city slowly adopted Greek cultureThe site of ancient Byblos lies on the Lebanese coast and language. The arrival of the Romans in 64 b.c.e.about 25 miles north of Beirut. It has been continu- brought three centuries of peace and prosperity to theously occupied since the late Neolithic Period (c. 5000 city, along with the building of temples, theaters, andb.c.e.), and its tradition claims that it is the oldest city baths. Byzantine imperial rule brought a Christianin the world. The Greeks gave the name Byblos to the bishop to the city, but there are few remains from thissite because they imported Egyptian papyrus, or byblos, period. In 636 c.e. the city passed under Arab rulethrough the city. The Egyptians called it Kebeny, but the until taken by the crusaders in 1104. Around 1215name of the city was Gubal to its inhabitants, and later the crusaders built the Church of St. John the Baptist.Gebal. Byblos persists as the name of the archaeological In 1289 the city surrendered to the Mamelukes, andsite, but the town’s name in Arabic is Jebeil. in the 15th century Byblos was taken over by the Ot- For centuries the location of the ancient city was toman Turks, under whose rule Jebeil operated as anforgotten until discovered by the French scholar Ernest obscure fishing port.Renan in 1860. It lay under the town of Jebeil, the walls See also Egypt, culture and religion; Phoenicianof its houses containing inscribed stones from the city’s colonies.ancient past. Between 1919 and 1924 Pierre Montet’sexcavations revealed the tombs of nine ancient rulers of Further reading: Gibson, John C. L. Textbook of SyrianByblos. Maurice Dunand succeeded Montet, conduct- Semitic Inscriptions, Vol. 3 Phoenician Inscriptions. Oxford:ing excavations from 1925 to 1975. Clarendon Press, 1982; Herm, Gerhard. The Phoenicians. The fourth-century c.e. geographer Strabo described New York: Book Club Associates, 1975; Markoe, Glenn E.Byblos as a “city on a height only a short distance from Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians. Berkeley: University of Cal-the sea.” It had an excellent geographical situation where ifornia Press, 2000.trade routes from north and south met. The city wasbuilt on a promontory, behind which the mountains of John Barclay BurnsLebanon came closest to the sea, providing easy accessto vast forests of cedar wood and reserves of copper ore.On either side of the promontory were bays that provid- Byzantine-Persian warsed natural harbors, the larger one to the south. On thenorth side lay the upper town, or acropolis, holding the In the third century c.e. the Sassanid dynasty replacedpalaces and temples. The harbors were not particularly Parthian rule in the Persian Empire. Rome and Persialarge but quite capable of handling the goods that flowed soon ran into conflict over disputed territorial claims,in and out of Byblos. Exports included Canaanite wine particularly in the Caucasus region. Diocletian sta-and oil and the all-important timber. bilized the frontier by forcing the Persians from the re- The earliest example of the Phoenician alphabet gion and establishing suzerainty in 299 c.e. Hostilities(c. 1000 b.c.e.) is found on the sarcophagus of King resumed when the Persians invaded Armenia, trying toAhiram of Byblos. Remains from nearly 3,000 years regain dominance, and continued throughout much ofof contact with Egypt survive, including artifacts in- the fourth century. In 363 Emperor Julian the Apos-scribed with names of pharaohs from all periods. Trade tate was killed fighting the Persians. Afterward Romewas disrupted around 2300 b.c.e. by Amorite tribes yielded territory, including Armenia. Relations remainedfrom the desert invading the coastal plain and attack- tense (and sometimes hostile) for decades until conflicting Byblos. The city soon recovered and entered on a resumed in the early fifth century. Another factor thatperiod of great prosperity that lasted until the com- led to conflict was religion.ing of the Sea Peoples in the 13th century b.c.e. The The Eastern Roman Empire was set on Christianity,Iron Age (1200–586 b.c.e.) ushered in the Phoenician while the Sassanid Empire was set on Zoroastrian-age of Byblos: the blend of the coastal Canaanites and ism. When the Persians began to persecute Christians,the Sea Peoples. After 1000 b.c.e. the city was never Theodosius II declared war, which resulted in anothercompletely independent of the great powers, Assyria, treaty. In 442 relations were ameliorated when bothBabylon, and Persia. faced the scourge of the Huns and mobilized for de- Byblos always put trade first and submitted to fense. Peace was broken in 502 when the Persians de-its overlords, including Alexander the Great, to manded tribute and invaded Syria and Armenia.
  • 94. Byzantium 59 Hostilities continued on and off throughout the and also took captive the holy relic of the True Cross.sixth century, concluding in 591 with the Caucasus Finally, they called for Jews to resettle Jerusalem as aregion returning to Roman suzerainty under Emperor Jewish city.Maurice. The momentum began to shift to the Byzantines When a military revolt led to the murder of Mau- who were strengthened by an alliance with the Kha-rice and the installation of Phocas in 602, the Persians zars, a Turkic people from the steppes. In 627 Hera-invaded—allegedly acting on behalf of Maurice’s fam- clius defeated the Persians and led his army into Persia.ily. Thus began the last Byzantine-Persian war (602– Peace was established after Kavad II overthrew his fa-629). During the war the Roman governor of Byzan- ther King Khosraw II. Heraclius obtained the return oftine North Africa sent his son Heraclius (Herakleios) to the True Cross. The cost of the war was great. It was atoverthrow the tyrant Phocas in 610. Despite his ability, this juncture that Islam appeared outside Arabia as thethe war turned badly for Heraclius, who became em- “rightly guided caliphs,” the successors of the prophetperor in 610. Over the next decade the Persians seized Muhammad, led the new Muslim armies out of ArabiaSyria, Palestine, and Egypt and plundered Anatolia. at the very moment that Persia, having been defeated,Heraclius now strove to shift the war to Persia. and Byzantium, victorious but gravely damaged, could With the support of the patriarch of Constantino- offer little resistance. Persia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, andple, he used church money to buy off the Avars (a hostile North Africa were soon in Muslim hands.people to his north) and rebuild his army with which, in See also Persian invasions; Persian myth.eastern Anatolia in 622, he won his first victory. Opera-tions then focused on the Caucasus region. In 626 the Further reading: Haldon, J. Byzantium in the Seventh Cen-Persians attempted to besiege Constantinople with the tury. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990; Tread-aid of the Avars and Slavs. The city withstood the Avars, gold, W. A History of the Byzantine State Palo Alto, CA:while the Byzantine navy defeated the Slav boats that Stanford University Press, 1997.were to ferry the Persians to the European side. The Byzantines credited the Virgin Mary with the Mathew Herbstdefense of their city. While they turned to their faith,the Persians sought to undermine this fervor. Whenthey had captured Jerusalem, for example, they de- Byzantiumported Christians to Persia (including the patriarch) See Constantinople.
  • 95. CCaesar, Augustus was his adopted son, the heir of his name, and heir(63 b.c.e.–14 c.e.) Roman emperor of his considerable estate. Octavian became known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. Upon his returnAugustus was a title given to Octavian when he became to Rome Octavian discovered that Mark Antony hadthe first emperor of the Roman Empire and established taken charge. They formed an alliance of three alongthe institutional framework that would serve Romans with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, one of Caesar’s mostfor 300 years. Octavian was the adopted son and heir trusted allies. This Second Triumvirate was officiallyof Julius Caesar. His rule initiated the Pax Romana, supported by the Roman government and was givena 200-year period of peace, which ended a century special powers for five years. As Suetonius wrote, “theof Roman civil wars. His reign as emperor brought underlying motive of every campaign [after he returnedforth a new cultural period, which became known as to Rome] was that Augustus [Octavian] felt it his duty,the golden age of Latin literature and saw many new above all, to avenge Caesar.” The Triumvirate’s firstbuildings erected in Rome. This period marked the end task was to draw up a list of those who had takenof the Roman Republic and the beginning of imperial part in the conspiracy to kill Julius Caesar. HundredsRome. of people were arrested and executed, or jailed and Octavian was born Gaius Octavius on September their property declared forfeit. This removed all po-23, 63 b.c.e., in Rome. His father was Gaius Octavius, tential enemies. It also hugely enriched the members ofand his mother, Atia, was the niece of Julius Caesar. the Triumvirate with money for a large army to searchHis grandmother Julia was Caesar’s elder sister. for two major conspirators, Cassius and Brutus. These two were defeated at the Battle of Philippi in Macedo-THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE nia and committed suicide.The First Triumvirate was initially a secret, unofficial The Triumvirate then divided the Roman Empirepolitical alliance to rule Rome. It consisted of Gaius among them. Lepidus moved to Africa to rule. TheJulius Caesar (Julius Caesar); Marcus Licinius Crassus, western part of the empire, including Italy, was inwho had suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus; the hands of Octavian, who controlled Rome. Theand Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey). Julius Cae- eastern part, which included Egypt, was under Marksar was assassinated on March 15, 44 b.c.e., the Ides Antony’s control. Mark Antony had been smitten byof March. Julius Caesar’s will revealed that Octavian Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, and sailed to Egypt, 61
  • 96. 62 Caesar, Augustusbecoming her lover and fathering three children with Even with no major rivals, Octavian was wary ofher. Needing a proper Roman wife, Mark Antony his public image and the perception of his power. Oc-married Octavian’s sister Octavia Minor in 40 b.c.e. tavian had inherited the support of the plebeians, theand had two daughters, both named Antonia. Three poor of Rome, who had been the mainstay of ­ Juliusyears later, in 37 b.c.e., he deserted Octavia and lived Caesar’s power base in the city, and was careful toopenly with Cleopatra. Octavian, in the meantime, stay in the Senate’s good graces. At the instigation ofwas building up important alliances in Rome and the Senate he become proconsul in 27 b.c.e. Later theconsolidating his power base. Mark Antony was be- same year the Senate invested him with the titles prin-coming a troublesome rival to Octavian. However, to ceps and augustus, the latter of which he never used. Inthe public, Mark Antony was clearly linked with Ju- some ways the title was more a religious than a politi-lius Caesar’s triumphs and was an important Roman cal one, whereas Princeps translated as “first citizen”military figure. Octavian allowed rumors to be spread and was used to signify a semi-imperial authority.that Mark Antony was becoming more and more anEgyptian and less a Roman. Mark Antony spread THE SECOND SETTLEMENTrumors that alleged that Julius Caesar had seduced In 23 b.c.e. Octavian achieved what became knownOctavian. The situation became extremely nasty as as the “Second Settlement,” an agreement betweenMark Antony sent many letters undermining Octa- himself and the Senate. He was invested by the Sen-vian to key Roman figures. ate with the powers of a tribune. This gave him the power to call the Senate at his will and to veto anyTHE BATTLE OF ACTIUM decisions they made. He had control of all soldiers inOctavian felt it necessary to do away with his rival, Rome and was the head of all Roman forces through-yet he and the Roman government did not wish it to out the empire. He was also granted imperium pro-be viewed as another civil war. The Senate officially consulare maius (“imperium over all the proconsuls”),declared war on Cleopatra in 32 b.c.e. and officially which allowed him singly to act as he saw fit in anystripped Mark Antony of his title as triumvir. province and overturn the decisions of any provincial Mark Antony and Cleopatra were anxious to pre- governor. In effect he now had dictatorial powers. Oc-vent Octavian from reaching Egypt and moved with tavian was still treading cautiously and using a thintheir forces and fleet to the west coast of Greece, in what veneer of legitimacy. Although the ruling class couldwas clearly a preparation to invade Italy itself. Octavian see Octavian gaining too much power, many aspectsled his legions and fleet to Greece as well, and on Sep- of this Second Settlement were lost on the poor oftember 2, 31 b.c.e., the issue was decided at the Battle Rome who still supported him as the “defender of theof Actium. It was a massive naval battle with a total of people.” When Octavian did not stand for election asmore than 400 vessels. Agrippa, in charge of Octavian’s consul in 22 b.c.e., some plebeians felt that he was be-navy, formed his fleet into a center and two wings of ing forced from power by the Senate. As a result in 22equal strength. Mark Antony drew up his ships in the b.c.e. and in the next two years the people only electedsame formation, but left 60 vessels under Cleopatra in one consul in order to leave the other position openreserve. As the two fleets clashed, Mark Antony’s center for Octavian. In 19 b.c.e. the Senate voted to allowpanicked and fled, along with his left wing. Mark Anto- Augustus to wear the insignia of a consul before themny realized the battle was lost and signaled to Cleopatra and in public. Six years later Marcus Aemilius Lepidusto escape, and he followed. Antony’s entire fleet was de- died. Octavian took the religious position of pontifexstroyed and upon seeing this, his land legions fled in the maximus, essentially as the high priest of the Romanface of Octavian’s armies. religion. In Egypt, in 30 b.c.e., upon being told erroneouslythat Cleopatra had committed suicide, Mark Antony OCTAVIAN’S RULEkilled himself. Cleopatra was captured and told that With Rome at peace Octavian instituted military re-she would be taken to Rome as a captive and taken forms. He reduced the size of the army from 501,000 tothrough the streets in procession. Rather than be taken 300,000. Legions were stationed at the frontiers of thecaptive she committed suicide. Octavian then annexed empire, which kept commanders from interfering in Ro-Egypt and returned to Rome in triumph. The eastern man politics. He formed the Praetorian Guard, whichhalf of the empire, loyal to Mark Antony, swore alle- consisted of 10 cohorts of 1,000 men. The Praetoriangiance to Rome and Octavian. Guard was garrisoned in Rome, provided protection for
  • 97. Caesar, Julius 63Octavian, and were the only soldiers allowed in Italy. Further reading: Barrett, Anthony A. Livia: First Lady ofWith massive amounts of money flowing to the govern- Imperial Rome. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,ment coffers in Rome, Octavian was generous in paying 2002; Holland, Richard. Augustus: Godfather of Europe.the soldiers and in ensuring that veterans were able to Stroud, UK: Sutton, 2005; Jones, A. H. M. Augustus. Lon-have their own land. don: Chatto and Windus, 1970; MacMullen, Ramsay. Octavian overhauled the tax system to ensure as Romanization in the Time of Augustus. New Haven, CT:much revenue as possible. By 6 c.e. the treasury at the Yale University Press, 2000; Millar, Fergus, and E. Segal,capital controlled the fiscal arrangements for the en- eds. Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects. Oxford: Oxfordtire Roman Empire. He also ordered a tax census of U ­ niversity Press, 1984; Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Har-every person in his empire. In the Bible, Luke writes: mondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1977; Wallace-Hadrill,“And it came to pass in those days, that there went out A. Augustan Rome. London: Classical Press, 2004; Zanker,a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world be Paul. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. Anntaxed” (Luke 2:1). This is the edict that caused Joseph Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.and Mary to go to Bethlehem where Jesus (Christ)of Nazareth was born. Justin Corfield Money was channeled into the building of newroads throughout the empire, a system of mail deliv-ery, and also a fire brigade and police force for Rome. Caesar, JuliusIn addition to his own actions, Octavian encouraged (100–44 b.c.e.) Roman generalothers to undertake public works. Octavian was laterto boast that he “found Rome made of brick and left Gaius Julius Caesar expanded the Roman Empire intoit in marble.” As with so many other rulers, Octavian a power that included half of Europe. According to leg-is accused of overtaxing agriculture and spending the end, he was a descendant of Aeneas, the Trojan princemoney on grandiose projects and games. However, he who founded Rome, himself the son of the Greek god-did remarkably well given that Rome was no longer dess Aphrodite or the Roman Venus.invading other countries and carting their treasurieshome. EARLY LIFE AND THE POLITICS OF ROME Octavian was a generous benefactor to the arts. He Julius Caesar grew up with many political connectionsallocated much in commissions to sculptors and artists, through his father Gaius Julius Caesar, who had beenpoets and writers. This period was the golden age of a praetor, and his uncle Gaius Marius, a war hero andRoman literature. Many epic works come to us from politician who had married his father’s sister Julia. Histhis time. Virgil wrote the Aeneid about the founding mother was Aurelia Cotta.of Rome by Aeneas. Later in his rule Octavian became a The politics in Rome were embroiled betweenmoralist, creating laws to try to change Roman society. those who wanted a populous electorate, the popula-He launched a morality crusade to restrict prostitution res, and those who wanted aristocratic rule, the opti-and homosexuality, as well as adultery, but in Rome this mates. Caesar’s uncle Marius was a popularis. In hiswas not successful. oposition was Lucius Cornelius Sulla, an optimas. Both were political leaders. These opposing politicalTHE SUCCESSION camps caused many civil wars, coups, and attemptedOne of the issues which overshadowed the latter part coups. Caesar’s life, politics, and military career wereof Octavian’s reign was succession. Octavian had one directly affected by which camp was holding power.child, his daughter Julia. Octavian died on August 19, At this time King Mithridates of Pontus, on14 c.e., after adopting his stepson Tiberius Claudius, the south coast of the Black Sea, threatened Rome’sson of his third wife, Livia Drusilla. Tiberius became eastern provinces. Sulla was chosen to lead his armythe next emperor, named Tiberius Caesar Augustus. against Mithridates. While he departed Rome to joinOctavian was proclaimed a god. In addition the sixth his army, the government appointed Marius to lead themonth of the year, then known as Sextilis, was renamed war against Mithridates. Sulla received word of thisAugustus (August) after him. and marched on Rome and seized power. Marius fled See also Roman golden and silver ages; Roman to Africa. The appointment was returned to Sulla, andhistorians; Rome: building, engineers; Rome: govern- his army marched to the eastern provinces. Marius andment. his army then marched on Rome. He and his allies,
  • 98. 64 Caesar, Julius to Rhodes to study under Apollonius Molo, who had taught Cicero. Caesar returned to Rome in 72 b.c.e., where he was elected as a military tribune. He then became quaestor and prepared to fulfill this position with the army in Hispania (Spain) in 69 b.c.e. He served as quaestor in western Hispania and returned to Rome and married Pompeia, the granddaughter of Sulla. He was elected aedile. After this Caesar was then elected pontifex maxi- mus, the chief priest of Roman. He was elected praetor in 62 b.c.e. He was appointed propraetor in 61 b.c.e. and left Rome to govern Hispania Ulterior (Furthest Spain). In western Hispania he led the conquest of the Callaici and Lusitani people. His army hailed him as impera- tor, and he entered Rome in triumph. Caesar wanted to be consul, which was the highest office in the Republic, and entered Rome to run for consul in 60 b.c.e. In his campaign for consul of Rome, Caesar alliedPhoto of a woodcut depicting the triumph of Julius Caesar, with a himself to Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey thesign bearing his famous slogan, “Veni, vidi, vici.” Great), a formidable military figure with a long-term goal to get free land for his veterans to settle. Marcus Licinius Crassus, said to be the richest man in all of Rome, joined them in a three-person political allianceincluding Lucius Cornelius Cinna, seized power. There for power. Caesar provided the political skills, Pom-was purge of the supporters of Sulla. Marius died in 86 pey the influence, and Crassus the money. To cementb.c.e., but his faction remained in power. Julius Caesar the alliance, Pompey married Caesar’s only daughter,was allied with Cinna and married his daughter Cor- Julia.nelia in 84 b.c.e. In the same year Caesar married Calpurnia, the Sulla was victorious in the east and marched on Rome. daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, whoHe waged war against the army of Marius and defeated would be elected consul the year after. Their politicalthem in 82 b.c.e. Sulla had himself declared dictator and opponents called their powerful political alliance “theinitiated a massive purge of the populares. Caesar was three-headed monster.” This was the First Triumvi-on this list, being related to Marius and Cinna. Caesar’s rate. In 59 b.c.e. Caesar won as consul, but his op-political appointment, inheritance, and wife’s dowry was position, Bibulus, won the other co-consul position.appropriated. He was in hiding but was reprieved be- Caesar turned Pompey’s measures into law and pushedcause his mother’s family had influence with Sulla. Crassus’s interests.MILITARY CAREER THE GALLIC WARSCaesar joined the army and left Rome, and became an Caesar became proconsul of Gaul in 58 b.c.e. Hisaide of the governor of Asia. There he was involved in Gallic Wars lasted from 58 to 49 b.c.e. Caesar begana military victory against Mithradates VI, king of Pon- with a lightning campaign in Helvetii (modern-daytus. In this action he was awarded the corona civica, or Switzerland). The following year he conquered theCivic Crown, one of the highest Roman military deco- Belgic confederacy (in modern-day Belgium) and therations. Sulla retired as dictator and died in 78 b.c.e. Nervii. Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus met in Caesar’sJulius Caesar returned to Rome at this time. Marcus province in 56 b.c.e. to renew their Triumvirate. ByAemilius Lepidus, a close ally of his, had attempted a now Caesar had taken great riches in battle from thefailed coup against the Sullan government. Julius Cae- Gauls. By the end of 56 b.c.e. he had decided to annexsar sailed to Rhodes to study in 75 b.c.e. He was cap- all of Gaul (modern-day France). Pompey and Crassustured by pirates and ransomed for 50 talents of gold. would be consuls the following year and promised toLater, Caesar crucified the pirates. After this he again extend his proconsulship of Gaul for five more years.led an army against the king of Pontus. He went on With this Caesar became even more ambitious.
  • 99. Caesar, Julius 65 In the middle of 55 b.c.e. he planned an invasion of his army. Caesar resigned as dictator and was electedBritain. Caesar’s army marched to the river Thames and consul. He then headed for Greece and on July 10, 48defeated a large force, capturing the fort of King Cas- b.c.e., attacked Pompey at Dyrrachium (modern-daysivelaunus and then returned to Gaul. Caesar’s strong Durres or Durazzo, the main port in Albania). Caesarpolitical power base was waning, however, and his al- narrowly escaped defeat but smashed Pompey’s forcesliance with Pompey was weakening. Crassus received at Pharsalus in Greece on August 9.command of the eastern armies but was defeated by theParthians, and he died in the battle. JULIUS CAESAR IN EGYPT Gauls had united under Vercingetorix. In 52 Pompey fled from Greece to Egypt, with Caesar pur-b.c.e. Caesar decided to attack with a siege at Alesia, suing him. When Caesar arrived in Egypt he was pre-and 250,000 Gauls arrived to aid Alesia in fighting the sented with Pompey’s head. An Egyptian army officerRomans. The Romans held, and Caesar’s cavalry was had slain him. Caesar is reported to have wept.able to surprise the Gauls from the rear, sending them Egypt was ruled from its capital city, Alexandria,fleeing. Alesia surrendered, and the population was en- by the Ptolemy dynasty, the descendents of the gener-slaved. In politics, there was rioting Rome and with one al of Alexander the Great. War had broken out inconsul dead (Crassus), Pompey served as “consul with- Egypt over who was to rule, between Cleopatra VII andout a colleague.” With Caesar’s siege of Uxellodunum in her brother and husband Ptolemy XIII. Each had their51 b.c.e., Gaul was conquered. During his campaigns armies and supporters. Caesar was smitten by Cleopa-Caesar wrote seven books, which form Commentarii tra’s great beauty. He led his army against the opposingde Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War). army and deposed Ptolemy XIII. A romance betweenAccording to Plutarch, Caesar had conquered 800 cit- Caesar and Cleopatra continued for many years. Caesaries and subdued 300 tribes. There are figures cited that spent the first part of 47 b.c.e. in Egypt, leaving tohe had 1 million men and boys become Roman slaves attack King Pharnaces II of Pontus. His victory at theand left another 3 million dead on battlefields. Battle of Zela in May was so quick that Caesar sent to Rome his now famous message, “Veni, vidi, vici”CIVIL WAR (“I came, I saw, I conquered”).Caesar was victorious as a general, but his politicalposition was less secure. Pompey and Caesar were ma- CIVIL WAR AGAINST THE SONS OF POMPEYneuvered into a public split, with Pompey now siding Evading the enemy fleet, Caesar reached the Africanwith the optimates. The Senate had ended Caesar’s coast and marched his army inland. Finally Caesar’sterm as proconsul and ordered him to disband his forces, estimated at 40,000, took on a depleted opposi-army and return to Rome. Without a government po- tion of 60,000. In February at Thapsus he defeated them,sition he would face charges and prosecution. It was losing only 1,000 men to Metellus Scipio’s 10,000. Inagainst Roman law for any army from a province to May Caesar again returned to Rome in triumph.cross the border of the river Rubicon into Italy. By law The sons of Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextusthis act was a rebellion against Rome. Caesar said, Pompeius, were rallying forces against Caesar and had“Alea iacta est” (“The die is cast”), and led his army raised an army in Hispania. Caesar took a small forceacross the river toward Rome on January 10, 49 b.c.e. of veterans to fight them. Once in Hispania he quicklyCaesar quickly advanced to Rome with only the XIII enlisted more veterans who had settled in the region af-Legion. His opponents fled Rome. Pompey’s legions ter the Ilerda campaign. He amassed an army of 40,000were stationed in Hispania. He and the Senate fled to that of Pompey’s sons army of 50,000–60,000 men.to Brundisium and sailed to the east. Caesar set up Caesar attacked in the Battle of Munda, on March 17,his own senate and was declared dictator by them, 45 b.c.e., and was able to drive Pompey’s sons’ menwith Mark Antony as his equerry. He then declared from the field. In September 45 b.c.e. Caesar returneda policy of clemency for all. Caesar tried to make to Rome, the unchallenged ruler of the Roman Repub-peace with Pompey, but civil war was inevitable. Cae- lic, and was given the title imperator.sar knew that he had to lead his legions to Hispania,to prevent Pompey’s army from traveling to the East. ASSASSINATION OF CAESARWith Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in charge of Rome and In Rome, Caesar wrote his will, naming his great-­nephewMark Antony in control of Italy, Caesar set off for Octavian as his heir and adopting him as his son. ByHispania, where he defeated an ally of Pompey and 44 b.c.e. Caesar had been named dictator ­ perpetuus.
  • 100. 66 Cambyses IIHis opponents saw this as the end of the Republic and he was said by the Greek writer Herodotus of Hali-the political power of the aristocracy, and a conspiracy carnassus to be the eldest son of Cassandane, daugh-grew. The assassination plans were for March 15—the ter of Pharnaspes, also a member of the AchaemenidIdes of March—when Caesar would meet the Senate. ruling family. Cyrus took control of Babylonia in 539There were 20 men in the conspiracy. It is thought that b.c.e. and returned to Ecbatana, one of the royal capi-Brutus went along with the assassination because he tals, leaving his son Cambyses as his representative.thought that Caesar would end the Roman Repub- Cambyses made his headquarters at Sippar, a town tolic. Caesar entered the Senate, and hired gladiators the north of the city of Babylon. However, followingblocked the outside door. Trebonius detained Mark his father’s policy, he was active in taking part in theAntony with conversation. As Caesar approached the spring New Year ceremonies that took place in Baby-senators, he was stabbed 23 times. lon. For eight years, on behalf of his father, Cambyses The murder of Caesar so enraged many in Rome took charge of the area of Babylonia, and the evidencethat they eagerly listened to Mark Antony give a eulo- we have suggests a prince hard at work in his routinegy. Mark Antony and Octavian seized power and went duties.on to avenge the death of Caesar, defeating the forces In 530 b.c.e. his father, Cyrus, set off to solveof Brutus and the chief conspirator, Cassius, in Greece problems on the northeastern border of his empirebefore they fell out with each other. Two years after and, following Persian custom, appointed Cambyseshis death, Julius Caesar was formally declared a god as his regent, at the same time giving him permission toDivus Iulius (Divine Julius). be called king of Babylon. News of his father’s death See also Aeneid; Caesar, Augustus; Cato, Marcus in action reached Cambyses in Babylonia in SeptemberPorcius (the Younger); Roman historians; Rome: 530 b.c.e., and he assumed the full title King of Baby-buildings, engineers; Rome: government. lon, King of Lands, and by local custom married his two sisters, Atossa and Roxana.Further reading: Adcock, F. E. Caesar as a Man of Letters. The most significant event of Cambyses’ reignCambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956; Balsdon, J. P. was his invasion of Egypt, which began a few yearsV. D. Julius Caesar and Rome. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, after his accession. Most likely before he left Persia1967; Caesar. The Civil War. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin for the invasion Cambyses had his brother, variouslyBooks, 1978; ———. The Conquest of Gaul. Harmond- called Bardiya or Smerdis, quietly killed as a precau-sworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1982; Dyck, Ludwig Heinrich. tion against his leading a rebellion in the king’s ab-“Expedition to Unknown Shores.” Military Heritage (April sence. Cambyses crossed the Sinai desert, Egypt’s first2005); ———. “Germanic Tribe Run Amok.” Military Heri- line of defense, and met the Egyptian army under thetage (August 2004); Fuller, J. F. C. Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier command of Psamtik III, at Pelusium. The battle wentand Tyrant. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1965; Gelzer, the Persian way not least because of the treachery ofM. Caesar: Politician and Statesman. Cambridge, MA: Har- Polycrates of Samos, whose navy Psamtik erroneouslyvard University Press, 1968; Grant, Michael. Julius Caesar. thought he had secured but who on the day of combatLondon: Chancellor Press, 1969; Niderost, Eric. “Caesar and fought for Cambyses. Heliopolis (the site of modern-Alesia.” Military Heritage (October 1999); Suetonius. The day Cairo) was soon thereafter taken by siege, PsamtikTwelve Caesars. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1977; fled across the river to Memphis, which early in 525Plutarch. Fall of the Roman Republic. Harmondsworth, UK: b.c.e. was also taken, and Cambyses was proclaimedPenguin Books, 1970. the new pharaoh. A year later Cambyses marched south down the Justin Corfield Nile and occupied Thebes. From there he considered invading Ethiopia but decided to stop at the border, Ethiopia becoming a vassal state. There is much de-Cambyses II bate as to how Cambyses behaved toward the religion(c. 560–522 b.c.e.) Persian ruler of the Egyptians. Herodotus claims that he commit- ted various atrocities and that this was due to Cam-Cambyses II was the eldest son of Cyrus II, the found- byses’ being mad. However, not everyone agrees wither of the Achaemenid (or Persian) Empire, whose fa- Herodotus, and it is very possible that what Herodotusther was Cambyses I. The exact date of his birth is not records is propaganda against Cambyses after Dariusknown but is estimated to be around 560 b.c.e., and I’s accession in 522 b.c.e.
  • 101. Cappadocians 67 In the spring of 522 b.c.e. a man called Gaumata, vided the province of Cappadocia in two. A struggleclaiming to be Cambyses’ brother Bardiya, seized the with the Arian bishop Anthimus of Tyana over theAchaemenid throne. Cambyses began the journey back control of churches in this new province ensued. Ba-to Persia to deal with the usurper but died early on sil ordained his brother Gregory to the see of Nyssain the journey. Whether his death was from suicide or (nominally now under Anthimus’s control). Unsuccess-from accidental poisoning following a sword wound is fully he also attempted to ordain Gregory ­Nazianzusstill debated. to the see of Sasima. Basil was also embroiled in a con- See also Babylon, later periods; Ethiopia, ancient; troversy with the Arian bishop Eustathius of Sebaste,Fertile Crescent; Marathon, Battle of; Medes, Per- who had mentored Basil. Basil died in 379, leaving thesians, and Elamites; Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana; resolution of the neo-Arian crisis to the two Cappado-Persian invasions. cian Gregories. Basil’s brother Gregory of Nyssa (c. 331–395 c.e.)Further reading: Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian assumed the mantle of the struggle against the neo-Empire. Chicago: Phoenix Books, University of Chicago Arians after Basil’s death. His theological position wasPress, 1959; Wiesehofer, Josef. Ancient Persia: From 550 critical at the Council of Constantinople (381). ThereBC to 650 AD. London: I. B. Tauris, 1996. the anti-Arian emperor Theodosius I declared com- munion with Gregory one of the conditions for ortho- Andrew Pettman doxy. Gregory traveled to Arabia and Jerusalem to mediate ecclesiastical disputes. His writings addressed questions of the Trinitarian controversies (Against Eu-Cappadocians nomius, Ad Petrum, Refutatio confessionis Eunomii)(third–fourth centuries c.e.) and argued against the Christology of Apollinaris (Ad Theophilum, Adversus Apollinaristas, Antirheticus ad-Cappadocia, a Roman province from 17 c.e., became versus Apollinarem). He composed a hagiobiographyChristianized in the second century c.e. Cappadocia of his sister, the Life of Macrina. His theology oweswas a rural province, and its capital Mazica, later called much to Platonism, Neoplatonism, and Origen.Caesarea, was its only major city. Characteristic of the- His writings ­ assert both the full divinity and the fullology in Cappadocia was the early influence of Ori- humanity of ­Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth, althoughgen on the third-century Cappadocian church leaders in opposition to Origen and Neoplatonism he rejectedAlexander (after 212 c.e., bishop of Jerusalem and a the preexistence of souls. His writings exhibited greatfriend of Origen) and Firmilian, the bishop of Caesarea influence on the thought of speculative theologians(230–269 c.e.). Origen himself escaped to Cappadocia such as john damascene, Gregory Palamas, and Dunsduring the persecution of Maximinus Thrax (235–238 Scotus.c.e.). His impact remained present in the work of the Basil and Gregory’s friend, Gregory NazianzusCappadocian writers Basil the Great, his brother (c. 329–390), was bishop of Constantinople (379–Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory Nazianzus. 381) and represented the imperial city at the Council Basil became bishop of Caesarea in 370 c.e., hav- of Constantinople. Gregory’s opponents among theing studied rhetoric and other disciplines at home in Alexandrian and Macedonian bishops objected to hisCaesarea, Constantinople, and Athens. In Athens he appointment to Constantinople, and Gregory, citingmet Gregory Nazianzus, who would become a lifelong poor health, returned to Nazianzus. He was eventu-friend and ally against the neo-Arian writers Eunomius ally persuaded to become bishop of that city (Basiland Aetius. From a tour of the Christian monasteries had appointed him as auxiliary bishop earlier). In 384in the Near East after 355 c.e., he gained his lifelong he left Nazianzus and returned to his family estate indevotion to the ascetic life and concern for monastics. Arianzus, where he devoted himself to writing untilThis experience and encouragement from his sister Ma- his death in 390. Gregory’s Orations are among hiscrina, who sometimes is spoken of as “the fourth Cap- most important works, most of which were deliveredpadocian theologian,” persuaded him to be baptized. for festivals. As a theologian, Gregory opposed the as-As successor of Eusebius of Caesarea, Basil was active sumptions of the Eunomians that language was a God-in theological, political, and ecclesiastical conflicts. His given system, that names were the only way of accessfight against the neo-Arians gained him the opposition to the essence of the thing named, and that statementsof the Arian emperor Valens (364–378 c.e.), who di- about God’s essence were a matter of logical inference.
  • 102. 68 Caracalla, Edict ofGregory contended that God is known only insofar Fulvius Plautianus, were both murdered soon after-as he has revealed himself to humanity. Like the other ward. The method by which Caracalla came to powerCappadocians, Gregory expressed the single nature led to public criticism, and a satire play was producedof the Trinitarian Godhead—Father, Son, and Holy in the city of Alexandria in Egypt. In 215 ­CaracallaSpirit—and the full humanity and divinity of Christ. killed a deputation from the city and then let his sol-Gregory maintained that the Son of God became hu- diers slaughter up to 20,000 people in Alexandria.man so that human beings could participate in God’s Caracalla had once been told by his father to look afterdivinity. Gregory’s other writings include a collection the army, and to this end he gave the legionnaires payof his letters, which he assembled before his death. of 675–750 denarii (raised from 500 denarii), as well See also Arianism; Christian Dualism (Gnosticism); as other benefits. This was largely because the periodChristianity, early; Greek Church; Latin Church; before Caracalla become emperor had been one of sig-monasticism. nificant inflation. Caracalla not only ensured that were the salaries raised, but also soldiers were partially paidFurther reading: Holman, Susan R. The Hungry Are Dying: in kind—with food and materials—which would obvi-Beggars and Bishops in Roman Cappadocia. Oxford: Oxford ously not be affected by price rises. This was meantUniversity Press, 2001; Meredith, Anthony. The Cappado- not only to reward the soldiers and ensure their loyaltycians. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1995; but also to try to get more people to join the RomanVan Dam, Raymond. Families and Friends in Late Roman army. This has long been suggested as one of the rea-Cappadocia. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, sons for Caracalla’s edict. However, there were more2003. pressing reasons. There had not been enough money in the treasury for the pay rise for the soldiers, so the Robert R. Phenix, Jr. silver content in Roman coins was lowered by a quar- ter. The real reason for the edict can clearly be seen as being connected with revenue raising.Caracalla, Edict of (212 c.e.) Traditionally Roman citizens were freeborn people who lived in the city of Rome. In addition, descendantsThe Roman emperor Caracalla (or Marcus Aurelius of Roman citizens around the empire had citizenship,Antoninus) issued the Edict of Caracalla, also known along with men who had served in the army (as wasas the Constitutio Antoniniana or Edict of Antoninus, the case during the Roman Republic) and also auxil-in 212 c.e. Prior to this Roman citizenship had been iaries (from the reign of Augustus). The Romans alsohighly treasured and was extended only to people from allowed client kings, nobles, and others to become Ro-Rome, children of existing citizens, and people who man citizens. In Acts of the Apostles, Paul proclaimshad served a term in the military, being gradually ex- his Roman citizenship several times.tended to cover all the freeborn people in the Italian As well as the obvious advantages in being a Ro-peninsula. The Edict of Caracalla extended Roman man citizen, there were several disadvantages. All Ro-citizenship to include all freeborn men throughout the man citizens paid two taxes from which noncitizensRoman Empire and gave all freeborn women in the were exempt. The first was inheritance taxes, whichempire the same rights as Roman women. were paid by the beneficiaries on the death of some- Caracalla was born in Gaul in 186 c.e., the son body who left them money or property. Initially in theof the future emperor Septimus Severus. When Cara- Roman Empire it was impractical to levy inheritancecalla was born he was called Lucius Septimius Bassia- taxes on everybody, but by the time of Caracalla therenus, and when he was seven, his name was changed to was a large middle class in the empire and well-regu-Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to emphasize his family’s lated methods of collecting taxes. The other tax thatconnection with the late emperor Marcus Aurelius. was levied on Roman citizens was an indirect tax whenCaracalla was a nickname given to him when he was slaves were emancipated. Because of inflation, thea young man on account of the Gallic hooded tunic monetary value of slaves had risen, and with growingthat he often wore. Caracalla’s father had become affluence, more masters were freeing their slaves, whoemperor in 193 and died in 211. Caracalla and his often continued to work for them; many slaves werebrother Publius Septimius Antoninius Geta became able to buy their own freedom.co-emperors, but Caracalla was anxious to reign by Caracalla was also responsible for the building of­ imself, and Geta and his own father-in-law, Gaiush a large complex in Rome that became known as the
  • 103. Carthage 69Baths Carthage 69 of Caracalla. However, he became the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa,increasingly unpopular with many in the Roman Em- Spain, France and Britain. They had trade in Tyrianpire. He was killed on April 8, 217, at Harran, Par- royal purple dye, Tyrian royal blue dye, and dyed fab-thia. The account by Cassius Dio says that he was slain rics, tin for bronze, silver, gold, lumber, wine, cloth,when he was relieving himself, with a single stroke of pottery, carpets, jewelry, lamps, and other goods. Be-the sword. yond this harbor was the military harbor. The entrance See also Rome: buildings, engineers; Rome: govern- was narrow with a tall watchtower overlooking thement. harbors and sea. The Greek writer Appian reported that 220 ships could be accommodated.Further reading: Birley, Anthony, ed. Lives of the Later Cae- The First Punic War broke out with Rome over dis-sars. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1976; Grant, Michael. putes in Sicily regarding control of the city of MessanaThe Roman Emperors. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, (modern, Messina, Sicily) in 265 b.c.e. The Romans sent1996. a force to Africa. At the Battle of Tunes (Tunis) in 255 b.c.e., near the city of Carthage, the Carthaginians, with Justin Corfield Greek mercenaries, destroyed the Roman army. The de- feat of Rome left Carthage safe. Carthage was forced to leave Sicily after its navy was defeated in 241 b.c.e.Carthage Romans captured the island of Sardinia in 238 b.c.e. Carthage then focused on Iberian PeninsulaThe city of Carthage in North Africa (modern-day territory. There the Carthaginians built the city ofT­ unisia) was the capital of the Carthaginian empire that New Carthage (present-day Cartagena). From therecontrolled parts of the Mediterranean from the seventh Commander Hamilcar Barca and his son Hannibalcentury b.c.e. until it was destroyed in 146 b.c.e. Tradi- launched an attack on Rome in the Second Punic Wartion has the city founded by Queen Dido, from Tyre, in 219 b.c.e. Roman commander Scipio landed ina Phoenician city in modern-day Lebanon. According North Africa in 204 b.c.e. Hannibal’s army of 18,000to that legend, after Troy was sacked by the Greeks, men left Italy for Carthage and raised a large army.Prince Aeneas fled by sea and was shipwrecked there. He met the Romans and Numidians near Carthage atQueen Dido fell in love with him, but his destiny was to Zama in 202 b.c.e. Hannibal was defeated. The Ro-found Rome. Roman historians give different dates for mans forced the city to hand over all its warships andthe founding of Carthage. Timaeus gives c. 814 b.c.e., elephants and pay a massive indemnity to Rome. Inbut Apion states 751 b.c.e. The earliest known tombs 146 b.c.e. Roman forces leveled Carthage and thendate from 725– 700 b.c.e. plowed the fields with salt so that no one could grow Carthage was founded for trade, which created food there and rebuild. Later, Rome built Colonia Juliagreat wealth and helped it to dominate parts of North Carthago, the capital of Roman Africa.Africa and the central and eastern Mediterranean. See also Aeneid; Phoenician colonies; Syracuse.Metals from North Africa were traded for wine, cloth,and pottery. By the sixth century b.c.e. it was ruled by Further reading: Charles-Picard, Gilbert, and Colettean aristocratic oligarchy through a senate. Charles-Picard. Daily Life in Carthage at the Time of Han- Carthaginian trade in Sicily and Italy led to clash- nibal. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1961; ———. Thees with the Greeks and the Etruscans. Carthage oc- Life and Death of Carthage. London: Sidgwick and Jack-cupied the island of Ibiza off the Mediterranean coast son, 1968; de Beer, Sir Gavin. Hannibal: The Struggle forof Iberia in 591 b.c.e, and in the 540s b.c.e. it con- Power in the Mediterranean. London: Thames and Hud-quered Sardinia. son, 1969; Khun de Prorok, Count Byron. “Ancient Car- The city lay on a peninsula in the gulf of Tunis. thage in the Light of Modern Excavation.” National Geo-The Greek historian Appian recorded that it had three graphic (April 1924); Livy. Rome and the Mediterranean.rows of walls each 45 feet tall and 30 feet wide, with Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1976; ———. Thebarracks for 24,000 men and stables for 4,000 horses War with Hannibal. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books,and 300 elephants. Carthage had two great harbors 1965; Warmington, B. H. Carthage. London: Robert Hale,between the peninsula and the mainland. Large iron 1960.chains could be raised at the mouth of the harbor asprotection from attacks. Vessels came from all parts of Justin Corfield
  • 104. 70 castecaste touchables” as a group of people. However, early Ary- ans were deeply concerned with ritual pollution, whichCaste, or class, is English for the Sanskrit word varna, was likely the origin of the Untouchables. A subclass ofwhich categorizes the Hindus of India into four broad Untouchables emerged, who performed “unclean” tasks,classifications. The Rig-Veda, the holiest text of Hin- such as handling the carcasses of dead animals, tanning,duism, mentions many occupations and divides the and sweeping dirt and ashes from cremation grounds.Aryan people into broad categories. For example, the After the late Vedic age Indians defined caste muchHymn of the Primeval Man in the Rig-Veda says: more narrowly. Besides belonging to a caste, each per- son belonged to a jati, which was defined as belonging When they divided the Man, to endogamous groups related by birth (marriage is only Into how many parts did they divide him? legitimate to members within the group), commensal- What was his mouth, what were his arms, ity (food can only be received between members of the What were his thighs and feet called? same or a higher group), and craft exclusiveness (craft The brahman was his mouth, or profession can only be inherited; no one can take up Of his arms was made the warrior, another profession). Thus in operation the caste or class His thighs became the vaisya, system was a combination of varna and jati systems. Of his feet the sudra was born. Caste had its origins in the class and occupational groups in early Aryan society. It acquired a deep color Early Aryan society already had class divisions. In consciousness as it broadened to include the people ofIndia the class stratification became more rigid due to the Indus civilization and other indigenous peoplecolor consciousness—differences in skin color between the Aryans encountered as they expanded throughoutthe Indo-European Aryans and the indigenous peo- northern India. It continued to develop over the suc-ples—thus the use of the word varna, which originally ceeding centuries as a result of association betweenmeant “covering,” associated with the color of the skin many racial groups into a single social system.covering people’s bodies to differentiate the status of See also Aryan invasion; Vedas.different categories of people. The four varna, or broadclassifications of peoples of India, were as follows: Further reading: Dutt, Nripendra K. Origins and Growth of Caste in India. Calcutta, India: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhy- 1. Brahman: priests, teachers, and intellectuals ay, 1968; Gupta, A. R. Caste Hierarchy and Social Change who presided at religious ceremonies, studied, (A Study of Myth and Reality). New Delhi, India: Jyostna and transmitted religious knowledge. Prakashan, 1984; Jaiswal, Suvira. Caste, Origin, Function 2. Kshatriya: warriors, princes, and political lead- and Dimension of Change. New Delhi, India: Manohar ers, the people who spearheaded the invasion Publications, 1998. and settlement of northern India and ruled the land. Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur 3. Vaisya: landowners, artisans, and all free peo- ple of Aryan society. 4. Sudra: dasas, or indigenous people, who were Cato, Marcus Porcius (the Younger) dark skinned and became serfs and servants. (95–46 b.c.e.) Roman statesman The idea of varna became deeply embedded in The great-grandson of the legendary Marcus PorciusAryan, and later Hindu, society. When Aryan religious Cato (the Censor), the younger Cato, orphaned at anconcepts later spread to Dravidian southern India, early age, received his education through his maternalsharp distinctions were also enforced there between uncle, Marcus Livius Drusus, and steeped his mind inthe three higher (or Aryan) castes and sudras. Stoicism and politics. As a good practitioner of Stoic The three high, or Aryan, castes were called “twice philosophy, he subjected himself to the most rigorousborn,” because of a sacred thread ceremony or religious of physical disciplines, ate sparingly, and lived simply.birth as they entered manhood, which gave them access Cato’s military career began with his service in 72to Vedic lore and rituals. Sudras were not eligible, which b.c.e. during the Servile War against Spartacus andjustified their exclusion from certain religious rites, and his followers. As a military tribune in Macedonia intheir low status. The Rig-Veda did not mention “un- 67 b.c.e., he served alongside his men and shared in
  • 105. cave paintings 71their hardships and sacrifices. While in Macedonia, his continued to resist Caesar from Utica. Caesar pursuedbrother Caepio died, and he journeyed to the Middle Cato and his allies; in February 46 b.c.e., Caesar de-East, probably in an attempt to assuage his grief. When feated Scipio’s forces at the Battle of Thapsus. WhenCato returned to Rome in 64 b.c.e. he won election as a Cato received word of Scipio’s defeat in 46 b.c.e., hequaestor, dealing with the financial interests of the Ro- chose to commit suicide rather than live under the ruleman state. Known for his honesty and integrity, Cato of Caesar. Remembered for his Stoic lifestyle, integrity,discovered that former quaestors had participated in and Republican ideals, Cato fought until the day of hisfraud and murder, and he responded to the revelations death to preserve the Roman Republic and remains forby promptly bringing the offenders to justice. He left of- many a model of virtue in public service.fice amid much public praise and gratitude. See also Rome: government. In 63 b.c.e. Cato won election to the tribune of theplebs, an office devised to protect the plebeians (the less Further reading: Boatwright, Mary T., Daniel J. Gargola,privileged) from arbitrary treatment by the patrician and Richard J. A. Talbert. The Romans: From Village to(privileged) class. Once in office Cato fought ­ Julius Empire, a History of Ancient Rome from the Earliest TimesCaesar at every opportunity, disliking Casear’s mor- to Constantine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004;als and actions. Caesar, in turn, had Cato arrested for Chilver, G. E. F., and M. T. Griffin. “Cato the Younger.” Inobstructionism. Once released, Cato attempted to stop S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth, eds. The Oxford Com-Caesar from receiving a five-year appointment as a pro- panion to Classical Civilization. Oxford: Oxford Universityvincial governor, but to no avail. Pompey also stood in Press, 1998; Plutarch. Cato the Younger. London: Londonopposition to Cato, but rather than continually battle Association of Classical Teachers, 1984.his adversary, Pompey proposed an alliance throughmarriage to one of Cato’s relatives. Cato, believing it James S. Baugesswas simply a way for Pompey to gain political influ-ence, would not permit the marriage. It may have been,as Plutarch implies in his brief biography of Cato, a cave paintingsfatal mistake, because Pompey then married Caesar’sdaughter, Julia, a union that cemented the relationship The oldest known cave paintings were found in thebetween the two leaders—a relationship that eventually Chauvet Cave, located in southeast France. Discov-destroyed constitutional government in Rome. ered in 1994, the cave was filled with images of di- In 58 b.c.e. Clodius, a tribune, hoping to rid Rome verse animal species, including rhinoceroses, cats, andof the troublesome Cato, appointed him governor of bears. Radiocarbon dating showed the images to beCyprus. As governor, Cato was meticulous in his re- more than 30,000 years old.cord keeping and was fiscally responsible. He returned Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Jean-Marie Chauvet,to Rome two years later amid great accolades for his and Christian Hillaire discovered the Chauvet Cave.service in Cyprus. In 54 b.c.e., as the First Triumvi- This group previously discovered other decorated cavesrate disintegrated, Cato became a praetor, an official in the region, including Les Deux-Ouvertures, Le Cade,in charge of judicial affairs, and used his office to halt the Grotte du Louoï, and the Caverne de Poitiers. TheCaesar’s schemes. In 53 b.c.e. Cato lost an election for Chauvet Cave stretches more than 1,700 feet, largerone of the two consulships and then retired from public than any previous cave painting discovery. Some ofservice. When one of the consuls, Crassus, died at Car- the images they found were of bears, panthers, cacti,rhae that summer, Cato chose to accept Pompey as sole handprints, horses, and lions. In addition to the paint-consul of the state. Civil war ensued in 49 b.c.e., and ed images, engravings were found, including horsesCaesar’s army crossed the Rubicon bound for Rome. and mammoths. The images were, for the most part,Cato took command of the Republican forces in Sicily, natural and realistic looking and easily recognizable.but outnumbered, he left the island without fighting a Perspective was used as well. Some of the walls werebattle and then chose to follow Pompey to Greece. prepared by scraping so the images would stand out Caesar defeated Pompey’s forces at Pharsalus on better, and scraping was also used to add contours andAugust 9, 48 b.c.e., and shortly after the debacle, the highlighting. In Chauvet, like most other caves withEgyptians assassinated Pompey as he disembarked on prehistoric art, it is clear that not only was there moretheir shores. Cato and the military commander, Quin- than one artist; different paintings were done at differ-tus Caecilius Metellius Pius Scipio, fled to Africa and ent times, often many years apart.
  • 106. 72 Celts ing aspect of human culture and nature. The major- ity of prehistoric cave paintings have been found in western Europe, but others have been found in Russia, Africa, Oceania, and possibly Brazil. See also Paleolithic age. Further reading: Bahn, Paul G. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Prehistoric Art. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press, 1998; Brown, G. Baldwin. The Art of the Cave Dweller: A Study of the Earliest Artistic Activities of Man. Edinburgh, Scotland: T.A. Constable, 1928; Chauvet, Jean- Marie, Eliette Brunel Deschamps, and Christian Hillaire. Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave—The Oldest Known Paintings in the World. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996; Luquet, G. H. The Art and Religion of Fossil Man. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1930; Moulin, Raoul-Ancient Celtic dolmen were slabs of rock built to protect the dead Jean. Prehistoric Painting. London: Heron Books, 1965.from the elements, as this one at Poulnabroun in Ireland shows. James E. Seelye, Jr. The Lascaux Cave, located in south-central France, Celtswas discovered in 1940. Like the Chauvet Cave, it hasmany chambers. The first chamber is the “Hall of Bulls,” The Celts were a tribal people of the Bronze and Ironwhose walls are covered with giant bulls, cows, stags, Ages united by a common language, culture, and art.horses, and a figure thought to be a unicorn. This cave They lived throughout Europe. Most were eventuallyalso has an image of a dead man, the reason of which is conquered by the Romans and became a part of the Ro-unknown. The Lascaux painters, like those in Chauvet, man Empire. Many unconquered areas have retainedtook advantage of the natural coloring in rocks, allow- their separate language and culture for centuries. Irelanding colors like red, black, and yellow to be used. Radio- and parts of France, England, Wales, and Scotland cancarbon analysis puts the paintings at Lascaux between claim to be largely Celtic to this day. Language studies15,000 and 13,500 b.c.e. indicate that the Celts were an Indo-European group, The Altamira Cave, located in northern Spain, was first identified in Switzerland and Germany.originally discovered in 1868, but it was not until 1879 The first written references to Celts come from thethat its images were noticed. It was not until 1901, when Greeks in 630–600 b.c.e., who describe the Keltoi asother caves were discovered, that Altamira was revisited. mining and trading silver from the Iberian Peninsula.This time the importance of the discovery was acknowl- The period of Celtic history from the fifth through theedged, as the cave contained some 100 figures, including first century b.c.e. is called La Tène, after a village onbison, horses, deer, wild boar, and handprints. Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where ancient pilings Why prehistoric peoples decided to create images in leading into the lake prompted excavations in the mid-caves is a matter of conjecture. Different theories pose 19th century. Swords, shields, pins, razors, cauldrons,that the paintings were magical, intended to exercise and even human remains were found buried in the siltcontrol over what was depicted in the images. In addi- of the lake, and many artifacts were decorated withtion, there is the thought that these images were simply graceful curving lines, whimsical faces, and plant mo-representations. Other questions include dating and au- tifs. The La Tène art style, since found in graves andthenticity. The use of carbon dating, which measures the monuments throughout the Celtic world, displayed theamount of carbon 14 remaining in organic materials, creativity and technical sophistication of the Celts.charcoal, bones, or cinders, leads to an approximation Before and during the La Tène period, Celts hadof age; however, there is a margin of error. migrated, tribe by tribe, throughout Europe. By the Whatever the reason prehistoric man decided to ­ eventh century b.c.e. they moved south through the sput images on the walls of caves, it remains a fascinat- Alps and into the Po Valley of Italy, where the Boii, In-
  • 107. Ceylon 73subres, and Senones tribes of Celts attacked Etruscan Roman armies conquered the Celts or Gauls ofcities. Romans intervened as the Celts continued south northern Italy, warring from 225 b.c.e. through 190but were defeated at the Battle of Allia in 390 b.c.e., af- b.c.e. The Dacians defeated the Celts of Bohemia inter which the Senones, under the command of Brennus, 60 b.c.e. Julius Caesar took western Iberia and thensacked Rome and occupied the city for seven months. chronicled his conquests of the Celts or Gauls in TheAt that point Brennus accepted a bribe of 100 pounds Gallic Wars. His siege of Alesia in the Auvergne re-of gold to leave, though Celtic forces harried the city gion, capturing tribal king Vercingetorix, completedfor the next 50 years. Other Celtic tribes lived in the his victories in 52 b.c.e. In the reign of Claudius, in 43Russian steppes by the mid-fourth century b.c.e. and c.e., much of Britain was conquered. The Celtic queenwere well established on the Balkan borders of Alexan- Boudicca led a major, but unsuccessful, revolt in 61der the Great’s empire. They conquered Thrace and c.e. After earlier wars with Rome and Pontus, Celticset up a Celtic dynasty to rule there through most of Galatia was absorbed into Cappadocia in 74 c.e. and athe third century b.c.e. This century marked the height process of Romanization in Gaul occurred as in otherof Celtic power and dominion. The Celts had no em- Celtic lands. Ireland was not conquered and remainedpire, but independent tribes, some with populations in independent and Celtic for centuries. It later adoptedthe hundreds of thousands, controlled much of Europe Christianity and writing. The few Irish books that havefrom the far west to the Black Sea. To the west the min- survived provide an account of ancient myths, poems,ers and artisans of Britain, Ireland, Spain, and Brittany legal codes, and cultural practices of the Celts.traded in metals for centuries before being identified as See also Carthage; Indo-Europeans; late barbar-Celtic. The tribal names that were eventually used to ians; Roman historians.identify them during the La Tène period (for instance,the Iceni and Veneti) do not reveal whether the people Further reading: Caesar, Julius. The Gallic War. Cambridge,were indigenous or conquered indigenous groups or MA: Harvard University Press, 1979; Cunliffe, Barry. Themixed with them. It is possible that these populations Ancient Celts. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997;of these places considered themselves Celtic throughout Ellis, Peter Berresford. The Celts: A History. New York:the first millennium b.c.e. Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2004; ———. The Druids. Their enemies’ writings describe bloodthirsty savag- London: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1994; James, Simon. The Worldes whose cruelty knew no bounds. However, Celtic tribes of the Celts. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993; Wilcox,could not have existed for centuries in their lands if they Peter. Rome’s Enemies (2:) Gallic and British Celts. Oxford:did nothing but wage war. Graves and offering pits with Osprey Publishing, 1985.spectacular weaponry point to a war-like people, butarchaeologists find evidence of family homesteads with Vickey Kalambakalmarked fields with grazing land. Like most Iron Agepeople, the Celts worshipped and sacrificed to a myriadof gods, many local and unique. Their learned class— Ceylonthe Druids—were masters of astronomy, mathematics,philosophy, medicine, and history; they scorned writing Ceylon was the name of the Democratic Socialist Re-and put their faith in training the memory. Celtic wom- public of Sri Lanka before 1972. It is an island nationen had more options and independence than women off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent, lo-in Greece or Rome; writers such as Diodorus, Siculus, cated in the tropics. Ceylon was also known in an-and Tacitus describe women who fought as warriors or cient times as Sinhale, Lanka, Lankadeepa, Simoun-served as tribal rulers. dou, Taprobane, Serendib, and Selan. Some scholars Celtic warriors were renowned for being terrify- and historians believe that Prince Vijaya migrated toing, functioning as independent fighters, and seeking Sri Lanka from Orissa, in northeastern India, some-to enhance personal reputations for heroics and glory. time during the sixth century b.c.e. Some contest theMany of these fighters would prove their skills by date and believe the origins date back some 25,000forgoing the lightest of Celtic armor and shields. Op- years more. They believe that the Indian princes, orposing armies would often be faced with the frighten- veddas, ruled Sri Lanka much earlier. Ceylon’s origining psychological warfare of fierce, crazed, unclothed is discussed in the Mahavamsa, which gives a com-long-haired barbarians. They were also known for a plete history of the region. This manuscript describesfrightening habit of collecting heads. the Sinhalese kingdom started by King Vijaya and his
  • 108. 74 Chandragupta IIfollowers in the sixth century b.c.e. Vijaya’s minis- Chandragupta IIter, Anuradha, founded the settlement of Anuradha- (r. c. 375–415 c.e.) Indian rulergamma, which later became known as Anuradhapura,and the center of government for Ceylon. Archaeo- Chandragupta II was the third ruler of the Guptalogical evidence contradicts this version by unearthing Empire of India. He reigned when the Gupta dynastyevidence of continuous established settlement in the reached its zenith of power, and Indian classical cul-­ egion by peoples with knowledge of animal domes-r ture was at its high watermark. He ruled all northerntication, agriculture, and the use of metals from the India except the northwest and central India down to10th century b.c.e. onward. the Deccan Plateau. The Gupta dynasty was founded Buddhism arrived on the island in the third century in 320 c.e. when a north Indian prince named Chan-b.c.e. with the coming of Arahath Mahinda Thero, dragupta crowned himself Great King of Kings in thea missionary of Indian emperor Ashoka. Buddhism ancient Mauryan capital Pataliputra. The dynastythrived, and a sophisticated system of irrigation be- was consolidated by his son, Samudragupta, butcame the pillars of classical Sinhalese tribes from 200 reached its peak under the founder’s grandson, Chan-b.c.e. until 1200 c.e. dragupta II. The origin of the Tamil presence in Ceylon is un- Whereas the Greek ambassador Megasthenesclear. South Indian princes and kings invaded Sri Lanka wrote an account of India under Emperor Chandra-on a number of occasions. Occasionally, those attacks gupta Maurya in the fourth century b.c.e., a Chineseresulted in Tamil control of the island for extended pe- Buddhist monk named Fa Xian (Fa-hsien) did so forriods. Many Sinhala rulers were known for expelling fifth-century c.e. India. Fa Xian traveled around In-the Tamil invasions and reestablishing authentic Sri dia for six years during Chandragupta II’s reign andLankan rule. Cinnamon, which is native to Sri Lanka, recorded his impressions; his work, A Record of Bud-was in use in ancient Egypt in about 1500 b.c.e., sug- dhist Kingdoms, has survived. He found Patalipu-gesting that there were trading links with the island. A tra a rich city where hospitals provided care for thelarge settlement appears to have been founded before poor without charge. Buddhism still flourished, but900 b.c.e. at the site of Anuradhapura and signs of an ­ induism was regaining vitality. He also noted the HIron Age culture have been found there. presence of Untouchables on the edges of cities, car- Ceylon was known to the Greeks and to the ­Romans, rying out menial tasks and having to sound gongs aswho called it Taprobane, probably after Tambapanni. In they walked to warn others of their polluting presence.the first century b.c.e., the king sent an ­embassy to the He admired the piety and prosperity of Indians and theRoman emperor Claudius. Anuradhapura remained leniency of Indian laws. A passage from his work said:Sri Lanka’s royal capital until the eighth century c.e., “The king governs without decapitation or [other] cor-when Polonnaruwa replaced it. Tamil people from In- poral punishments. Criminals are simply fined, lightlydia began to arrive in Sri Lanka as early as the third or heavily, according to the circumstances [of eachcentury b.c.e., and there were repeated wars between case] . . . Throughout the country the people do not killthe Sinhalese and Indian invaders. For much of the first any living things, nor eat onion or garlic . . . they do notmillennium c.e., the island was controlled by various keep pigs and fowls, and do not sell live cattle; in theTamil princes. The island was known to the Persians market there are no butchers’ shops and no dealers inand Arabs as Serendib and features in the Sindbad sto- intoxicating drink . . . [In the towns] the inhabitants areries in the famous 1001 Nights. rich and prosperous, and vie with one another in the See also Indo-Europeans; Indus civilization. practice of benevolence and righteousness.” The Gupta era was noted for its artistic refinement,Further reading: Amunugama, E. M. C. The History of the excellence of its bronze sculptures, and architec-Ancient Aryan Tribes in Sri Lanka. J.R. Jayewardene Cul- ture, including magnificent temples and cave temples.tural Center, 1994; DeSilva, Chandra Richard. Sri Lanka, Indian merchants and missionaries traveled widely byA History. New York: Advent Books, 1987; DeSilva, K. M. sea in Southeast Asia and by land via the Silk Road toA History of Sri Lanka. Berkeley: University of California Central Asia and China. Chandragupta II’s reign rep-Press, 1981; Hettiaratchi, S. B. Social and Cultural History resented the apogee of the Gupta dynasty.of Ancient Sri Lanka. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1988. Further reading: Legge, James, ed. and trans. A Record of Steve Napier Buddhist Kingdoms. Reprint, New York: Paragon Books,
  • 109. choregic poetry 751965; Majumdar, R. C. An Advanced History of India. Lon- the marketplace attracted merchants, restaurant own-don: Macmillan, 1958. ers, and entertainers from Central Asian tribes and kingdoms such as the Uighurs and Sogdians. Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur The Tang dynasty and its capital at Chang’an be- gan its decline during the An Lushan Rebellion of the mid-eighth century c.e. Over the next century a suc-Chang’an cession of attacks from Tibetans, rebels, mutineers, and warlords forced much of the business and its resi-Chang’an (Ch’ang-an), literally “Perpetual Peace,” was dents out of the city. In 904, the last Tang emperorthe largest city in the world of its time, boasting a pop- fled Chang’an for Luoyang, abandoning Chang’an toulation of over a million by the eighth century c.e. and the weeds. It eventually decayed and collapsed, nevercovering nearly 32½ sq. miles. Chang’an actually refers again serving as the capital of China.to two cities. The first capital city, typically called “Han See also Buddhism in China.Chang’an” because of its construction during the Handynasty, was built in 202 b.c.e. The famous emperor Further reading: Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge History ofHan Wudi (Han Wu-ti) was known to have built gor- China, Vol. Three: Sui and Tang China, 589–606. Cambridge:geous palaces there. The so-called Early, or Western, Cambridge University Press, 1979; Waugh, Daniel C. “Xi’an/Han dynasty ended in 9 c.e., and China was ruled by Chang’an.” Available online. URL: http://www.washington.edua Chinese nobleman, Wang Mang, whose reign lasted (September 2005); Xiong, Victor Cunrui. Sui-Tang Chang’an.until 25 c.e., when rebels killed him and burned down Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2000.Chang’an. The first city was abandoned and the capitalof the Later, or Eastern, Han dynasty was relocated to Michael Wertthe ancient capital city Luoyang (Loyang). The capital city remained in Luoyang until thebeginning of the Sui dynasty in 580 c.e. Emperor choregic poetryWendi, the first of the Sui emperors, commissionedthe building of a new Chang’an in 582–583 c.e., a Perhaps the best known of the choregic poets, Pindardeclaration he made from the old Han Chang’an. (522–443 b.c.e.) drew inspiration from the early his-The new Chang’an, much like its Han cousin, was tory of Greece, the Dorians, Mycenae, and the Achae-built using a mix of geomancy, feng shui, matching ans. Pindar was part of the great generation of Greekstopography to the hexagrams in the Yi Jing (I Ching), who had turned back the Persian invasions of Dari-and comparing city design to the position of the stars. us I and Xerxes I and witnessed the great victories ofTherefore the city was split into two symmetrical Marathon against Darius (490 b.c.e.) and Salamishalves with avenues running east to west and north to against Xerxes (480 b.c.e.). After such victories, po-south forming wards, or city blocks. The palace city, ets like Pindar could look back with pride on the My-­ rimary residence of the emperors, was located at thep cenean Age, and the Homeric epics that celebratednorthernmost point of the city, a location that rep- Agamemnon, Ulysses, and the fall of Troy.resented the North Star. Buddhist monasteries were Pindar produced some 15 books of poetry, of whichbuilt in the southwest section of the city, the most unfortunately only his Epinikia (Victory odes) havedangerous location according to geomancy, because it survived. The papyrus texts in Egypt were most likelywas believed they helped ward off bad luck. brought there after its conquest by the Greek general Directly south of the palace compound was the im- Ptolemy II, who took Egypt after the wars of successionperial city, which housed the administrative offices of that followed the death in Babylon of Alexander thethe government, and acted as a buffer between the son Great in 323 b.c.e.of heaven and the throngs of commoners occupying 88 The Epinikia were written largely to celebrate thepercent of the space in Chang’an. The residence wards athletic competitions that formed such a great part ofincluded two large market areas with approximately Greek culture, much like the events found at the Olym-220 bazaars hosted in each. City officials strictly regu- pic Games. The very term marathon came from thelated these centers of trade. In addition to a standardized runner who carried the news of the great victory ofsystem of weights and measures, all products underwent Marathon back to Athens, after which he collapsed andstrict quality control. The cosmopolitan atmosphere of died from exhaustion.
  • 110. 76 Choson Under the choregic system, Pindar’s greatest poetic of Theseus, who according to Greek mythology killedrivals were Simonides and Bacchylides. The rivalries the Minotaur, the half-man, half-bull monster whowere not just for glory but because rulers like Hiero I lived within the labyrinth on the island of Crete.(478–467 b.c.e.) and Theron were wealthy patrons, See also Greek mythology and pantheon; librar-who amply rewarded the poets who lauded their ath- ies, ancient; lyric poetry.letic prowess. Simonides of Ceos (c. 556–469 b.c.e.),for example, found a patron in Hipparchus of Athens. Further reading: Eggenberger, David. An Encyclopedia ofAfter the assassination of Hipparchus in 514 b.c.e., he Battles. Mineoloa, NY: Dover, 1985; Hanson, Victor Davis.fled to Thessaly where the aristocratic Scopadae and Wars of the Ancient Greeks. London: Cassell, 1999; Warry,Aleuadar families befriended him. After Marathon, John. Warfare in the Classical World. New York: Barnes­ imonides returned to Athens but only stayed briefly.S and Noble, 2000.He then journeyed to Sicily at the invitation of Hiero,where he lived until his death. John F. Murphy, Jr. Simonides is best remembered for his poetry, andeven early in his career wrote paens to the sun godof the Greeks, Apollo. He was an intimate of Them- Chosonistocles, the architect of the great naval victory atSalamis. Themistocles could be considered the father The kingdoms of ancient Choson developed in Koreaof ancient Greek naval power. from the Bronze Age when tribal groups started to His Greek patriotism was reflected in his verse. dominate the land between the Liao River in southernSimonides’ philosophy was earthy and practical, as Manchuria, and the Taedong River in northern Korea.one might expect from one who had seen the best and The legendary founder of the dynasty was Tan’gun,worst of men in war. One of Simonides’ best-known hailed by Koreans in modern-day North Korea andsurviving works is “The Lamentation of Danae,” in South Korea as the founder of their nations.which “Danae and her infant son were confined by Tan’gun is claimed as an ancestor for the kingdom oforder of her father Acrisius in a chest and set adrift ancient Choson; the term ancient is used to differentiateon the sea. The chest floated towards the island of it from the Yi dynasty, which ruled 1398–1910 c.e. andSeriphus, where both were rescued by Dictys, a fisher- used the name Choson for Korea. Ancient Choson fromman, and carried to Polydectes, king of the country, the fourth century b.c.e. was a series of tribal leagueswho received and protected them.” Danae’s ­ infant that controlled the area from southern Manchuria to theson Perseus would grow up to slay the monster gor- Taedong River. It was powerful for more than 100 yearsgon Medusa, who had snakes for hair and whose gaze at a time when China was preoccupied with what hascould turn a man into stone. become known as the Warring States period. A major Bacchylides, interestingly enough, was the nephew innovation in ancient Choson that enabled the kings toof Simonides: His mother was the sister of the poet. maintain their independence was the use of iron. PriorCompared to Simonides and Pindar, biographical data to this most warriors in the region had used bronze. It ison Bacchylides is sparse. Among his odes the earliest believed that the northern Chinese may have introducedcan be approximately dated to 481 or 479 b.c.e.; the iron when they were escaping the attacks of the Xion-latest date is fixed to 452 b.c.e. Like Pindar and Simo- gnu (Hsiung-nu) or Huns.nides, he went to the court of the ruler of Syracuse, One of these refugees was a former Chinese generalHiero. Indeed, it appears that the rivalry between Bac- called Wei Man (Wiman)who had served in the Chinesechylides, Pindar, and Simonides was acute at the Syra- state of Yan (Yen). Wei Man was the descendant of im-cusan court. Out of the work created by Bacchylides, portant landowners in China during the Zhou (Chou)some six dithyrambs, poems based on mythological dynasty and had been welcomed in Choson, as he andthemes, and 14 epinikia are known to have survived. his followers were experienced soldiers. They were giv- Considering that Hiero’s victories took place in the en land in the north of Choson where they offered to actOlympic Games, the poetry of Pindar and ­Bacchylides as frontier guards. Wei Man was given a jade insigniabecame known throughout the oecumene, the Greek- denoting his importance as a Korean general. As morespeaking world. Hiero’s victories involved horse­ ­racing, Chinese refugees came to live on his lands, his numbershowing the importance of the horse in Greek culture of potential supporters increased, and his power grew.and warfare. Bacchylides wrote two works on the life Very soon Wei Man realized that the kingdom was
  • 111. Christian Dualism 77weak, and he had many supporters among the Chinese dong (Shantung), with additional troops attackingrefugees who had already arrived in Choson and were by land. The two armies were able to invade Korea,either living in his lands or elsewhere in the kingdom. but their attacks were not coordinated, and they wereHe also managed to get support from some local tribes unable to unite. As a result they were not able to de-who felt that they had not been well treated by the kings feat the Koreans in battle—the Koreans remained inof Choson. In 190 b.c.e. Wei Man wrote to the rulers their fortifications. With the bitter winter imminent,of Choson saying that the Chinese had invaded from the Chinese sent an envoy to Yu Ku who replied thatseveral sides, and he had to guard the king. He and his he would accept the emperor of China as his overlordsupporters then moved quickly on the Choson capital of but would not send his son as a messenger in case hePyongyang on the pretext of protecting the royal court suffered the fate of the prince killed by the previousagainst a Chinese invasion, which everybody had feared envoy. The only initial casualty of these negotiationsfor several hundred years. Wei Man then took over the was the Chinese envoy who was executed when hecapital and the existing king, Chun, and went further returned empty-handed. In 189 b.c.e. the Chinese at-south, establishing himself as King Han, which has no tacked the Koreans again, and this time they succeededconnection to the dynasty in China of the same name. in seizing the kingdom and established four Chinese Wei Man, who claimed descent from the Chinese commanderies called Nangnang (Lolang in Chinese,sage Qizi (Chi Tzu), used his contacts in China to en- Rakuro in Japanese), Chinbon, Imdun, and Hyont’o.sure that the Chinese recognized him as a king, and he The latter three soon lapsed into Korean areas, withreciprocated by acknowledging the emperors of China. the Chinese only holding on to Nangnang. There aHe established cordial relations with the governor of Confucian school was established, and several histori-Liaodong (Liao-tung), the neighboring Chinese prov- cal texts were written that described some of the earlyince. However, the tribute that Wei Man had promised events in Korean history. The Confucian Classicsto the Chinese emperor was never sent. Wei Man and remain an important part of Korean culture.his descendants had initially felt that they were well Over the next 400 years the Koguryo tribes ofentrenched, but when the civil war ended in China and northern Korea started agitating against Chinese rule.the Han dynasty came to power, they faced several As they rose in power, they amassed a large army andChinese invasions. Diplomatic problems first arose in 313 c.e. ejected the Chinese from Nangnang. Inwhen some Chinese rebels who had been involved in 342 c.e. the Koguryo king, Kogugwon, established histhe Seven Princes’ Rising in 154 b.c.e. fled to Korea. capital at Hwando just north of the Yalu River. FacingThe Chinese were also sending out emissaries to some threats from China, it was soon moved to Pyongyang.of the tribes who lived in northern Choson. There the Koguryo kingdom imported many ideas from The actual dispute leading to the invasion was over China including Buddhism, which is seen in many oftribute. A Chinese delegate visited Yu Ku (or Ugo), the the archaeological remains discovered in recent years.grandson of Wei Man, to ask why no tribute had been See also Kija; Three Kingdoms, Korea.paid. Furthermore, Yu Ku had tried to stop tribes thathe felt were part of his kingdom from acknowledging Further reading: Gardiner, K. J. H. The Early History oftheir overlordship by the Han. This was particularly Korea. Canberra: Australian National University Press,true of the tribes on lands in central and southern Ko- 1969; “Reflections on Studies in Ancient Korean History—rea. Yu Ku realized the situation was tricky, but hav- C ­ olloquium of Five Historians.” Korea Journal (v.27/12,ing built up a relatively strong army, he prevaricated 1987); Suk, Kim Yong. The Tomb of King Tangun. Pyong-and eventually the envoy returned to China. On the yang, North Korea: Cultural Relics Publishing House, 1995.return trip the envoy allowed his charioteer to kill aKorean prince who had been sent to escort him to the Justin Corfieldborder. This envoy claimed that he had killed a Koreangeneral and was applauded by the Chinese court thatdecorated him with the title “Protector of the Eastern Christian Dualism (Gnosticism)Tribes of Liao Tung.” The Koreans protested, but a Chinese attack was Gnosticism arose around the same time and place asinevitable and came in 109 b.c.e. when Emperor Wu Christianity. Some Gnostics were Christian, some Jew-of China sent his soldiers into Choson. Some 50,000 ish, and some pagan. Gnostics believed that gnosisChinese soldiers were dispatched by ship from Shan- (Greek: “knowledge”), not faith, brought salvation.
  • 112. 78 Christian DualismNot education or experience, but revelation gave gno- of which two flew to God, but the third stayed in thesis. This article will deal with the concept, the origins, Seed. Two rulers emerged from the Seed. One createdand the varieties of Gnosticism, especially as it was ex- the world above the Moon. A second, the Jewish god,pressed in Valentinianism, Marcionism, Manichaean- created the world below the Moon. Jesus of Nazarethism, Mandaeism and at Nag Hammadi. Many other separated the mixed parts of creation. When the thirdforms of Gnosticism circulated in ancient religious Sonship has been restored to the spiritual world, Godcircles too numerous to relate here, including Sethian- will subject the lower creation to ignorance, making itBarbeloites, Ophites, Naassenes, and Hermetics. content in its inferiority.Concept and Origins of Gnosticism ValentinianismThe content of gnosis was that our universe arose be- The Alexandrian Valentinus was perhaps nominated forcause of a problem in a preexisting state. One version bishop of Rome around 143 but repudiated as a heretic.of this problem, from Iranian religion, was the meet- Valentinians believed in a divine world, the Pleroma, ofing of two eternal antithetical realms, one of spirit, the at least 30 aeons. Aeon means a “world,” an “age,” andother of matter, resulting in our universe. The more a “god.” The greatest was Abyss, who with his wife,common version was that the supreme God generated Thought, produced the 14 remaining aeon couples.lesser gods, one or more of whom created the mate- The lowest, Sophia (Greek: “wisdom”), desiredrial universe, imprisoning divinity in a material body. to “know” Abyss, which would have destroyed her.Understanding of the content of gnosis brings about Sophia was protected from her desire but bore by her-salvation, which is the escape of the divine spark from self a monster, Achamoth (Hebrew: “wisdom”), whichits material prison to its divine home. was thrown out of the Pleroma. Regarding the body as evil had contradictory ethi- Sophia’s distress at the birth of Achamoth becamecal consequences. Some Gnostics tried to deny the de- matter, her repentance of her desire to know Abyss be-sires of the body by avoiding sex, meat, and alcohol. came the soul (psyche), and the product of Achamoth’sBecause they considered what was done with the body “purification” by Jesus, a perfect being produced byunimportant, others perhaps enjoyed all three, some- all the aeons, became the spirit. Achamoth producedtimes practicing contraception to prevent trapping from psychic substance the Demiurge, who created thespirit in new bodies. universe and a man of matter into whom he breathed There is debate about whether Gnosticism came a soul. Achamoth then secretly planted her spirit infrom Iran or from Hellenism, but it probably grew some humans.from Judaism, perhaps in response to oppression by Valentinians distinguished three types of people,Gentiles. The fathers of the church traced Gnosticism the material, certain to perish; the “psychic,” to per-to Simon Magus, converted in Samaria in Acts 8. ish or be saved by their choices; and the spiritual, cer- The second century c.e. saw a proliferation of Gnos- tain to be saved. Three Christs—spiritual, psychic, andticism. Basilides, a Jewish Christian in ­ Alexandria bodily—were also hypothesized.around 140, was called a disciple of a disciple of Si-mon, although Basilides claimed to be taught by the Marcionismapostle Matthias or an interpreter of Peter. Irenaeus Marcion, the ship-owning son of a bishop near the(c. 130–c. 200) tells one version of Basilides’ ­teaching: Black Sea, came to Rome and generously funded theThe supreme Father emanated five beings, from the church but was expelled in 144. Like Gnostics, Mar-lowest of which 365 heavens descended. cion traced matter to an inferior god, denied a real The angels in the lowest created the world, with body to Jesus, and prohibited sex, wine, and meat todivine spirit in human bodies. The Jewish god, one of his followers. However, Marcion is usually not con-these angels, tried to make his people rule the world, sidered Gnostic. Humans were purely creatures of thebut the other angels stopped him. The Father sent his inferior god and, like their creator, had no essentialSon, seemingly crucified, to free the spirit. The belief relation to the superior God. This god purely fromthat Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth only seemed to suf- compassion sent his son Jesus, dying to save the Jew-fer and die as a human is called “docetism.” ish god’s creatures. Denying salvation by knowledge, Hippolytus (c. 160–235) relates another version of Marcion preached salvation by faith in Jesus.Basilides’ teaching: The “nonexistent” God generated Marcion wrote Antitheses, contrasting Old anda “Seed” containing three principles called “Sonships,” New Testaments, and edited his own bible, partly mo-
  • 113. Christian Dualism 79tivating the formation of the Catholic Bible. Marcion matter from the world of darkness. The particles climbomitted the Old Testament, and of the New Testament the Milky Way to the Moon, whose waxing is its fillingincluded only the gospel of Luke and 10 epistles of Paul, with particles, which wait until it is full, and its wan-removing references to the Old Testament, the creator, ing the particles’ journey to the Sun. From the Sun theand Jesus’ birth. Most Gnostics were loosely organized, particles go to the “new aeon,” where they await thebut Marcion founded a well-organized church that may end of time, when they will join the world of light.have persisted until the 10th century. To bind the light, evil rulers, having swallowed particles, created Adam and Eve. God sent the JesusManichaeANism Splendor to give Adam gnosis. Human souls with gno-Mani was born in 216 in Mesopotamia. His parents sis escape from their bodies upon death, but ignorantwere Elkesaites, Jewish-Christian Gnostics. Mani also souls enter new bodies. Sufficient light having beenseemingly was influenced by another Gnostic sect freed, Jesus will judge the world, which will burn tocalled Mandaeism. Inspired by a vision of his “twin,” purify the remaining light. Matter will then be impris-the Holy Spirit, Mani left the Elkesaites. Mani’s teach- oned forever.ing briefly enjoyed the favor of Persian kings; how- Mani’s ethic intended to protect and liberate theever, Bahram I favored Zoroastrianism, resulting in imprisoned light. The Manichaean church consisted ofMani’s imprisonment and death in 276. the “chosen,” who abstained from meat, wine, sex, and Mani’s followers extended from Spain to China, many other things, and “hearers,” who did not. Man-where they perhaps survived until the 17th century. Au- ichaean rites included prayers, reading, music, fasting,gustine of Hippo was deeply affected by Manichaean- and feasts. Central was the “table” of the chosen, theism. In the West persecution destroyed Manichaeanism daily meal of plants containing much light, such asby the early Middle Ages. So-called Manichaeanism in melons, wheat bread, and juice or water. The chosenlater medieval Europe was not authentic. liberated the light within these plants by consuming The Paulicians arose in Armenia around 650 from them. Unlike other Gnostics and like Marcion, Manigenerally Gnostic origins rather than as a specifically founded a well-organized church, perhaps accountingManichaean refugee group. The Bogomils appeared for Manichaeanism’s survival after the demise of al-in 10th-century Bulgaria after Paulicians were exiled most every other Gnostic system.in 872 in Macedonia. By the 11th century Bogomilianideas spread to Italy and France, where the Cathars, Nag Hammadi and Mandaeismsuppressed in the Albigensian Crusade of the 13th cen- Gnosticism was known mostly through its enemies, thetury, espoused them. fathers of the church, until 1945, when peasants near Mani’s followers presented him as the present incar- Nag Hammadi, Egypt, found 13 codices containing 46nation of Zoroaster’s son, of Maitreya (the future Bud- tractates. Some are previously known works, others aredha), as well as of the Holy Spirit. Mani claimed his own complete works previously known only in fragmentsreligion included all previous religions; and the Hebrew or only by name, and many were previously unknown.patriarchs, Buddha, Zoroaster, Jesus, and Paul preceded Some are not Gnostic, such as Plato’s Republic and thehim as revealers of gnosis. Like Valentinianism, Man- Acts of Peter and the Twelve, and perhaps Thomas-ichaeanism has three forms of Jesus, the Jesus Splendor, Christian writings. The Gospel of Thomas may as ac-Jesus of Nazareth, and Jesus patibilis (“suffering Jesus”), curately record Jesus’ words as the canonical Gospels.who symbolized the suffering particles of light through- The Gospel of Truth and the Gospel of Philip are Val-out creation. Thus, whether Manichaeanism generally entinian, the Apocryphon of John is Sethian, and othersis Christian is questionable because it adapted itself to are Hermetic. The Nag Hammadi writings revolution-whatever religious environment it entered. ized Gnostic studies. Like Marcion and Mandaeans, Mani did not derive Medieval persecution largely suppressed Gnosticism,evil from the supreme God but taught that the worlds and the only Gnostic sect existing today is Mandaeism,of light and darkness had existed separately from eter- mostly in Iraq. Like Marcionism and Manichaeanism,nity. In response to the attack of darkness, God created Mandaeism teaches that the worlds of light and dark-Wisdom, who bore the first Man. In battle with dark- ness existed independently from eternity. Unlike them,ness, Man left his soul in the underworld. Then God Mandaeism prescribes child bearing and meat eating.sent Living Spirit, who, to free Man’s soul, created the See also Bible translations; Christianity, early;universe, which is a mix of particles of Man’s soul and heresies; Judaism, early (heterodoxies).
  • 114. 80 Christianity, earlyFurther reading: Jonas, Hans. The Gnostic Religion: The Christianity’s explosive growth, however, was dueMessage of the Alien God and the Beginnings of Christi- to more than just doctrines, scriptural interpretations,anity. 3rd ed. Boston: Beacon, 2001; Pagels, Elaine. The or its message, brilliant as they were. There were otherGnostic Gospels. New York: Vintage, 1979; Rudolph, Kurt. factors aiding its growth. Perhaps the most importantGnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism. Trans. and of these was Christianity’s aggressive missionary zeal.ed. by Robert McL. Wilson, P. W. Coxon, K. H. Kuhn. San In fact, Christianity was the most missionary-mindedFrancisco: HarperCollins, 1984. religion of antiquity. Neither Judaism nor Hellenistic philosophical schools engaged in missionary activi- Grant R. Shafer ties to the degree of Christianity. All the apostles were missionaries who made evangelistic forays into the far reaches of the Roman Empire. Of early Christianity’sChristianity, early missionaries, the most successful was Paul. He found- ed churches throughout Asia Minor (Turkey) andChristianity grew out of Second Temple Judaism and Greece. The second factor aiding Christianity’s growthinherited its most important legacy, the Jewish scrip- was that Christianity was an urban religion. This wasture. It also inherited much of the Jewish interpretive a surprising development because Christianity begantraditions, such as the concepts of monotheism, cove- as a small Jewish reform movement in Galilee led bynant, election, and revelation, that had shaped the in- one of its peasants. Within 50 years of the death ofterpretation of these scriptures. The New Testament its founder, this humble rural religious movement took(NT) writers reinterpreted these traditions, as well as root in every major urban center of the empire. An-the scriptures, to confirm and to bolster the convic- tioch on the Orontes, Alexandria, Corinth, Philippi,tion that Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth, a person of Thessalonica, and Rome all became the major centersthe peasant class in the Greco-Roman world, was the of Christianity’s growth and eventual domination.promised Messiah, the Son of God, who established Ironically, the rural territories of the Roman Empirethe new covenant by his blood, inaugurated the new were the last to be converted to Christianity.age of eternal life, and gave all humans—male, fe- The urban settings of the empire offered, amongmale, old, young, slave, free, Jews, and Gentiles—the others, two conditions that made Christianity attrac-right to receive salvation by faith. tive: openness to new ideas and ethnic diversity. The A very able articulator of these new views was the city people were open minded, and Christianity hadapostle Paul of Tarsus, a Diaspora Jew and a former plenty of novel ideas to offer about God, humanity,persecutor of the church. After a dramatic encounter and the world. But unlike Hellenistic philosophers,with the risen Jesus, he became convinced that the Christian preachers offered a relatively simple anddeath and the resurrection of Jesus fulfilled all the practical message that appealed to many differentpromises of the Jewish scriptures. Armed with this classes of people, including the illiterate. Celsus, a sec-conviction, Paul redefined Jewish monotheism in new ond-century opponent of Christianity, ridiculed Chris-and surprising ways. If God had chosen to reveal him- tianity for exploiting the ignorant and appealing to theself fully in the death of Jesus, Paul argued, God, like disadvantaged.Jesus, must be a friend of sinners. “God shows his love More important was the ethnic diversity of thefor us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died Roman cities. The cities of the empire were cosmopol-for us”(Rom. 5:8; Revised Standard Version). No Jew- itan. People came from all parts of the empire to liveish literature prior to Paul depicts God’s love toward and work in the cities, creating a network of relationshumans in these radical terms. God was customarily in which merchants, soldiers, and slaves frequentlyviewed in Judaism as a judge who punished sinners. intermingled with one another. Christianity’s key at-Judaism did not teach that God loved sinners. Paul’s traction was that no particular ethnic ties bound it. Itteaching that the dying figure of Jesus on the cross was preached its message to persons of any class and eth-the most complete revelation of God’s love toward sin- nic origin who were willing to listen. Unlike many pa-ful humans was simply revolutionary. This radical vi- gan religions, Christianity was not tied to the customssion of God is precisely what early Christianity came of the land and did not discriminate against anyone.to embrace as its central conviction, and it is this con- For example, Mithraism, a rival religion to Christian-viction that caused Christianity to take root and pros- ity, did not accept women into its fellowship. Earlyper in the ancient world. Christianity welcomed all who chose to accept Jesus
  • 115. Christianity, early 81as Lord. Early Christian preachers saw the cosmopol- Finally, the most important factor aiding Christi-itan cities of the empire as offering exceptional op- anity’s growth was its phenomenal efficiency. Owingportunities to spread the gospel “to every nation and mostly to Roman persecutions, the church did not pos-tribe and language and people” (Rev 14:7). Christi- sess significant assets or real estate, so no extensive andanity had an unexplainable power to appeal to dis- centralized administrative oversight was necessary. Alsoplaced people who were experiencing insecurity and it did not take many to start a church. It took only adistress in the major cities of the empire. handful of the disciples of Jesus to form the initial bands Christianity quickly established itself in North of believers in Palestine. It took only one person, Paul,Africa in Alexandria and Carthage, where the great to found churches throughout Asia Minor and Greece.apologists Tertullian (c. 185 c.e.), Origen (c. 185– In cities such as Rome and Alexandria it did not even254 c.e.), and Clement of Alexandria (c. 200 c.e.) take an apostle to plant Christianity. Maintaining theworked, all of whom played a critical role in shaping newly planted churches also required little manpower.the church’s Trinitarian doctrine. The city of Rome be- The chief reason was the simplicity of the liturgy.came home to Clement (c. 96 c.e.), Justin Martyr (150 Many of the original congregations were “housec.e.), and Pope Callistus (217–222 c.e.). The churches churches” that met in private homes and were of noin these Italian and North African cities became cen- more than 30 or 40 individuals each. Even in the sec-ters from which Christianity spread and took root in ond and third centuries, when many churches grewthe Western Roman Empire. Lyon of Gaul (France) in size, house church continued to be the way newbecame home to Bishop Irenaeus (160–220 c.e.), one churches got started. In these house churches theof the greatest apologists of early Christianity, whose worship consisted basically of the Eucharist, singingwritings provided a rich source of information about of hymns, reading of scripture, mutual sharing of in-Christian Dualism before the Nag Hammadi codices sights, and a fellowship (agape) meal. Rarely did awere discovered. Christianity also took root in the cit- virtuoso preacher stand in front with a polished ser-ies of the East. The powerful Christian centers Ephesus, mon, and there were no elaborate initiation rites, asSmyrna, and Laodicea were all important cities of Asia in the mystery religions. Nor was there a painful rite,Minor. The Antioch of Syria on the Orontes became an like Jewish circumcision. The converts were simplyancient center of Syrian Christianity going back to the baptized by water in a baptistery or a shallow river.very beginning of Christianity. Antioch gave birth to The main “service” that Christianity provided to itsthe great bishop Ignatius (c. 98–117 c.e.), whose let- adherents was koinonia, or “spirit-filled fellowship.”ters are a valuable source of information about Chris- There were deacons, presbyters, bishops, synods, andtianity in Greece and Asia at the end of the era of the even councils that looked after the growing church.Twelve Apostles. The presbyters oversaw communities, and the deacons The third factor aiding Christianity’s growth was looked after the affairs of the local churches. The mostits high ethical tone and moral purpose. The Roman important ecclesiastical office was that of the bishop,moral sensibilities were somewhat schizophrenic. On who oversaw large territories in the empire. The bish-the one hand, Rome extolled morality and law. On the ops of major cities were rather powerful. The bishopsother hand, it encouraged debauchery and savage en- of Rome in particular, later called the pope, exercisedtertainments, such as gladiator fights and the circus. In great power, both spiritually and politically. From thethe midst of the moral confusion Christianity became a middle of the first century c.e. until Constantine theclarion call of protest, particularly on behalf of women Great converted to Christianity and made it Rome’sand lower-class people. Also, in contrast to the high- official religion in 322, Christianity proliferated morebrow Roman intelligentsia, Christians actually tried to or less spontaneously, where it was least controlled.live a moral life rather than simply pass judgment on Christianity became the spawning ground of exoticsociety. Many ordinary believers lived an exemplary ideas, later termed heresies. Gnosticism, Monarchial-moral life. This became perhaps most evident in the ism, Montanism, and Manichaeanism are some of themartyrdom of the early Christians. If apostasy rep- names given to these exotic ideas. For a religion grow-resents dissatisfied customers, martyrdom represents ing without close supervision in urban centers of the Ro-brand loyalty. The early Christian martyrs showcased man Empire, mostly among Gentile converts, this wastheir unflinching loyalty to the Christian ideals of non- to be expected. Most of the Gentile converts to Chris-violence and moral purity before the eyes of the crowds tianity did not know the Jewish traditions that stoodthat had come looking for a violent entertainment. behind much of the NT. Their intellectual context was
  • 116. 82 Chrysostom, JohnHellenistic philosophy whose general focus was nature. gies; messianism; mystery cults; persecutions of theConsequently, the debates that flared up between the church.fathers of the church and their opponents were aboutthe nature of things: the nature of divine revelation, the Further reading: Bainton, Roland H. Christendom: A Shortnature of God, the nature of Christ, the nature of the History of Christianity and Its Impact on Western Civiliza-Holy Spirit, the nature of the Trinity, the nature of tion. New York: Harper and Row, 1966; Kelly, John N. D.the church, the nature of man, and the nature of re- Early Christian Doctrines. New York: Harper and Row,demption—in short the nature of Christianity. 1978; Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History By far the most important theological controversy of the Development of Doctrine, the Emergence of the Cath-in early Christianity was about the nature of Christ. The olic Tradition (100–600). Chicago: University of ChicagoNT writers, most of whom were Jews, had been only Press, 1971; Richardson, Cyril C. Early Christian Fathers.minimally concerned with the nature of Christ. Their New York: Macmillan, 1970; Stark, Rodney. The Rise offocus was history, the work of Jesus—that he was born, Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History. Princeton,died for our sins, was buried and raised on the third day, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.and ascended to sit at the right hand of God to reign andto intercede for the saints before God. Even the writings P. Richard Choiof the apostolic fathers, such as the Didache, the Lettersof Ignatius, 1 Clement, Barnabas, and the Shepherd ofHermas, which were composed at the turn of the first Chrysostom, Johncentury c.e., continued to focus mostly on the work of (c. 347–407 c.e.) church leader and theologianChrist and its saving effect on humans. Even their dis-cussions about the preexistence of Christ were about his John Chrysostom was bishop of Constantinoplework in creation and Israel’s history. From the second and perhaps the greatest preacher in the early church,to third centuries, however, Christian apologists shifted earning him the title chrysostomos (Greek: “golden-their attention to defining the nature of the relationship mouthed”). John was born to Christian parents ofbetween Christ and God—whether Christ had the same the educated upper class in Antioch in Syria and as anature as that of God the Father. young man, studied rhetoric under the distinguished The “apologists,” such as Justin, Tertullian, and philosopher of Neoplatonism, Libanius. AlthoughIrenaeus, vigorously fought for a particular concep- his education and exceptional gifts prepared him fortion of the faith and argued for the unity of Christ a career in law or the imperial service, John chose in-and God: Christ was uncreated and of one substance stead to enter the clergy. He was baptized by Bishopwith God the Father, and Christ was fully divine and Melitius of Antioch around 367 c.e., became a lectorfully human. This notion of divine unity became early (a minor church official who read scripture in the lit-Christianity’s orthodox Christology. The main strategy urgy or public worship), and devoted himself to thethat the apologists used was to argue that they had the study of scripture and theology under Diodore of Tar-true apostolic tradition and that the scriptures must sus, the leader of the Antiochene school.be read in light of this tradition. Irenaeus accused his Before advancing further in his ecclesiastical career,opponents of developing their doctrines based on ob- John withdrew from Antioch in order to pursue the as-scure scriptural passages and by appealing to forgeries, cetic life between 372 and 378. Under a strict asceticlike the Gospel of Judas, rather than accepting the au- regimen, however, John’s health deteriorated, forcingthentic apostolic tradition. The monumental triumph him to return to the city. In 381 John was ordained dea-of the fathers of the church’s orthodoxy came in 325 con, and in 386, presbyter, or priest. The next decadewhen the Council of Nicaea declared that Christ is was the most productive in his life and marked the be-“very God of very God.” It was a temporary victory, ginning of his extraordinary career as a preacher andhowever. The reality was that at the time of the Nicene writer. The vast majority of John’s work during theseCreed, there was still no widespread consensus on the years consisted of sermons addressed to the people ofnature of Christ in early Christianity, and by the end Antioch. It was the rhetorical skill, spiritual depth, andof the fourth century a new conception of Christ had practical applicability of his sermons that earned Johntaken hold in mainstream Christianity, Arianism. the distinguished title chrysostom. In contrast to many See also Greek Church; Hellenization; Judaism, early Christian interpreters of scripture, who favoredearly (heterodoxies); Latin Church; martyrolo- allegorical reading, John epitomized the Antiochene
  • 117. Cicero 83school’s emphasis on the literal sense. At the same time, considered him a great orator, and his writing style hadhowever, his preaching aimed primarily to draw out the a strong influence on writing in the Western world.spiritual and moral implications of the biblical text and Politically and philosophically, his stand against au-apply them to the lives of his hearers. tocratic rule and for a republican style of government Against his wishes John was made bishop, or pa- has also been influential.triarch, of Constantinople in 398. He quickly became Cicero’s family was well to do and of the landedenmeshed in imperial and ecclesiastical politics, areas gentry but still not of the highest social class. Never-in which he possessed significantly less skill than in theless, Cicero’s father made sure that Cicero and hispreaching. Through a combination of his asceticism, brother, Quintus, had the best teachers in Rome. Atuncompromising zeal for moral reform, and tactless age 16, he studied law under Mucius Scaevolia, onedisdain for the opulence of the court, John made him- of Rome’s best lawyers. During the Social War (91–88self the enemy of several very prominent people, in- b.c.e.), the war between the Romans and other Ital-cluding the empress Eudoxia and Bishop Theophilus of ian cities over the right to citizenship, Cicero servedAlexandria. In a synod held in a suburb of Chalcedon as a soldier for a short time under Consul Pompeiusin 403, Theophilus and a number of other Egyptian Strabo. After this he began his career as a lawyer. Inbishops condemned John on 29 concocted charges, 82 b.c.e. he demonstrated his political courage by de-including uttering defamatory and treasonable words fending Sextus Roscius, an enemy of the dictator Sulla.against the empress. He won the case and went to Greece to continue his John was eventually deposed and exiled near An- education, returning to Rome in 77 b.c.e.tioch before being banished to Comana, an isolated Intelligent and ambitious, he followed the Romanvillage of Pontus on the Black Sea. In spite of support road map to success, working his way up through vari-from the people of Constantinople, Pope Innocent I, ous government jobs. The government first appointedand the entire Western Latin Church, John lived out him as a quaestor (financial administrator) in Sicily inhis final days in exile. He died at Comana on Septem- 76 b.c.e. This was also the year that he married hisber 14, 407, and his body was removed to Constan- first wife, Terentia, who gave him property and eventu-tinople 30 years later. In the Western church his feast ally an unhappy marriage. He further made his nameday is celebrated on September 13, and in the Eastern in the legal profession in 70 b.c.e. when he successfullyChurch on November 13. prosecuted Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily, See also Cappadocians; Christianity, early; Greek for corruption.Church; Greek oratory and rhetoric; monasticism; In the year 63 b.c.e. Cicero became a consul, a po-Second Sophistic. sition that gave him the highest of Roman class dis- tinctions: a member of the nobility. But his time in of-Further reading: Kelly, J. N. D. Golden Mouth: The Story of fice was a time of crisis for the Republic. The bulk ofJohn Chrysostom—Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop. Grand Rap- the Roman army was with Pompey in the east. In theids, MI: Baker Books, 1995; Mayer, Wendy, and Paul Allen. meantime, Catiline, who had run for the position ofJohn Chrysostom. London: Routledge, 2000. consul and lost, had put an army together with the hopes of taking over the government. Franklin T. Harkins Cicero discovered the plot and had many of the conspirators arrested. The Senate decided to put some of the conspirators to death without a trial. They ar-Cicero gued that it was a time of martial law and the govern-(106–43 b.c.e.) orator and statesman ment was in grave danger. Cicero went along with this and was declared Pater Patriae—Father of His Coun-Marcus Tullius Cicero was a famous Roman orator, try. But not everyone was happy with the decision.writer, and political leader. He was a contemporary of After testifying in a case against a patrician namedSulla, Pompey, and Julius Caesar. He was born in Clodius, Cicero found his citizenship—and possiblyArpinum in the year 106 b.c.e. and died in 43 b.c.e. his life—in danger. In revenge for the testimony Clo-He followed the custom of going to Rome for his for- dius had a law passed that stated that anyone involvedmal education, studying rhetoric, philosophy, and law. with putting to death a citizen without trial should beAfter Rome he also studied rhetoric and philosophy exiled or executed. Cicero fled the country and couldwith the Greeks at Athens and Rhodes. The Romans not safely return until the next year (57 b.c.e.). In the
  • 118. 84 classical art and architecture, Greekmeantime, Roman officials destroyed his house and classical art and architecture, Greekconfiscated his property. Cicero, a firm believer in republican principles, did The Greek Classical Period began with a war. Innot like the trend in Roman politics toward dictator- 499 b.c.e. the Ionian cities along the coast of Asia Mi-ship. Unfortunately, these were the years of the First nor revolted against the Persians under whose rule theyTriumvirate of Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus. Then had lived. In retaliation the Persians, led by Darius I,Crassus was killed in battle, and the country was ripe crushed the rebel cities and moved against Athens andfor civil war. Eventually, Caesar and Pompey clashed Sparta, which took part in the revolt. When the Per-militarily, and Pompey was killed. Caesar proclaimed sians moved onto the mainland in 490 b.c.e., the Athe-himself perpetual dictator in February 44 b.c.e. Then, nians defeated them at the Battle of Marathon, aon the Ides of March, a group of conspirators repre- few miles from Athens. Darius died (486 b.c.e.) andsenting those for the return of the Republic assassinat- his son Xerxes I, who succeeded him, moved againsted Caesar. Cicero was not a member of the conspiracy. Athens with an army of 200,000 soldiers, 1,200 war-It was the hope of all of the conspirators, as well as ships, and 3,000 smaller craft, and burned the cityCicero, that with the death of Caesar, the Roman Em- down. As Xerxes retreated, the Athenians, aided bypire would return to a republican style government. It the Spartans, followed the Persians to Plataea, anddid not. there they defeated the Persians again. Instead, Mark Antony took power, increasing his In 477 b.c.e. the Ionian and Aegean coastal citiespolitica